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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Kemp P. Battle 

George T. Winston 

Edwin A. Aldi 

Francis P. Venable 




Professor Emeritus of History 


From 1868 to 1912 


Edwards & Broughton Printing Company 


Copyright, 1912 
By Kemp P. Battle 

1 3 


Library, Univ. of 
North Carolina 


who for nearly threescore tears 

has journeyed with me over the smooth ways 

and the rough ways op life, 

an ever ready help and wise counselor, 

this book is lovingly dedicated. 

Kemp Plummer Battle. 


After unexpected and regretted delays the second volume 
of my History of the University of North Carolina is issued 
from the press. It embraces the period from the suspension 
of exercises in 1868 to the close of the Summer School in 
1912. My aim has been to give a clear and truthful pen pic- 
ture of the revival of the institution from its moribund state, 
its struggles and its final rise to rank with the first insti- 
tutions of America. To record all the items of the numerous 
facts and incidents of forty-four years is manifestly impos 
ble. I have selected such as in my judgment make the narra- 
tive both distinct and accurate. The students who attended 
the University from time to time will doubtless be able to 
point out omissions. I assure them that such omissions were 
essential in order to prevent the book from having excessive 

The Faculty in recent years has been larger than that of the 
old University, and the changes more frequent. I have endeav- 
ored to give engravings of all the professors. Where the face 
of a new professor is not found the deficiency came from ina- 
bility to procure his photograph. 

The first volume met with a reception which greatly surprised 
and gratified me. I can not hope that similar favor will be 
extended to the second. The former chronicled events on 
which the haze of oblivion had settled or was then settling. 
The removal of this haze and bringing them again into the 
light, brought, it seems, to the readers, both interest and 

The second volume tells of things and persons which have 
not passed from memory. They are almost contemporary. 
My readers have shaken hands with the actors. They will not 
have the pleasure of reviving happy memories half forgotten. 
Distance, in time as well as in space, "lends enchantment to 
the view." 

I have, however, aimed higher than merely giving an agree- 
able hour to my readers. I venture to hope that this minute 

vi Preface 

and faithful narrative of the struggles of the University from 
seven teachers and sixty-nine students to over eight hundred 
matriculates and over eighty teachers, will be of permanent 
value to students of education and to students of State Gov- 
ernment. I think it will be seen that in a large degree the 
University has created its own success, by the constant advo- 
cacy of higher education in all the counties by its Presidents 
and Professors; by the excellence of its training; by the culture 
and energy of the teachers it has sent forth as educational 
missionaries, like Mclver, Alderman, Noble, Joyner, Walker; 
by the high conduct of its sons in religious, legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial functions and in business pursuits. I do not 
think that I boast too much in claiming that the University has 
been an influential factor in creating the present high appre- 
ciation of education among our people. 

I must express my obligations to Professor Collier Cobb for 
his assistance in procuring the numerous engravings in my 
book, often photographing the subjects with his own camera. 
Also to my sons, K. P., Thos. H., and W. J. Battle, especially 
Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Junior, for valuable assistance in prepar- 
ing the manuscript and reading proof. 


Chapter I. 

Failure of efforts to continue exercises of the University — Liti- 
gation and its results — New Trustees elected by General Assembly. 

Chapter II. 

Interest on Land Scrip Fund — New Professors elected — Reopen- 
ing in 1875 — Curriculum. 

Chapter III. 

Commencement of 1876 — Election of President Battle — Com- 
mencement of 1877 — Vance's address on Swain. 

Chapter IV. 

Normal School of 1877— Commencements of 1878, '79, '80, '81, '82, 
'83— Normal Schools of 1878, '79, '80, '81, '82, '83— Alumni Banquet 
in Raleigh — Speeches — $5,000 annual appropriation — Railroad fin- 

Chapter V. 

Commencements of 1884 and 1885 — Normal School of 1884 — 
Breaches of Discipline — $15,000 additional appropriation — Memorial 
Hall — Tablets — Dedication service — New Professors — Hazing — Post- 
Graduate Courses. 

Chapter VI. 

Industrial School— Commencements of 1886, '87 and '88— Klepto- 
mania — A. and M. College — Loss of $7,500 a year — Charter Cen- 
tennial of ' 1889 — Banquet — Speeches — Commencement and banquet 
of 1890— History Chair. 

Chapter VII. 

President Battle resigns — Dr. Winston succeeds — Inauguration — 
Commencements of 1891, '92, '93, '94 — Attacks on University — 


viii Contents 

Winston's argument — Alumni Quarterly — Centennial of 1895 — Com- 
mencements of 1896, '97, '98, '99 — Election and inauguration of 
Alderman — Quarter Centennial of 1900 — Resignation of Dr. Alder- 

Chapter VIII. 

Inauguration of President Venable — First Report — Commence- 
ment of 1901, of 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905— Bynum Gymnasium— Com- 
mencement of 1906 — University Day — Commencement of 1907 — 
Resignations of Dr. K. P. Battle and Dr. Thos. Hume — Memorial 
services for Professor Gore and Mrs. Spencer — Commencement of 
1908, of 1909, 1910— The University Council— Reunions of 1860, 
1870, and 1885 — University Day 1910 — Reunion of War Classes in 
1911 — Commencements of 1911, 1912 — Dedication of Medical Build- 
ing — Death of Richard H. Battle and Dr. Thomas Hume — Publica- 
tions of the Faculty — University Athletics. 

Chapter IX. 

Walks About Chapel Hill. Poem of Rev. Mark John Levy. 
Corrigenda et Addenda. Errata. 


The First Trustees under the Constitution of 1868 — Trustees of 
the University Since the Reopening — Supporters of the University 
in the General Assembly at Critical Times — Donations to the Li- 
brary—The University Chair of History — General University and 
Society Catalogues — Faculty of 1911-'12 — Degrees Conferred in Course 
from the Reopening to 1912, inclusive— Portraits in the University 
Library — Portraits in the Dialectic Society Hall — Portraits in the 
Philanthropic Society Hall — Specimens of the Dramatic and Musi- 
cal Efforts of the Students — Specimen Program Confederate Me- 
morial Exercises — List of the Alumni in the University of North 
Carolina, in Addition to Those Named in the Appendix to Volume I, 
Who Have Held or Now Hold (1912) High Positions. 


Presidents of the University 

Kemp P. Battle 
George T. Winston 
Edwin A. Alderman 
Francis P. Venable 

Portraits— Page 

Alexander, Eben 334 

Atkinson, G. F 238 

Bain, C. W 706 

Ball, F. K 600 

Baskerville, Charles 600 

Battle, Richard H 96 

Bell, J. M 728 

Bernard, W. S 694 

Booker, JVM 706 

Brown, W.'H 728 

Bruner, J. D 616 

Cain, William 334 

Chase, H. W 662 

Cobb, Collier 562 

Cobb, Palmer 636 

Coker, W. C 694 

Dabney, C. W 138 

Daggett, P. H 728 

Dey, W. M 636 

Gore, J. W ;... 238 

Graham, E. K 694 

Grandy, CD 104 

Graves, R. H 104 

Hall, R. A 728 

Hamilton, J. G. deR 706 

Harrington, K. P 334 

Harris, T. W 104 

Henderson, Archibald 728 

Herty, C. H 662 

Hickerson, T. F 728 

Holmes, J. A 238 

Howe, George 616 

Howell, E. V 562 

Hume, Thomas 238 

Jarvis, Thomas J 96 

Latta, J. E 616 

Lawson, R. B 706 

Ledoux, A. R 138 

Linscott, H. F 600 

Love, J. L 238 

MacNider, W. de B 662 

MacRae, J. C 562 

McGehee, L. P 636 

Mcintosh, A. C 636 

Mclver, Alexander 104 

McKie, G. M 662 

Mangum, A. W 104 

Mangum, C. S 562 

Manning, I. H 636 

Manning, John 104 

Mills, J. E 616 

Mims, Edwin 694 

Noble, M. C. S 600 

Patterson, A. H 694 

Patterson, W. T 334 


Portraits — Page 

Phillips, W. B 238 

Pool, Solomon 8 

Pratt, J. H 694 

Raper, C. L 600 

Royster, Hubert 616 

Royster, J. F 636 

Ruffln, Thomas 616 

Saunders, William L 96 

Shepherd, J. E 562 

Simonds, F. W 104 

Smith, C. Alphonso. 616 

Spencer, Mrs. Cornelia Phillips. 96 

Stacy, M. H 662 

Tolnian, H. C 562 

Towles, Oliver 706 

Toy, W. D 334 

Venable, F. P 238 

Viles, G. B 662 

Wagstaff, H. M 706 

Walker, N. W €36 

Wheeler, A. S 600 

Whitehead, R. H 334 

Williams, H. H 334 

Wilson, H. V 562 

Wilson, L. R , 662 

Wilson, T. J 600 

Winston, P. H 694 

Woollen, C. T 728 

Woltz, A. E 706 

University Buildings and 
Scenes — ■ 

Alumni Hall 524 

Arboretum 764 

Baptist Church 178 

Bynum Gymnasium 644 

Caldwell Hall 730 

Carr Building 448 

Chapel of the Cross, Episcopal. . 764 

Chemistry Hall 448 

Davie Hall 730 

First President's House 740 

Home of Dr. Brown 672 

Home of Kemp P. Battle 460 

Mary Ann Smith Building 524 

Memorial Hall 316 

Methodist Church *. . . . 178 

Presbyterian Church 178 

President's Home 672 

President's Walk 460 

Professor Bain's Home 740 

Raleigh Road 624 

South Building and Well 316 

University Library 644 

Y. M. C. A. Building 624 

History of the University of North Carolina 
Volume II 


Election of Trustees — 1789 to i 

In my first volume I brought the History of the University 
to the death of President Swain, August 29, 1868. This period 
covers the life of the Old University. The changes in courses 
of instruction, in scholastic degrees, in modes of discipline, 
in buildings and apparatus, the habits and aspirations of stu- 
dents, now make appropriate the name of the New University. 
There is, however, a substantial connection between the Old 
and the New. The New is the Old modernized, responding to 
changed conditions of social life, to new demands of rapidly 
advancing discoveries, to invention and ever varying phases of 
scientific, political, industrial, and even theological thought. 
The New, however, has pride in the history of the past, espe- 
cially in the great alumni, who have been leaders in all the 
walks of life, while the survivors, joyful over the continued 
progress of their Alma Mater and ever ready to applaud its 
further advancement, have in their hearts an ever increasing 
love for the University as they knew it. There has been no 
destruction of the Old. When closed for a season it only 
slumbered. It was not dead. The influences that awakened it 
were put into motion by the old alumni, who had eagerly 
watched for the opportunity. But for those influences an 
Agricultural and Mechanical College would have taken its 
place — the application of science to industrial pursuits exalted 
and literary departments subordinated. The Old University 
would have died, leaving only a memory of past achievements. 

By the University charter of 1789 its Trustees filled the 
vacancies which occurred from time to time. As those named 

2 History of University of North Carolina. 

in the charter were mostly of the Federalist party, it naturally 
came to pass that when Jeffersonian Democracy was trium- 
phant in the General Assembly, the Board of Trustees was 
strongly of the adversary party. The University for this and 
other reasons became very unpopular. Hostile legislation re- 
sulted. It became necessary to give the election of Trustees to 
the General Assembly. From 1804 down to 1868 the choice 
was by that body, the term of office being for life. 
■ The University kept its doors open in all the hardships of 
the war, but it was left in desperate circumstances. The en- 
dowment was gone. Professors for the payment of their sala- 
ries depended on tuition receipts and, owing to the general 
paralysis of business, students were few in number, and some 
of them on the beneficiary list. Professors Martin, Hepburn, 
and Kimberly, for want of a support, went elsewhere. The 
Faculty was reduced to five. 

The Trustees adopted a scheme, reported in 1867 by a com- 
mittee, of which K. P. Battle was chairman and Wm. A. Gra- 
ham and S. F. Phillips were members, under which Professors 
were to be supported partly by small salaries paid by the Uni- 
versity, the residue by fees paid by students in the respective 
departments. In order to relieve the Trustees of all embar- 
rassment, the President and Professors in the Fall of 1867 ten- 
dered their resignations, which were accepted, but, as the new 
scheme was not to go into operation until the Commencement of 
1868, they by request continued in their chairs until then. 
When that date arrived it was evident that the old Board 
would shortly be superseded. It was impossible for them to 
carry into practical effect the contemplated reorganization. It 
seemed good to them therefore to reelect the President and 
Professors, so that responsible men should be in office to pro- 
tect the public property and take effectual means for receiving 
students at the beginning of the following session* These 
reflections were duly accepted by the incumbents. 

By the Constitution of 1868 the election of Trustees was 
taken from the General Assembly and given to the Board of 
Education, its members being ex officio Trustees. The others 
were apportioned in the State, one to each county. This ar 

Election of Trustees, i 

rangement was faulty in several particulars. In the first place 
all the members of the Board of Education, except the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, were political officers, with no 
special interest" in the cause of education. Secondly, as many 
of the counties are remote from the seat of government and it 
has never been the practice to pay the expenses of Trustees, 
many of them never attend meetings. And as the members 
of the Educational Board live in Raleigh, they would usually 
be the controlling element in the Board of Trustees. Thirdly, 
it so happened that in 1868 Governor Holden controlled the 
Board of Education and so dominated the University. 

Since 1835 the practical management of the University has 
been in the hands of the Executive Committee, prior to 1868 
chosen annually by the Trustees, always with special reference 
to their interest in the University and proximity to Raleigh. 
The Constitution of 1868 totally changed this salutary arrange- 
ment. The Executive Committee was so constituted as no 
longer to be the helpful servants of the Trustees, but to be 
under the control of a political body, namely, the Board of 
Education, then eight in number, the State officers — politicians 
of course. To these were added the President of the Univer- 
sity and three Trustees elected by the Board, the politicians 
being in a majority of seven to four. The Governor was 
chairman both of the Board and of the Executive Committee. 

In the Appendix is the list of the first elected Trustees under 
the Constitution of 1868. 

Eight of those appointed, R. Don Wilson, C. C. Jones, R. S. 
Abrams, George W. Brooks, J. H. Bowditch, J. A. Maultsby, 
Anderson Mitchell, and F. J. Kron refused to accept the office, 
some for private reasons, others because they did not reside in 
the counties from which they were appointed. Mr. F. J. Kron, 
of Stanly, in his letter of refusal, said, "The institution as it 
stood heretofore had no warmer friend than myself. My best 
wishes for such a Faculty, such as it possessed from its foun- 
dation, and such thorough scholarship as will command the 
gratitude of the State and admiration of the world." 

Judge Starbuck, in agreeing to act, showed considerable acri- 
mony. He said "the University's prosperity is well-nigh de- 

4 History of University of North Carolina. 

stroyed by the hand of misrule and treason. Instead of being, 
as she is accused of late years, a nursery of narrow-minded, 
bigoted, and sectional ideas she may become the nursery of 
patriotism, loyalty, love of country, and devotion to this great 

Notwithstanding this censure those who knew the President 
and Professors of the old University could testify that they 
accepted the results of the defeat of the South with as much 
resignation and determination thenceforward to be loyal to the 
Union, as those of any institution in the land. This was shown 
by the words and actions of President Swain, by the concilia- 
tory address of Governor Vance in 1866, by the hearty recep- 
tion accorded to President Johnson, Secretary Seward, and 
other Northern men in 1867, and by the general attitude of 
authorities and students. 

The members of the Board of Education owed their places 
to the influence of the Governor, so that he controlled and vir- 
tually appointed the Board of Trustees. Being a strong party 
man he quite naturally appointed Republicans, and a few whom 
he hoped to win over. 

This Board was composed of many substantial and some 
prominent men. There were in it eighteen alumni of the 
University, but it was a grave defect, that, scattered as they 
were over the State, one in each county, it was difficult to 
secure continuity of management. And composed as it was 
almost entirely of members of the Republican party, at a time 
when party spirit was virulent, naturally their conduct was 
watched by censorious eyes and the patronage of the institu- 
tion was necessarily curtailed. 

The new Board contained only five of the old. These were 
Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, Thomas Settle, John Pool, Montfort 
McGehee, a Democrat, who owed his appointment to his 
brother-in-law, Richard C. Badger, and Governor Holden, who 
had resigned his place in 1867. 

At the first meeting of the Board, July 23, 1868, the follow- 
ing were present : Governor Holden, Lt. -Governor Caldwell, 
Secretary Menninger, Auditor Adams, Superintendent Harris, 
Superintendent Ashley, Treasurer Jenkins, Attorney-General 

Meeting of the New Board. 5 

Coleman, on the part of the Board of Education ; Hon. D. L. 
Swain, and ex-Governor Manly by invitation; and on the part 
of the Trustees, Messrs. Tourgee, Ingram, Rodman, John Pool, 
Russell, V. Barringer, M. Taylor, Thomas, Howze, Lehman, 
Buxton, Etheridge, Henderson, Wynne, Lassiter, Grimsley, 
Bynum, Gahagan, Miller, Cantwell, Robinson, Cloud, J. F. 
Taylor, E. W. Jones, Badham, McDonald, S. Pool, Hayes, 
Settle, Downing, Reade, Brogden, Long. Total, 41. 

The Executive Committeemen elected by Trustees were Wm. 
B. Rodman, James F. Taylor, and Thomas Settle, to whom 
were added by the Constitution Holden, Caldwell, Menninger, 
Jenkins, Adams, Ashley, Harris, and Coleman. 

The first action of the Board of Trustees was to distribute 
by lot the counties of the State into four classes. The Trustees 
from the first class were to hold their office for two years ; of 
the second class for four years ; of the thi^d, six years, and of 
the fourth for eight years. 

Then President Swain, erroneously thinking that he was 
recognized as President by the new Constitution and therefore 
entitled to a seat in the Board, moved that the old Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, ex-Governor Manly, read his report. This 
he did with much feeling, closing by a pathetic statement of 
his pain and suffering from parting with books and papers 
which had been his companions for 47 years. A resolution was 
passed thanking him for his efficient services. 

President Swain was then called on to "deliver his address," 
the mover being too astute to call it a report. It proved to be 
not a recital of the work of the University or of his own actings 
for the past year, or of recommendations for the future, but a 
statement of the progress of the institution, the increase in 
numbers of students and of buildings, during the thirty-three 
years of his Presidency. He closed by the assertion that "never 
had his services been more zealous, faithful and unintermitting." 
He gave no plan of reconstruction of the institution. His re- 
port was identical with that submitted to the old Board in 1867. 

The Board elected Robert W. Lassiter, a member of the 
Granville bar, Secretary and Treasurer, with a salary of $500 
yearly. The most important action, which bears the appearance 

6 History of University of North Carolina. 

of a "snap judgment," was, on motion of Wm, F. Henderson, 
the appointment of a committee of five to report some plan for 
the continuance of the University. The names of the commit- 
tee were Wm. F. Henderson, Victor C. Barringer, John Pool, 
Thomas Settle, and Richard I. Wynne. The Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Samuel S. Ashley, was added. 

On the next day. in order to negative finally the claim of 
President Swain that he was still in office, the Board voted to 
accept the resignations of the President and Professors, made 
in 1867, and that the chairs be abolished. The reelection of 
those officers in June, 1868, were thus ignored as nullities. 

On the report of Henderson's committee it was ordered that 
the Executive Committee should put into operation a "thorough 
and efficient organization of the University upon the proper and 
liberal basis contemplated by the Constitution."- They were to 
have the extraordinary power of electing a President and Pro- 
fessors, devise a system of government, and resume the exer- 
cises at the earliest practicable moment, the salaries of Presi- 
dent and Professors to be the same as in i860. They were 
likewise charged with the duty of inquiring into the state of the 
funds of the University, with special attention to the mortgage 
of its property and disposition made of the Land Scrip, and 
settle the accounts of the late Treasurer Manly. These were 
subsequently reported as correct. They allowed his claim of 
$750 for balance of salary as Escheator-General. This over- 
ruled the action of the old Board which considered the duties 
of Escheator-General as appertaining to the office of Secretary 
and Treasurer, and that the salary of Secretary-Treasurer was 
sufficient to cover all duties. 

President Swain endeavored in vain to secure a reversal of 
the decision that he was no longer in office. He claimed his 
resignation in 1867 was cancelled by his reelection in 1868. He 
further contended he held the office legally ; that he could not be 
removed except for "misbehavior, inability, or neglect of duty," 
grounds mentioned in the charter. No attention was paid to 
this protest, and further action, if he contemplated any, was 
prevented by his death. The other members of the old Faculty 
made no resistance and soon engaged in other fields of labor. 

Second Meeting of the Board. 7 

In the choice of a President the Board adopted a limitation 
that no one should be elected who had not an "established 
national reputation as a scholar and educator." There is no evi- 
dence that such a person was sought for, but if the search was 
made it was inevitably ineffectual on account of the impossi- 
bility of paying an adequate salary. 

The unprecedented power to elect all the officers, which had 
never before been exercised by any Executive Committee, did 
not meet with the approval of many thoughtful Trustees. 
Chief Justice Pearson, for example, not to mention others, con- 
tended that a matter of so great importance should be passed 
upon by the whole Board. 

The elections, however, were not then held, although the 
Presidency was offered to Mr. L. P. Olds, a son-in-law of the 
Governor. As there was no treasury in sight from which a 
salary could be drawn, Mr. Olds wisely declined. 

The second meeting of the Board was held November 19, 
1868. There were 32 in attendance, so that it appears that 
there was no lack of interest on the part of the new Trustees. 
In truth, considering the distance traveled by most of those 
present, at their own charges, the punctuality was most praise- 
worthy. There was no diminution of interest for some 
months. At the January meeting 37 answered to their names, 
but in June, 1869, they dwindled to 12, mostly State officers. 

The Committee further recommended that the General As- 
sembly be requested to authorize the appointment by the Gov- 
ernor and Council of one student for each Member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, the tuition and College expenses for not exceed- 
ing two years to be paid by the State. These students were to 
be bound to teach in the public schools the length of time they 
should be at the University. Judge Rodman, Superintendent 
Ashley, and Senator John Pool were instructed to bring this to 
the attention of the Legislature. What action, if any, they took, 
does not appear. Certainly there was no favorable response on 
the part of the law-making power. The public treasury con- 
tinued sealed against the University. 

The Governor and Board of Education were requested to 
protect the property of the institution until the arrival of the 
Faculty. Under this authority W. N. Harris was employed 

8 History of University of North Carolina. 

with a salary of $120 per month as Superintendent. The 
Superintendent of Public Works, Ceburn L. Harris, cared for 
repairs, there being paid to him from time to time $2,394.19, the 
account not stating to what objects the money was applied. It 
is certainly not excessive. 

The Executive Committee also reported the names of the 
Faculty whom they had selected, a description of whom will be 
presently given. They were to be supported out of tuition 
money, but afterwards, as students did not come in, tuition was 
made free. 

The Committee declared for co-education, but the Board re- 
fused to admit females as students. Judges Tourgee and Rod- 
man moved that the appointment of the President and Profes- 
sors should be provisional only, but the motion was promptly 
voted down. A motion of Curtis H. Brogden to place the 
duties of University Treasurer on the Treasurer of the State, 
and of the Secretary of the University on the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, shared the same fate. 

Mr. Victor C. Barringer moved that a school should be estab- 
lished near Raleigh for the instruction of the colored, of equal 
value as that at the University. Judge Tourgee followed this 
with a motion which was agreed to that it should be a branch 
of the University. On motion of Tod R. Caldwell not less 
than 100 acres was to be bought. It may be as well to state 
that there never was any proposal to admit the colored youth 
into the University at Chapel Hill, nor to have co-education of 
the races in any way. Barringer's proposal, and one afterwards 
made to give one-third of the Land Scrip money to the colored, 
were never carried into effect. 

In November (1868) the new Treasurer made his first re- 
port. The stay laws and general loss of property, he said, had 
prevented collection of moneys loaned to individuals and the 
cash available was only $1,541.08. There was $32,389 due by 
individuals, most of whom were insolvent, and some municipal 
bonds, already pledged by the old Board. 

The Treasurer further reported that the debts were about 
$60,000, including that for $35,712.68 to the Bank of North 
Carolina. The deed of trust of April 30. 1867, conveyed all 

Solomon Pool 

President Pool. 9 

the property of the University, including about 1,000 acres at 
Chapel Hill and a tract of land in Buncombe County acquired 
by escheat, the extent of which was unknown. 

The land grant of 240,000 acres contracted to be sold by the 
former Board for fifty cents an acre to G. F. Lewis and his 
associates, Fisher, Boothe & Co., could not be used to pay debts. 
Congress had forbidden the location of this land until the State 
should be admitted into the Union by Act of Congress. By 
the terms of the contract, if the location should not be allowed 
by the 4th March, 1869, the sale would be void, in which event 
it was thought a better price, probably one dollar an acre, could 
be obtained. 

I will now describe the several members of the Faculty, 
appointed by the Executive Committee in pursuance of author- 
ity granted by the Board. 

The New Faculty. 

In filling up the Faculty the Executive Committee looked 
first for a President. It was clear that the question of party 
must be a primary consideration. Rev. Mr. Doherty alleged 
his loyalty to the Union and to Republican principles, and his 
services, in the Union Army, in addition to his scholarship, as 
qualifications for a Professorship, or the Presidency. The 
choice fell on Rev. Solomon Pool, afterwards D.D. 

Solomon Pool, born in Elizabeth City, the new President, and 
Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, was a second 
honor graduate of this University in 1853. He was then Tutor 
of Mathematics until 1861, when he was made Adjunct Profes- 
sor. In 1866 he obtained leave of absence in order to accept the 
more lucrative post of Deputy Appraiser, the Trustees stipulat- 
ing 'that they would not be bound to reemploy him when this 
office should end. He was a brother of Senator John Pool. Mr. 
Pool's political animus was shown in a letter written January 
23, 1868, transmitting a draft of a proposed Article in the Con- 
stitution on Public Education. He charged the University with 
being governed by the aristocracy and family influence. He 
urged that "it should be thoroughly loyalized. Better close it 
than have it a nursery of treason, to foster and perpetuate the 

io History of University of North Carolina. 

feeling's of disloyalty. Let the present Board of Trustees be 
superseded by a loyal Board, and the University will be a bless- 
ing, instead of a curse.'' Although narrow in his views he was 
a man of decided ability and a good writer. His reports and 
an article published in the newspapers, entitled "The University 
and the Public Schools," show thoughtfulness and literary 
power, but at the time of his election he had no State reputation. 

The Professor of Mathematics, Alexander Mclver, a native 
of Moore County, was a first honor graduate from this Univer- 
sity in 1853. After serving as Tutor of Mathematics in his 
Alma Mater for a few months he distinguished himself as a 
Principal of an Academy in Wadesboro, and then as Professor 
of Mathematics at Davidson College. In his application he 
laid stress on the fact that he was the only Republican at that 
College and was virtually threatened with dismissal if he should 
vote for President Grant. He was a hard-working, able and 
upright man. He was afterwards honored with the post of 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, Fisk 
P. Brewer, was in the Class of 1852, one of the best scholars at 
Yale LJniversity ; was, when elected, Principal of a school for 
the colored at Raleigh, founded by Northern charity. He had 
studied in Athens, Greece, was Tutor of Greek at Yale, had 
strongest testimonials from President Woolsey, Professor 
Dana, and others. Was for one year a Professor in Beloit 
College. He was a brother of Judge Brewer, of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. His father was Rev. Josiah 
Brewer, missionary to Turkey, and his mother was sister to 
David Dudley Field and other eminent men. A contemporary 
letter to the newspaper says that he ruined his usefulness by 
boarding with a negro for a short while after reaching Chapel. 
Hill. It was alleged too that he invited negroes to his house 
when teaching a colored school in Raleigh. 

David Settle Patrick, nephew of Judge Settle, a native of 
Rockingham County, had been Principal of a school in 
Arkansas. He was a graduate of this University in 1856. His 
title was Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. He 
bad not gained reputation as a classical scholar. 

The New Faculty. i i 

James A. Martling, Professor of the English Language and 
Literature, was a resident of Missouri, a brother-in-law of Su- 
perintendent Ashley, and was recommended by him. He seemed 
to have been a man of good parts, but made no permanent im- 
pression while in North Carolina. He graduated at the best 
colleges in Ohio and had been Principal of high schools. 

George Dixon, Professor of Agriculture, was from York- 
shire, in England, a Quaker. He lectured on Chemistry, 
Botany, and Theoretical Farming and undertook to prepare a 
model farm. He was elected in consequence of the duty of the 
University to carry into effect the Land Grant Act of 1862 and 
seemed to be proficient in his department. He obtained leave 
in 1869 to visit his native land, the North of England, and 
promised to bring chemical tables such as are used in that 
country in agricultural institutions, of one of which he was 
President. He wished, he said, to promote the immigration of 
capital to North Carolina. He never returned to Chapel Hill. 

Professor Patrick was Bursar, Professor Martling Secretary 
of the Faculty, and Professor Brewer Librarian. 

The President and Professors were all Republicans. It was 
generally understood that applications from those not Republi- 
cans need not be sent in. Rev. C. S. Alexander requested a 
place on the Faculty, but withdrew his application when he 
found that the treasury was empty. He wrote that he had 
always been loyal to the Union, and asserted that to his knowl- 
edge the soldiers in Barringer's Brigade were for peace, not- 
withstanding that under compulsion they had passed resolu- 
tions breathing war. He was probably a chaplain in the 
brigade and gave this information in order to ingratiate him- 
self with Governor Holden, to whom his letter was addressed. 

A communication was read from Rev. William H. Doherty, 
embodying a scheme of reorganization. He was educated at 
Belfast Institute and had very high recommendations from its 
professors. He preached for several years in Ireland as a 
Presbyterian. Embracing Unitarian principles he resigned his 
pulpit and emigrated to the Umited States. He was at one time 
a chaplain in the United States Army and then Assistant Quar- 
termaster and obtained the rank of Captain. He was for 

12 History of University of North Carolina. 

awhile Principal of Graham College. His scheme was elab- 
orate, drawn up in excellent style, but required generous ex- 
penditures of money. 

An application from an alumnus of the University, who 
thought to make himself acceptable to Governor Holden by 
proving, so to speak, that he was a follower of the Vicar of 
Bray, is on file. When at school he had notions of politics, but 
now he sees it all is foolishness. He would be willing for any 
party to rule, provided the country prospered. He was a 
Methodist but tolerated all other denominations much more 
than formerly. During the war he was Principal of a High 
School and was befriended by Republicans and Democrats. "I 
was considered simply a literary man, belonging to no party. 
The same may be said of me regarding religion." He then 
naively asks that in case he can not get a Professorship, the 
Governor will get him a place in the Revenue Department. 
Never was a character so thoroughly misunderstood. Governor 
Holden was an uncompromising party man. No "Doubting 
Thomas" could please him. The bitterest political enemy could 
become his friend by joining his party. 

It was not long before there was great unrest in the Faculty. 
It was the old quarrel which in the Acts of the Apostles divided 
the pure blood and the Grecian Jews. The Professors from 
abroad complained that they were neglected in the distribution 
of the Treasurer's checks. They went further and opined that 
being strangers they should have the preference, but this claim 
was decided to have no merit. On the contrary President Pool 
was paid $1,500 for the first year and the others, some a 
fourth, others a fifth, of that amount. 

Resources and Lawsuits. 

The funds to make these payments came from a loan nego- 
tiated with the Board of Public Instruction mainly on pledge 
of bonds belonging to the Land Scrip Fund. Of course this 
was illegal, but was overlooked by the General Assembly as 
the Faculty were really suffering. Moreover there was a bare 
chance that the University might have a windfall in the shape 
of an escheat, or a State appropriation. 

Litigation. 13 

On motion of Judge Cantwell a committee of three was ap- 
pointed to inquire into the legality of the debts secured by the 
deed of trust of April, 1868, and all other alleged debts, with 
power to employ counsel. The committee was composed of the 
mover and Judges Reade and Tourgee. 

Ex-Judge Cantwell, chairman, reported that in the opinion 
of the committee the University was not legally or equitably 
bound to pay the debt due the bank, for the reason that the 
University was a corporation of specified powers and that, 
while it could subscribe for the bank stock if possessed of the 
cash, as an investment, it could not buy on credit. Such pur- 
chase was mere speculation and therefore void. The Cameron 
and Swain debts should be scaled according to the Act of the 
Assembly, establishing a scale of depreciation for the settlement 
of debts contracted during the war. These debts really were 
incurred in 1859. 

The strange argument too was suggested but not pressed, 
that the University debts were contracted before the Civil War 
and due to those who had the status of public enemies. The 
laws of war declare such debts were the subjects of seizure and 
condemnation. The University with all its properties was 
seized and appropriated by the conqueror, and the Constitution 
of 1868 divested the title of the former owners and vested them, 
free of incumbrance, in the new State authorities. The chair- 
man (Cantwell) suggested as worthy of inquiry how far the 
present Board of Trustees are bound by these debts any more 
than other engagements of their predecessors. He then stated 
that the question was not before the committee and they 
offered no opinion on this question. I add that the debts of the 
"University were incurred before there was any depreciation. 

It is difficult to see why the question was not before the com- 
mittee. The chairman was evidently unable to procure the 
assent of the committee to this enormous extension of the laws 
of war to Southern institutions. 

It was further resolved that the Executive Committee report 
whether any teacher will rent the University buildings and 
grounds for five years, on condition that the State shall pay 
tuition for countv students. This came to naught. No one 

14 History of University of North Carolina. 

offered to rent the buildings and the General Assembly failed to 
make any appropriation. Indeed it is noticeable that even the 
extravagant Legislature of 1868- '69 showed no disposition to 
aid the University in any way, although spending money with 
lavish profuseness in other directions. 

On motion of Judge Tourgee the General Assembly was 
asked to amend the charter of the University so as to have two 
departments mutually equivalent in all educational facilities, 
having the same schools, teachers of equal grade and merit, as 
near as may be conferring the same degrees, subject to the same 
rules and under the control of the same Board, one for the 
whites and one for the colored. Also that there should be 
Normal and Preparatory Schools for both colors. 

Counsel to defend the University against the claim of the 
bank were also authorized. Under this the chairman, ex-Judge 
Edward Cant well, and Ed. Graham Haywood were appointed. 
The opinion of these counselors that the University was not 
legally bound by her subscription to the capital stock of the 
bank was ordered to be printed. 

With regard to the sale of the Land Scrip, the committee re- 
ported that it was fraudulent and should be rescinded. The old 
Board of Trustees, as appears from papers on file, desired to 
use part of the purchase money for payment of salaries of the 
Faculty and other objects. G. F. Lewis, the purchaser, knew 
of this illegality and could not enforce a contract tainted with 
this fraud. The committee looked on prices with larger eyes 
than did the Treasurer. Their claim was that the Scrip was 
worth $1.40 per acre, as against $1.00 reported by him ; whereas 
50 cents was the value at the time of the sale to the L T niversity. 

Before detailing the organization and work of the University 
in instruction it is convenient to trace the progress of the liti- 
gation under the attorneys, Cantwell and Haywood. They had 
reported, as has been said, in an elaborate paper prepared 
by Mr. Haywood, that the University was not bound to 
pay the bank, because the debt was incurred contrary to law. 
To sustain this it was pointed out that under the bank- 
charter the stock was to be paid for in gold and silver, and 
the bank was prohibited from discounting any paper to 

Litigation. 15 

which a subscriber's name should be either as principal 
or surety, until the whole of such subscriber's stock shall 
have been paid. It was contended tbat this mandate of 
the General Assembly had been disobeyed because certain citi- 
zens, not connected with the University, borrowed the necessary 
funds from the bank and lent them to the University. With 
this money the University paid for its stock in full. Then the 
University borrowed of the bank the same amount, giving the 
stock as collateral security and paid off the note signed by the 
individuals. This transaction, it was urged, was a plain 
evasion of the law. 

The attorneys conceived the idea that the proper way to 
attack the mortgage of its property to the bank by the Uni- 
versity, was for the State of North Carolina to bring suit in 
the United States Court. This was instituted, but the Court, 
after full argument, decided that it had no jurisdiction, and the 
suit was dismissed. The attorneys urged an appeal to the Fed- 
eral Supreme Court, but the Trustees declined to prosecute it. 

On motion of Chief Justice Pearson, Judges Bond and 
Brooks were requested to give their reasons in writing for 
their dismissing the suit, and the attorney, E. G. Haywood, was 
requested to give to the Board his reasons for considering the 
opinion erroneous ; further that the Attorney-General and Jus- 
tices Reade and Rodman be requested to examine the subject 
and report as to the propriety of taking an appeal. 

At the meeting of July 20, 1871, there was no quorum, but 
the only Trustees present. Chief Justice Pearson, Justices 
Reade, Rodman, and Dick of the Supreme Court, Judge Cloud, 
of the Superior Court, and Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter, con- 
curred in the advice to take no appeal. 

It is presumable that the counsel of the University were of 
the erroneous opinion that the Federal Court would take cog- 
nizance of the case under the bankrupt law, but lawyers gen- 
erally thought the decision against this view correct. Although 
the court expressed judicially no opinion as to the validity of 
the subscription to the capital stock of the bank, it was under- 
stood the learned judges thought the objection was not valid. 
It is unreasonable that the University should receive the stock 

16 History of University of North Carolina. 

which she paid for and then repudiate the debt voluntarily con- 
tracted to obtain means of payment. The corporations, if their 
charters were broken, might have been punished under quo 
warranto, and their officers punished for acting contrary to 
law, but certainly innocent stockholders ought not to suffer. 

Another objection, that the University did not pay for the 
stock in gold and silver but in a draft on New York, was held 
untenable, as the draft was equivalent to specie. Nor was the 
objection fatal that by borrowing money to pay for the stock 
the University was speculating, the charter conferring no privi- 
lege to speculate. It was an ordinary business transaction. 

The effort by the Secretary and Treasurer, R. W. Lassiter, 
to break up the contract with G. F. Lewis, made in 1867, for 
the purchase of the Land Scrip, proved equally abortive. Fifty 
cents an acre was the true market price at the time of the sale. 
Several Northern States sold at the same price, and one for 
less. The Secretary of the Interior, Gen. J. D. Cox, of Ohio,, 
decided that all Avas regular. The postponement of the loca- 
tion by Congress did not deprive the University of the power 
of sale. Secretary Lassiter visited Lewis in Detroit, employed 
counsel, and spent some time in New York but accomplished 
nothing. The fruitless efforts to break up the contract for the 
sale cost the University over $500 in counsel fees, besides a 
very liberal sum for the expenses of the Treasurer. 

By virtue of authority conferred by the Board of Trustees 
Mr. Lassiter purchased $40,000 of old North Carolina Railroad 
State bonds, $40,000 in new State bonds, not special tax, and 
$160,000 in special tax bonds. The old bonds he bought at 51 
cents in the dollar, the new bonds 46 cents, and the special tax 
50 cents, amounting in the total to $1 19,000. There was much 
criticism of the purchase of the special tax bonds as the market 
price began to sink at once and went rapidly down until it 
became equal to near zero under the Repudiation Act of 8th 
March, 1870. As the total amount in the Land Scrip Fund was 
$125,000, there was left $6,000 to be subsequently disposed of 
by the Board. No interest was paid by the State on either 
class of bonds. 

Another lawsuit in which the L T niversity was interested was 

Litigation. 17 

the application by Charles Dewey addressed to the Court in 
Bankruptcy for the sale of the University property. The re- 
sult of this suit will be shown in narrating the happenings of 
the year when the decree was made. 

The Trustees were induced by the advice of counsel to bring 
suit for lands located in West Tennessee under escheated Rev- 
olutionary land warrants granted to the University. As fully 
described in Volume I of this history, the Secretary and Treas- 
urer (Charles Manly), in conjunction with Samuel Dickens, 
and under instruction of the Executive Committee, had sold all 
the residue of these real estate interests to Edward Orme and 
Alden Gifford, agents of a Boston land company, and reported 
the same to the Board, which confirmed their action. The 
result of the suit was a signal defeat to the University, the 
payment of over $400 in fees and costs and the ill name of 
bringing a false claim, contrary to her solemn agreement. 
This cost, however, was paid by the Trustees elected in 1874. 

The chief attorney of the University in this case was ex- 
Judge Robert R. Heath, who emigrated to Tennessee after the 
Civil War. He agreed to accept a contingent fee of one-half 
the recovery. After this was discovered by his associate 
counsel, S. W. Cochran, he called Judge Heath's attention to 
the fact that such fees were illegal under the laws of Tennessee 
and subjected the offender to being disbarred — the offense be- 
ing called champerty. The Judge was greatly troubled, as 
was shown by his repeated and urgent requests that all his let- 
ters in relation to this suit should be sent to him, and by earn- 
est arguments to show that his action did not come within the 
purview of the law. It was in his favor that the evidence was 
in North Carolina, among the University papers. At any rate 
he was not prosecuted and died soon afterwards. 

There was afterwards much consultation about bringing 
other suits, but it was wisely concluded that, whatever difficul- 
ties there were in the titles of many tracts, the University had 
no claim, having parted with its rights. 

1 8 History of University of North Carolina. 

We will now see how the University prospered under the 
new regime. 

Mr. Lewis P. Olds, who declined the Presidency, recom- 
mended that there be six Professors to be paid $9,500 per 
annum. He predicted that "grown gray with years and sacred 
by the genius of numberless alumni the University halls should 
speedily resound with the step and voice of youths — and the 
fountain now dry be made to send out refreshing streams of 
other days." But alas ! the $9,500 was not obtainable. Even 
if it had been poured into the University treasury, the inten- 
sity of disapproval of the new organization on the part of 
parents able to send students to the University, would have 
caused a failure. 

There was no income for the first year from the $125,000 
Land Scrip money because of the futile efforts to rescind the 
contract, and the nonpayment of interest by the State, such 
payment enjoined by the Act of Congress of 1862. 

Owing to the empty treasury a new scheme was devised. 
The President and Professors were to trust to tuition receipts 
for their salaries. Promise was held out to apply to the Gen- 
eral Assembly for relief. The Faculty heretofore described 
was made up on this slender foundation. 

The State Geologist, Dr. W. C. Kerr, was looked to for 
Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology. 

Government and Curriculum. 

The old plan of government was adopted for the present but 
a committee of the Faculty was appointed to examine the re- 
ports of institutions of this country and Europe and suggest 

The salary of the President was fixed at $2,000 a year, and 
$120 house rent, that of the Professors at $1,500 per annum and 
house rent. 

The committee reported that in order to constitute a Uni- 
versity in reality, as well as in name, there should be "the 
University system," viz. : (1) Instruction by lectures ; (2) Free 
choice of studies; (3) Liberty to graduate in any school; (4) 
Independent character of the Schools. The following chairs 

Government and Curriculum, 1868. 19 

or departments of instruction were recommended, the chairs to 
be filled when the income would justify it: 

1. Department of Latin Language and Literature. 

2. Department of Greek Language and Literature. 

3. Department of Modern Languages. 

4. Department of Logic, Rhetoric, Political Economy, 

History, Ancient and Modern. 

5. Department of Mathematics. 

6. Department of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology. 

7. Department of Natural and Mental Philosophy. 

8. Department of Applied Sciences. 

9. Department of Law. 

The Faculty agreed to deliver by turns lectures on Mental 
and Moral Philosophy, Astronomy, Physiology, Agricultural 
Chemistry, and Botany, to be open to members of the Uni- 
versity and to graduate students. A Preparatory Department 
was constituted, running over four years. It was agreed that 
a mark of 75 should pass the student, but the Professor had 
power to pass on a less mark. The President was to appoint 
a student to take general supervision of the buildings. The 
first bell for prayers should ring twenty minutes before sun- 
rise. The second at sunrise and should be continued five 

On June 10, 1869, a report was made of the work of the 
first term. The term ran from March 3. There were three 
students ranking as Sophomores and seven as Freshmen. The 
Sophomores passed examination in Algebra through Equa- 
tions of the first degree, 600 lines of the Iliad, nine pages of 
Herodotus, sixty-four Odes (2 1-2 books) of Horace and 
ninety-two pages of Whately's Rhetoric. 

The Freshmen passed on Elementary Algebra through Equa- 
tions of the first degree, and the first book of Milton's "Para- 
dise Lost." Nothing is said of any other Freshman work. If 
they did any the report is lost. 

Two other students read six -chapters of Xenophon's Anab- 
asis and 844 pages of Georgics. Five studied Bingham's 
Latin Grammar through the third declension and four pages of 
Whitson's Greek Exercises. All prepared declamations and 
essays, and read through the Gospel of Luke, whether in the 

20 History of University of North Carolina. 

Greek does not appear. The President adds "such labor, 
though not an occasion of boasting, is evidence of industry." 

The value and interest of the examinations, it was stated, 
were greatly enhanced by the presence of Superintendent Ash- 
ley. All Trustees were desired to imitate his example. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) was conferred on 
Abdel Kader Tenny ; of Master of Arts {A.M.) on James B. 
Mason, Prof. D. S. Patrick, Judge Wm. A. Moore, and Judge 
Samuel W. Watts. That of Doctor of Divinity on Revs. Neill 
McKay and Samuel M. Frost. 

Tenney was a student of i863-'6s ; Mason of the Class of 
1867- '68, State Senator; Patrick, an A.B. of 1856; Moore, a 
student of i848-'5i, a Judge and Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives of this State ; Watts a Judge of the Reconstruc- 
tion period; Dr. McKay a prominent and influential Presby- 
terian minister of Harnett County, and Frost an able and 
esteemed preacher of Davie County and then of Pennsylvania — 
an A.B. of 1852. 

It will be seen from inspection of the report that a consider- 
able portion of the students were in the Preparatory Depart- 
ment. In Mathematics at least the Sophomores were not equal 
to the Freshmen of the present day. A formal order adopted 
by the Faculty at the beginning of the next term shows the 
heterogeneous character of the attendance. "Students now 
reciting with College students may continue work." Also 
there were "nineteen entries and no college charges." 

At this time the President presented a complete plan for the 
reorganization of the University, in order to comply with the 
Land Scrip Act of 1862. It was as follows: 

I. College of Literature and the Arts. 
II. College of Philosophy, Chemistry and Natural 

III. College of Science and the Arts. 

IV. College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. 
V. Business and Commercial College. 

VI. Normal College. 
VII. Law. 
VIII. Medicine. 

Government and Curriculum, 1868. 21 

There were no Juniors or Seniors, though to them were 
assigned Engineering, Modern Languages, Astronomy, Natu- 
ral Philosophy, Rhetoricals ; to Seniors were assigned Engi- 
neering, Modern Languages, Intellectual Philosophy, Optionals 
and Rhetoricals. 

The last word, used as a noun, is new in our University 
language. It probably means Rhetoric as taught in the books, 
and also theses, declamations, and the like. 

For the Normal Department were prescribed : First Year, 
Advanced Geography, Chemistry, Natural History, Algebra, 
Geometry, Rhetoricals, including Elocution. The other years 
are not given. 

A plan of discipline was adopted which was a revival of 
ancient and obsolete methods. Every Friday afternoon the 
Professors reported publicly infractions of the rules. All but 
the guilty were ordered to retire. Excuses were then heard 
and the offenses graded. Tardiness was marked 1, absences 
2, visiting other students or going to the village in study hours 
1, being out of one's room after 8 o'clock p. m. 1, scribbling 
on the walls 1, spitting on the floor or disorder in the recitation 
room 1, indecorum at prayers 2, improper or boisterous noise 
in study hours or after prayers 2, other offenses not specified 
1 to 10. Offenses repeated or glaring, double or triple the 
above penalties. The perfect deportment grade was 100. the 
demerits to be taken from this. If there should be 20 demerits 
the parent to be notified of the downward steps of his son. if 
30 his removal to be requested. 

The Monitors were not bound to report other delinquencies 
than absences. Each student on entering was bound to sign a 
pledge not to disobey but to comply with all the rules, regula- 
tions and laws of the University, so far as he was capable, 
during his connection with the institution. 

We have a report of delinquencies which shows that they 
were principally from absences, one charged with eight, two 
others with six each, and so on. 

Notwithstanding meager numbers there were cases needing 
discipline. The old joke of ringing the bell contrary to the 
regulations was perpetrated. Four offenders were arraigned. 

22 History of University of North Carolina. 

There being a deficiency of evidence, a student was called on 
as a witness. At first he declined to answer, but, being as- 
sured that no penalties would be inflicted, he disclosed the 
names of the offenders. These were at once pledged and 

Other troubles ensued. One student did "not wish to live 
with Yankees," nor pursue the study of Greek. Guthrie 
shared this odium towards the divine language and irreverently 
affirmed that he had not learned three cents worth the whole 
session. Another announced his dislike of Greek though he 
did not measure the worth of the language in current coin. 
The disaffected were allowed to change to Chemistry, taught 
by Professor Mclver. 

President Pool reported a new curriculum, as follows : 

School of Literature and the Arts : Freshman — Latin, 
Greek, Mathematics, and Rhetoricals. Sophomore — Latin, 
Greek, Mathematics, Rhetoric, and Rhetoricals. Juniors — His- 
tory, optional, Mixed Mathematics, and Rhetoricals. Seniors — 
Political Economy. 

For the College of Science and the Arts, the Freshmen had 
Chemistry, Natural History, Mathematics, and Rhetoricals ; 
the Sophomores, Chemistry, Natural History, Mathematics, 
and Rhetoric. 

The second session, or academic year, opened in the middle 
of August, 1869. The number of those entitled to be called 
University students was still small. 

In January. 1870, there were reported, Sophomores in the 
Literature and Art Department, 2 ; Freshmen, 3 ; Senior Preps 
(preparatory students), 5 ; Junior Preps, 8. 

In the College of Science and the Arts, Freshmen, 3, of whom 
one was on probation in Mathematics; Preparatory, 1. In the 
Normal Department there were Freshmen 1, and Preparatory 
1, and one irregular. It thus appears that there were claimed 
to be 9 University students, and 15 Preparatory, with one 
irregular. A resolution prohibiting from joining the Univer- 
sity those under twelve years of age throws a sidelight on the 
proficiency of those whose names were printed. But, while 
undoubtedlv a number of these could not rank with Universitv 

Some Students of 1869. 25 

students there were some good men, whose careers since have 
shed honor on their Alma Mater. I instance Col. F. A. Olds, 
editor ; Wm. C. Fields, Senator from Alleghany ; Isaac E. 
Emerson, wealthy druggist ; Walter H. Guthrie, machinist in 
Boston ; George W. Mclver, Captain in the U. S. Army ; 
Walter F. Pool, Member of the Legislature ; George W. Pure- 
foy, physician at Asheville. 

In his report made November 12, 1869, Professor Patrick 
complains that the former Bursar, Professor Fetter, had not 
turned over to him any of the books or records of his office, 
the omission caused admittedly, not by delinquency, but by 
careless bookkeeping. He gave a sad account of the depreda- 
tions of late on University property. He says that he has been 
informed that at the time of the suspension of exercises the 
opinion prevailed in Chapel Hill that the University property 
belonged to the people. Books were taken from the libraries 
and all working utensils abstracted. Some have returned their 
borrowing with the request that "no questions be asked," while 
others still retain their spoliations under the impression that 
"something may turn up." 

The efforts to procure Commencement orators were quite 
discouraging. Gen. S. C. Abbott, then a Senator of the United 
States, one of the officers of the Union Army who made this 
State their home, was secured ; Dr. S. S. Satchwell, who always 
talked good sense on medical and allied subjects, was invited 
but declined. Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard agreed to preach 
a serman before the University, Judge Wm. B. Rodman to 
make an address before the two literary societies. Governor 
Caldwell, Gen. M. W. Ransom, Attorney-General Coleman, A. 
Haywood Merritt, R. W. York, Capt. C. B. Denson, and Rev. 
Dr. Willis M. Miller, found it not their duty to prop up the 
struggling institution. 

An effort was made to give the University a potential influ- 
ence among the educational forces of the State by inviting the 
teachers to exchange views with regard to having a Normal 
Institution at the University. President Pool appointed a 
Committee of Correspondence to invite speakers on the subject. 
The Convention was not held. 

24 History of University of North Carolina. 

It is recorded that "it be placed on record that an invitation 
to deliver an address had been given to Judge A. W. Tourgee, 
which seems to imply that the Judge, or his friends, deemed 
that he had been neglected in the distribution of oratorical 

President Pool seems to have found one or more members 
of the Faculty too free with University property. He there- 
fore procured from the Executive Committee an order that no 
member of the Faculty can bind the University, and no Pro- 
fessor use part of the University property except what has 
been assigned him. Professor Patrick protested against the 

A catalogue of 1869-^70 was issued. Nominally the students 
were fifty-five in number, but it is impossible to ascertain the 
facts in regard to their proficiency. The names are in a list in 
alphabetical order, those more advanced appearing in the same 
column with those in the Preparatory Department. There is 
no differentiation of classes. The tradition is that small boys 
were accorded places and thus swelled the number. The public 
evidently did not accept the number as indicating the pros- 
perity of the institution. The catalogue did not delay the 
closing of the exercises. 

It was stated that lectures had been given to all the students 
on the Theory and Practice of Teaching, on the Constitution 
of the United States, Astronomy, Philosophy, Physiology, 
Botany, and Chemistry. On the whole, doubtless, the Profes- 
sors performed their duties as faithfully as the difficulties of 
their position allowed. 

An entry in the minutes seems to imply that there was some 
friction between the President and his staff. This was that 
the President may question any member of the Faculty indi- 
vidually. This privilege, since the beginning of the University, 
has always been exercised without question by the Presidents 
as appertaining to their office. 

A peculiar arrangement was adopted in the practical work 
of instruction. A class was assigned solely to each member of 
the Faculty. The President was responsible for the recita- 
tions and discipline of the Junior class ; Professor Patrick of 

President's Annual Report, 1870. 25 

the Sophomores; Professor Brewer of the Freshmen; Profes- 
sor Mclver of the Preparatory. Each member of the Faculty 
was the medium of communication between his class and the 
Faculty as a body. 

On November 15, 1870, President Pool submitted his annual 
report. He gives the number as 36 who have received instruc- 
tion in the Junior, Sophomore, Freshman, and Preparatory 
classes of the University. The Juniors had studied three books 
of Juvenal, Tacitus, Ancient History, Trigonometry, Analytical 
Geometry, Differential and Integral Calculus, and Chemistry. 
The Sophomores were engaged in the study of the Odes of 
Horace, Homer's Iliad, and Geometry. The Freshmen devoted 
their time to Vergil's Georgics and the ^Eneid, Xenophon's 
Anabasis, and Algebra. The Preparatory classes studied 
Caesar's Commentaries, Bingham's Latin Grammar, Rhetoric, 
Whitson's Greek Lessons, English Grammar, Arithmetic, and 

Bible instruction was given each Sunday afternoon and occa- 
sional lectures on literary and scientific subjects were deliv- 
ered before all the students. 

Two prizes of $20 in gold were offered to the best students, 
but were not to be awarded until the Commencement of 1871, 
which was never held. The scholarship of the Collegiate 
classes was stated to be good as a rule, as was also of the Pre- 
paratory Department. The frequent rumors circulated by the 
enemies of the institution were asserted to be not only untrue 
but tended to distract the attention of the students, impede 
their progress, and render discipline more difficult. 

It is noticeable that this report does not give the numbers 
in each class. It was generally understood at the time that 
there were very few genuine College students, the majority 
being what are known as "school boys," or Preparatory stu- 

Professor Brewer's report on the Library was scholarly. 
Extracts from it were given in the first volume. The pam- 
phlets, about 1,000 in number, were classified and tied into 
bundles. Donations were solicited. The whole number of 
books added as gifts amounted to over 300. 

26 History of University of North Carolina. 

On the i st December, 1870, President Pool submitted a plan 
for continuing the University, ambitious but impracticable, pro- 
viding that a Committee of Trustees confer with the authori- 
ties of the colleges of the State, with the view of bringing 
them under the State University, they retaining their present 
chartered rights and to receive such aid as Colleges of the Uni- 
versity as may be agreed upon. 

It was further provided that the property of the University 
at Chapel Hill be leased, the lessee to give bond for its security 
and its safe return at the expiration of the lease. Free tuition 
to be given to fifty youths of the State. The leading religious 
sects of the State to have representation and party politics to be 
excluded. The affiliating colleges to submit reports of their 
operations to the Trustees of the University when called on. 

The Board of Trustees appointed a committee of three to 
carry out the recommendation as to the proposed lease and a 
committee of five to confer with the colleges and report to a 
subsequent meeting. 

The first committee were Rev. James Reed and Messrs. 
James B. Mason and Henderson Adams. The committee to 
confer with the colleges were President Pool, and Messrs. R. 
P. Dick, S. F. Phillips, John Pool, and S. S. Ashley. 

The committee on the lease reported on the 1st February that 
they doubted the propriety of carrying out the plan under the 
laws in regard to the University, and at their request were dis- 

President Pool, on behalf of the Committee on Affiliations, 
reported that he had not called the committee together, be- 
cause that on the lease had done nothing. (It thus appears that 
be had in mind probably the leasing of the University to a 
combination of the colleges.') The scheme, however intended, 
was plainly chimerical, as the denominational colleges were 
wedded to their independent spheres, and it was impossible to 
induce them to enter into entangling alliances. 

At this meeting was chronicled the donation of a thousand 
pamphlets and periodicals by Rev. Josiah Brewer, Missionary 
to Turkey, through Rev. Fisk P. Brewer, his son. 

On October 5, 1870, Mr. Martling obtained leave of absence. 

Financial Condition. 27 

Although he hinted at a possible return it was generally felt, 
and so it proved, that the leave was perpetual. The entry 
on the records was, that "in view of the financial difficulties 
we can not refuse consent to any application." It is stated as 
late in the session as October 10th that Mr. Martling had not 
heard any class during the entire term except the Junior Pre- 
paratory in English Grammar ; that he met his classes, assigned 
lessons and then left the room, his reason being that the text- 
hooks had not arrived. A student would then hear the lesson. 
After he left Chapel Hill the other Professors divided his work 
among them. 

On November 2, 1871, the Treasurer reported that the only 
income for 1870 and 1871 was $1,607.53. As there was no 
charge for tuition, nothing came in from that source. The 
Treasurer further stated that of the amounts due by individuals 
only $1,819.96 was collected or could be collected. This could 
not be used for present purposes as it was subject to a lien 
incurred for bonds to pay the former Faculty, and must be 
applied to those bonds. Of the uncollected debts, some were 
due by insolvents, some by actual bankrupts, fifty-five bonds 
of the City of Wilmington, valued at $4,000 (par $5,000) ; 
three Virginia State bonds (par $11,200), valued at $6,600, 
and twenty old North Carolina bonds (par $20,000), valued at 
$6,000, were hypothecated with the Board of Education for 
the payment of salaries to the Faculty and other expenses. 

In fine, all the efforts to support the institution resulted in 
failure. Appeals for legislative aid were not heeded. When 
the General Assembly of i868-'69, Republican by a large 
majority, refused to appropriate money for its relief, it could 
not be expected that subsequent legislators, of opposite poli- 
tics, would be more liberal. 

It had now become evident to all that there was no hope of 
the University to succeed under existing conditions. The Gen- 
eral Assembly still refused to pay interest on any of the bonds 
of the State and declared null and void a large portion alleged 
to have been fraudulently issued. The Land Scrip Fund was 
therefore still unproductive. Nothing could be expected from 

28 History of University of North Carolina. 

public or private benefaction. A handful of students had 
been enticed by the promise of free tuition, but even if they 
had paid tuition it would have liquidated only a small fraction 
of salary dues. Unable to live on airy promises the Faculty 
were resigning. The time was ripe for closing the doors and 
ending the experiment. 

Newspaper Criticisms. 

There was published at this time a poetical satire on the 
University as then constituted, particularly pressing the fact of 
paucity of students. I give part of it. Any one can guess the 

Oh what stupidity, 

And Old North State frigidity 

Is it that thus refuses, 

What Governor Holden chooses 

To give us as our quantum suff, 

Of Latin, Greek and all such stuff? 

The dose is surely small, 

The pay no pay at all, 

And yet no man will follow it, 

Or can be made to swallow it. 

Now Fortune's wheel revolving, 

Old ties and links dissolving, 

The Muses have recorded 

That when all the good and great, 

Who so long had- served the State, 

Were compelled by party hate 

To surrender to their fate 

And leave the Hall they so long had guarded, 

Then was Mr. Pool elate, 

And his services rewarded. 

With no symptoms of dubiety, 

Nor sense of impropriety, 

With no misgiving fears, 

He claims the vacant chairs, 

Assumes the god, 

Affects to nod, 

And seems to shake the spheres. 

It surely is a shame, 

And we're very much to blame, 

Satirical Poem. 29 

That we lose such opportunity 

To polish our community, 

For there never was a finer 

Offered now North Carolina, 

To send her sons to college, 

To get a little knowledge. 

Here's every variety 

Of the very hest society, 

Among the savants and philosophers. 

Some of the faculty can spell 

Very well. 

Every taste may here be suited 

Except where prejudice is rooted. 

Why don't they come to college 

And get a little knowledge? 

While all the Sciences, 

Means and appliances 

Are lying around loose 

To rust out for want of use. 

No misplaced economy 

Need deter one from Astronomy. 

All the ologies, 

Taught in all the colleges, 

Ancient Latin, modern Greek, 

Are going a-begging, so to speak, 

And even Electricity 

Is in a state of mendicity, 

While Geology sits idle with her hammer, 

And yet no scholar will give a dollar 

For Geography, 


And Bingham's Latin Grammar. 

We find in the Sentinel newspaper of December 1, 1868, an 
eloquent letter, written under the Old Poplar, evidently by 
Mrs. Spencer, which touchingly tells the appearance of the 
University in those days. "For seventy-five years this Old 
Poplar * * * has spread a benignant shade over the gay 
throngs that wandered through the Campus, or pressed into 
the Chapel in the glorious old days. 

"The old tree still stands guard but over grounds that are 
now empty and forlorn. The dry grass rustles to my solitary 

30 History of University of North Carolina. 

footsteps, and a rabbit starts out from yonder tangled and 
dying rosebush. I look around and see nothing to disturb the 
profound and melancholy stillness. A negro girl in a pink 
frock is leaning on the College well and a few of the negro 
soldiers are passing in the distance towards the village. The 
sun shines down on the Old East and West, the Library halls, 
the Recitation rooms ; but the doors are all closed — the place 
is haunted. Strong and ineffaceable memories rush unbidden, 
and my eyes are dimmed as I gaze on this Niobe sitting thus 
discrowned and childless. 

"* * * Chapel Hill is the Deserted Village of the South. 
Nearly twenty of the best families in the place are leaving and 
their houses are standing untenanted and desolate. The busi- 
ness of the village is at a standstill, while I am told that no 
fewer than six places have been lately established where liquor 
is openly sold. Some of our citizens are even now on their 
way to California. Some are in Louisiana. Of those whose 
names have been public property for years, Judge Battle is 
removing his household goods from his beautiful home — dear 
to him for twenty-five years, to begin life afresh and leave 
behind him the graves of his children. Professor Martin is 
in Tennessee, Professor Hepburn is in Ohio, Dr. Hubbard is 
in New York, Professor Smith is in Lincolnton, Professor 
Fetter is preparing to move to Henderson. Professor Phil- 
lips alone has not decided on his new home. These all leave 
the houses they have built, the trees they have planted, the 
flowers they have tended, the cradles of their children, the 
graves of their dead. Governor Swain was more favored in 
that he fell on sleep in good time, and rests quietly under the 
cedars over yonder." 

"Nos patriw fines, et dulcia linquimus arva. 
Nos patriam fugimus. * * * 

en quo discordia cives 
Perduxit miseros! en quels consevimus agros!" 

Dr. Phillips soon migrated to Davidson College, and many 
citizens, not members of the Faculty, sought new homes. Of 
the "Faculty folks" only Mrs. Spencer and her mother re- 

Newspaper Criticisms. 31 

mained to witness the desolation, the former by her pathetic 
and caustic writings for the press to keep glowing the love 
of the alumni for their distressed benignant mother. 

Of course the friends of President Pool, and of the new 
Faculty, did not take tamely the scoffs and sneers, so liberally 
bestowed by the friends of the old. An anonymous writer 
charged that there was a regular conspiracy formed, "conjur- 
ing the demon . of discord, using the infernal incantation of 
hypocrisy, falsehood, and envy, in order that the fires of sec- 
tional hatred may be let loose over the fairest and most beau- 
tiful part of the Southland." "The old University was under 
the control of oligarchs. Under Pool's administration it will 
have a brilliant career." 

Another correspondent of the Raleigh Standard affirmed that 
in three months the University under Swain would have gone 
to the infernal regions. He attacked the qualifications of the 
Presidents and Professors. Swain, when at the University, 
was only a few months in the Sophomore class, was then a 
lawyer of ''small bore," was always a "split-the-difference" 
man. Dr. James Phillips was an Englishman ; was, before 
coming to Chapel Hill, President or Instructor in a prepara- 
tory school; Dr. Hubbard came from Pennsylvania (should 
have been Massachusetts) to the University, may have grad- 
uated in a college of little reputation and notoriety. Professor 
Fetter was cut out in New York for an Episcopal minister 
and was "spoiled in the making." Professor Smith was from 
some Northern State and was likely a graduate of a college. 
Charles Phillips was a graduate but was the son of a foreigner. 
The Professors by improvident acts placed the University 
without students and with a $60,000 debt. They did not apply 
to the new Board of Trustees for reelection and are all em- 
ployed elsewhere, except Dr. Hubbard, who is in Chapel Hill 
bracing up his son-in-law (Argo) to curse out and whip those 
who don't agree with him. The writer cautiously requests the 
public not to mind what Mrs. Spencer writes as she is sister 
and daughter of those who have received $75,000 from the 
University, nor what Argo says, as his father-in-law, Dr. Hub- 
bard, received $50,000. The adherents of the old Faculty 

32 History of University of North Carolina. 

answered such attacks and carried the war into Africa. A 
correspondent, who signed himself "A Student," says that 
Pool was for six years a tutor of pure Mathematics and, as 
Governor Swain said, because he growled about being tutor, 
was elevated to Adjunct Professor. In i860 he had a chance 
to accept a collectorship under the United States and held on 
to this office six or eight months after being President. 

Only one or two of the new Trustees sent sons to the Uni- 
versity under Pool. There were only twelve or fifteen from 
abroad and they came because free tuition was offered. 

Another writer contends that Pool received from the United 
States $5,000 a year; two brothers-in-law $1,500 each, and 
mother-in-law as postmistress $1,000 a year. The property in 
Chapel Hill had greatly depreciated under his Presidency. 
Land at tax value of $3,500 had gone to $1,000, and at $2,500 
to $500. There were only two students from abroad and they 
were relatives of Pool. The praiseworthy statement is made 
that leading citizens of Chapel Hill had requested the editors 
of prominent papers not to criticise the management harshly 
until the efforts should be demonstrated to be a failure, and 
they had in vain called on Judge Pearson, Mr. Lassiter and 
other prominent Republicans to send their boys to the Uni- 

A third correspondent makes a special attack on Mr. Pool. 
"You have seen this beautiful village withering into nothing- 
ness through your course ; the inhabitants either compelled to 
leave at the sacrifice of all their property, or remaining in 
poverty or depression. You have known that the country for 
miles around was suffering in the decay of their only market. 
You have walked through the streets, where every eye, save 
those of your family and political associates, was turned on 
you with something of hatred and indignant scorn ; you have 
been repeatedly snubbed by your own church members, who 
have refused, in view of these things, to hear you preach or to 
receive communion with you, and you have stalked on through 
it all, impenetrable, in a cold-drawn insensibility, in dumb 
gravity of demeanor and undisturbed pride of place as the 
President of the Universitv of North Carolina, that might 

Proposed Railroad. 33 

well bid defiance to the light artillery of wit, or ridicule or 

A leading merchant of his own church urged him to resign, 
pointing out the ruin brought on the business men of the town. 
His reply was: "I would not resign for $50,000. My course 
has never occasioned a regret or self-reproach." 

The last correspondent dwells on the evidence of ruin about 
the buildings. There was no appearance of care. The room 
doors were open, the closet doors carried off, plastering in 
South Building had fallen into heaps. An old resident walks 
through and grieves, repeopling them with friends, many gone 
above long ago. Familiar faces look out of the windows, but 
they are in the shadowy past. Everywhere is written Icha- 
bod's, "The glory is departed." 

Railroad and Commencement. 

In 1869 there was a strong effort to obtain a railroad from 
the North Carolina Railroad to Chapel Hill. As the Supreme 
Court had decided that a corporation could not be aided by the 
State, either by direct grant of bonds or by the State sub- 
scribing for stock and selling bonds to pay the same, without 
first obtaining a favoring vote of the people, another plan was 
devised. This was for the State to build the road through 
commissioners, with an issue of State bonds to the amount of 
$300,000 in order to supply the funds. It was thought that 
this avoided the prohibition against the State's issuing bonds to 
or for individuals or corporations. Unfortunately for the pro- 
moters of this laudable enterprise the commissioners declined 
to elect as President the man favored by Governor Holden, 
said to be T. M. Argo, but chose Henry C. Thompson instead. 
The Governor thereupon refused to sign the bonds. A suit 
was instituted by the University Railroad Company against 
Holden and the court declared the act unconstitutional. The 
first objection w<as that no corporation was created — there were 
no grantees to receive the bonds ; second, the proportion of 
property tax to capitation tax was disturbed ; and, third, that a 
vote of the people was necessary. On the whole it appears to 
a plain man that the court regarded itself as guardian of the 

34 History of University of North Carolina. 

State Treasury and credit and were satisfied with arguments 
of very indifferent strength. Judge Reade dissented and es- 
sayed to make it plain that the State can, through commission- 
ers, undertake a public work and that issuing bonds to pay the 
expense is not lending her credit to others. But, right or 
wrong, the decision was fatal to the road. Chapel Hill was 
forced to wait for many years before obtaining connection 
with the great railroad lines of the State. 

The Commencement of 1869 was sad and painful to those 
familiar with the grand ceremonies of old times. The Trus- 
tees were mainly State officers. Governor Holden, Superin- 
tendent Ashley, Judge Buxton, Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter, 
Judge Rodman, Judge Dick, Judge Settle, Judge Bynum, Judge 
Watts, State Geologist Kerr, Judge W. A. Moore, being ten 
Trustees, the number required for a quorum were present. 
There were seventeen visitors from abroad, it was said, and 
twenty-eight all together in the audience, counting children. 
At the beginning Superintendent Ashley made an address, 
being introduced by his brother-in-law, J. A. Martling. Dec- 
lamations followed, the speakers being called out by Mr. 

On Thursday there were seventy-five whites reported with 
about that number of colored people in the galleries. The 
chronicle humorously adds, "There was a tremendous crowd 
of folks — who did not come." Mrs. Ashley and her daugh- 
ter, and Mrs. Judge Buxton were the only ladies from outside 
the village. There were two or three Chapel Hill ladies. The 
reporter adds that "the members of the Faculty were small men 
from President Pool clown. Drop him in the boots of Caldwell 
and Swain and while he stumbles about in them, he could not 
peep over the top of them. President Pool made the opening 
address ; he was very solemn, exceedingly dull and nearly in- 
audible. The burden of his speech was 'Support me and my 
faculty.' " 

But another correspondent has the following to say of the 
address of President Pool : "His points were concisely stated, 
his diction chaste and elesrant, and many who came to criticise 

Commencements of 1869 and 1870. 35 

were forced to praise." This account was nearer the truth. 
Mr. Pool was a man of decided talent. The description by the 
former writer is accurate as to his manner, for his face bore 
constantly a melancholy look. His speech was preceded by 
an Ode to Dr. Mitchell, probably by J. F. Taylor. 

During the morning Governor Holden delivered a carefully 
prepared written address, evidently his platform of principles 
on the subject of University Education. He said the evil of 
the old system was that the children of the great part of the 
people were practically excluded from the University. The 
present Faculty is calumniated because some are from other 
States, forgetting that Caldwell, Mitchell, and Phillips were the 
same. Most alumni favor the University as constituted. It 
must not be the theater of politics. The professors must be 
for the Union. The people will sustain it, "If parents who 
possess means will not send their sons because of prejudice or 
resentment towards those who now control, the people will fill 
the halls with meritorious young men and maintain and educate 
them at the public charge." Both races must be educated and 
polls and property taxed for the purpose. The whites must be 
educated at Chapel Hill, the colored elsewhere, but both in one 
University. Education knows no color or condition. It must 
be free like air and as pervading and universal. It is our 
chief want. Before the rebellion no Southern State had a 
more successful system than North Carolina, no State had more 
colleges and academies. If we fail to educate, the immigration 
will go elsewhere and the penitentiary and jails will be crowded. 
Practical education will develop our resources. 

In the afternoon, William Blount Rodman, a first honor grad- 
uate of 1836, Judge of the Supreme Court, delivered the 
University address. He was introduced by Mr. Walter Scott 
Guthrie, one of the undergraduates. He spoke in favor of 
establishing the University. "His arguments were too deep 
and strong to be reached by outline." He urged all with 
State pride to carry out the schemes of Caldwell, Mitchell, and 
Gaston. He was calm, conciliatory, and rational. 

The Commencement of 1870 was held June the 8th and 9th. 
Col. John H. Wheeler delivered an address on "The Past, 

36 History of University of North Carolina. 

Present, and Future of North Carolina." The chronicle states 
that it was most favorably received by the audience. The 
music was furnished by the Fayetteville brass band. At eight 
o'clock in the evening there were declamations by James T. 
Lyon, Charles J. Suggs, Milton V. Andrews, Charles J. Dor- 
land, and William P. Lyon. The last named and Andrews 
were pronounced to be the best speakers. 

On Thursday, United States Senator, Gen. J. C. Abbott, de- 
livered the annual oration. . His subject was "The Value of 
Correct Thinking and the Necessity of Accuracy in Scholar- 
ship." It was pronounced to be able and eloquent. 

Original speeches by students came in the afternoon. They 
were : Archie B. Holton on "Enthusiasm," John H. Pitts on 
"Intemperance," John Q. A. Wood on "North Carolina," Wil- 
liam C. Fields on the "Men of the Hour," Walter H. Guthrie 
on "Mirabeau," W. P. Overman on "Justice May Sleep but 
Never Dies." The annual report was then read, followed by 
an oration by Walter F. Pool on "Washington." 

James F. Taylor, of Raleigh, followed with an elaborate 
paper on President Swain, Dr. Mitchell, and Dr. James Phil- 

Tfie North Carolina Historical Society. 

Professor Mclver was elected temporary President, Robert 
W. Lassiter clerk, and Messrs. Patrick, Martling, and Taylor 
a committee to report permanent officers. The President re- 
ported was Col. J. H. Wheeler. The Vice-Presidents were 
Governor Holden, Lieutenant-Governor Caldwell, President 
Pool, Judge W. A. Moore, Nereus Mendenhall, Judge W. H. 
Battle, Gen. Thomas L. Clingman, Dr. S. S. Satchwell, Editor 
W. J. Yates, President B. Craven, E. F. Rockwell, Palemon 
John, and ex-Governor D. S. Reid. The Secretary and Treas- 
urer was Prof. Alexander Mclver. All Trustees were made 
members ex officio. The following were made honorary mem- 
bers : George Bancroft, Alexander H. Stevens, Gen. Daniel 
H. Hill. Bishop Thomas Atkinson, Bishop Pierce, Rev. Dr. 
Thomas H. Pritchard, Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, Hon. Thomas 
C. Fuller, Gen. R. B. Vance, Rev. Dr. George W. Purefoy, 
Rev. Dr. B. York, Hon. J. W. Holden, and Mr. Lewis Hanes, 

Village School. ^y 

Superintendent Ashley, Hon. Curtis H. Brogden, and James F. 
Taylor were appointed a committee to procure from Mrs. 
Eleanor H. Swain the books and manuscripts claimed by the 

It is pleasant to know that during this period there was 
at Chapel Hill a flourishing school for the colored which had 
the reputation of doing much good. The teacher was Miss 
Fannie C. Colver. At its close there was an impressive cere- 
mony. Rev. Green Caudle, colored, offered up a prayer. His 
fervent supplication for all the people, of all colors and condi- 
tions, was deeply impressive and in newspaper language, 
"attracted the attention of all present." All seemed to appre- 
ciate his devout petitions. 

There was not a total stagnation among the whites, not a 
total cessation of labors for the uplifting of the young. On 
June 20, 1 87 1, was held a Sunday School celebration in the 
University Chapel (Gerrard Hall), which was worthy of 
Chapel Hill in its best days. On the rostrum were the Rev. 
Messrs. Bobbitt and A. D. Betts, and teachers in the school, 
Thomas Long, Superintendent, Patterson McDade, and A. S. 
Barbee, afterwards Mayor. Rev. Mr. Betts in his prayer made 
"a beautiful and effective allusion to the present condition of 
the University." Rev. Mr. Bobbitt, then stationed at Chapel 
Hill, made an interesting and instructive address. A Bible was 
presented to Superintendent Long. Adjournment was then 
had to the campus. Hard-boiled partridge eggs were the main 

On August 7, 1873, the Old Davie Poplar was struck by 
lightning. The friends of the University were grieved, as if 
it were ominous of the fate of the University, but, although 
there was a rent through the bark at least from top to bottom, 
the noble tree survived the fiery attack. It was measured and 
two feet from the ground was 14 feet 6 inches in circumference. 
It was called the Old Poplar, as Governor Mosely, of Florida, 
testified, in 1818, when he' was a tutor here. Its shade was 
sufficiently abundant in 1793 to shelter the Trustees who 
located the buildings. Tradition has it that having eaten their 

38 History of University of North Carolina. 

humble snack, washed down by the bibulous refreshment usual 
in that day, qualified by pure water from the spring to the 
south of University Inn, they unanimously declared that it 
was impossible to find a more suitable plateau for the future 

Mrs. Spencer wrote from under the Poplar a touching and 
eloquent letter to the leading Raleigh journal. She then be- 
lieved that the lightning would be fatal. I give an extract. 
The program over which she memoralizes was in Governor 
Graham's Administration, i845-'49. 

"I have before me one of three Commencement programs 
to read which brings back a gush of warm, sweet, spring air, 
crowds the silent Campus with glowing, ardent youth, lights 
the halls with the fresh Beauty and Grace that once adorned 
them, sends the music of drum and trumpets floating through 
the tree tops, and crowns our riven old Poplar again with bud 
and bloom. Illustrissimo Gulielmo A. Graham, Armigero, 
Carolina: Septcntrionalis Reiptiblicce Gubernatori. 

"Can we not see him? Certainly the noblest figure there — 
calm, self-poised, and firm, his dark eye glancing over the 
crowd, not one of whom but is proud that day of him as a rep- 
resentative North Carolinian. 

"It is no everyday feeling of affectionate pride in the past, 
of pain in the present, of persistent hope for the future of the 
once honored University of our State that summons round the 
stricken and deserted old Poplar today one scene from the 
many it has waved over of glowing hope and glorious pros- 

On November 8, 1873, died a person long associated with 
the University at Chapel Hill, a notable and meritorious char- 
acter, Miss Nancy Segur Hilliard. She was described in my 
first volume and I add only a few items. She was born in 
Granville County, a daughter of William and Lucy (Walker) 
Hilliard. They removed to Chapel Hill in 181 7. She was well 
connected, being related to the Segurs, Pannills, Oteys, and 
Jeffreyses. When Mrs. Spencer made an appeal to the alumni 
for help for her while in a dying state and for contribution to 

Hard Times at Chapel Hill. 39 

her burial and the erection of an humble monument to her 
memory, an old student wrote advocating the pious scheme. 
He said, "We can name a judge, a lawyer, a preacher, and a 
doctor who carried weekly from her table a dollar's worth of 
ham and biscuit to eat at night. She made more money and 
did more work than any one woman in North Carolina." If 
those who owed her board would have paid their dues to her 
she would have been in comfortable circumstances. Her cook- 
ing was excellent, her fried chickens were known far and wide, 
their fame being carried by students and transient customers, 
as travelers were then called. The drivers of the stages would 
give notice afar off, by the music of their tin horns, as to the 
number to be provided for, and the meals would be ready and 
hot. Notwithstanding that she was not gifted with personal 
beauty there were few women in our State more deservedly 
popular with all classes than this good hard-working old maid. 
I do what I can to keep her memory green. Her heart was 

Perhaps no community in the South experienced greater 
losses than the village of Chapel Hill during and soon after 
the war. The deaths of its sons in battle (thirty-five in num- 
ber) were exceeded by none. Depending on the payments by 
students and professors, its merchants, mechanics and laborers 
had a precarious existence as long as this source of income 
was not entirely exhausted. But this dwindled into insignifi- 
cance as the numbers of students diminished and professors, 
one by one, departed to seek new homes. And then came the 
death of President Swain, the exodus of the remaining profes- 
sors and the temporary closing of the institution. For a 
short time the doors were reopened but invitations to the 
young men of the State were unheeded. Again were the doors 
closed and so remained for four years. The receipts of all 
dependent on the University were extinguished. Those who 
had no private income were forced to leave their homes. The 
village lost physicians, merchants, tradesmen, mechanics. It 
was called and well deserved the name of the "Deserted 

40 History of University of North Carolina. 

Throughout it all, notwithstanding it was evident that suc- 
cess was impossible, President Pool held to his office with tena- 
cious grasp. So, without duties, supporting his family by the 
emoluments of an office in the revenue service, he was still 
President of the University, until ejected by a decree of the 
court in 1875. His persistency was not in vain. He ob- 
tained from the General Assembly the unpaid principal and 
interest of his salary, his being a minister of the Gospel and 
in financial straits materially aiding his application. 

Another effect of the hard times through which the village 
passed was the removal of many cottages which had been 
built by the landowners for the accommodation of students 
of prosperous days, who were unable to procure lodging in the 
University Buildings. These cottages were torn down, or 
sold, some reerected a mile or so away on the neighboring 
farms. Thus disappeared from the map "Pandemonium," 
"Possum Quarter," the "Poor House," "Bat Hall," the "Crys- 
tal Palace," and other places dear to the ante-bellum students. 

A number of dwelling houses were left tenantless, grim re- 
minders of the University's closed doors. Many domiciles, 
being rented to families in meagre circumstances, had their 
vegetable gardens turned into cotton fields, and where the 
growth of the plant was dwarfed by the proximity of lordly 
trees many of these were felled and converted into firewood. 
One tenant, a Frenchman, used a room which had been the 
chamber of a popular young lady for a chicken coop. 

The losses were not confined to the village. The neighbor- 
ing farmers lost the sale of their produce ; the farmer's wife 
of her poultry, her eggs, and her butter. The financial blight 
was widespread. 

Of course the patronage formerly belonging to the Univer- 
sity was diverted to North Carolina colleges, or elsewhere. 
Many a youth at greater expense wended his way to the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, to Princeton, Cornell, Yale, or Harvard. 
Others remained at home or went into business. 

The buildings of the University were not in the best of 
condition when President Swain died. The deterioration, after 
they had been tenantless for several years, was pitiful. There 

Suspension. 41 

were cases of wanton mischief, there were many more of care- 
lessness and neglect. Many valuable books were scattered, 
many a valuable piece of apparatus handled to its injury by 
unskillful hands. 

The greatest depredation was on the woodland of the Uni- 
versity, peculiarly liable to suffer near a village where the 
guardianship of the owner has been withdrawn, still more cer- 
tainly when the forest belongs to a public institution. 

Closing of the Exercises. 

The responsibility of making the motion to suspend the exer- 
cises until further orders was taken by Rev. James Reid, of 
Franklin, at a meeting of Trustees December 1, 1870. 

Sensible action was taken in cutting off salaries of all the 
Faculty from February 1, 1871. Mr. James A. Graham's mo- 
tion made November 20, 1870, fixed the date December 1, 1870, 
but the later date was adopted on motion of Mr. James B. 
Mason. The record does not show that the President was ex- 
cepted, but he contended to the contrary. 

Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter and the Trustees residing at 
Chapel Hill were instructed to provide for the preservation of 
the University property. The Treasurer was ordered to take 
steps for paying the Board of Education for its loan and settle 
with the Faculty, but no means was placed in his hands. A 
resolution having in it something of the pathetic was that the 
Treasurer pay Professor Martling one hundred dollars to en- 
able him "to return to his home." The money was raised and 
Mr. Martling left the State. 

The members of the Executive Committee elected by the 
Trustees in 1870 were Rev. Dr. Xeill McKay, Judge E. G. 
Reade, and Dr. Wm. D. Whitted. The members of the Board 
of Education, viz., Tod R. Caldwell,. Governor ; Curtis H. 
Brogden, Lieutenant-Governor ; Wm. H. Howerton, Secretary 
of State ; John Reilly, Auditor ; David A. Jenkins, Treasurer ; 
Silas Burns, Superintendent of Public Works ; Alexander 
Mclver, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Tazewell L. 
Hargrove, Attorney-General, were the other members of the 
Executive Committee. It is an interesting: fact that Auditor 

42 History of University of North Carolina. 

Reilly was one of the six hundred who made the desperate 
cavalry charge, at Balaklava, immortalized by Tennyson. 

Of the Committee thus constituted Messrs. McKay, Reade, 
Whitted, Brogden, Howerton, Reilly, Jenkins, and Burns were 
not North Carolina University men and at least six of them had 
not attended any university or college. Only Messrs. Caldwell, 
Mclver, and Hargrove were alumni of this University — three 
out of eleven. No reflection is intended on the faithfulness 
of any one by this statement, but it is in accordance with 
human nature that keener interest is held and more effective 
work performed by the alumni of the institution than by 
others. Having more intimate knowledge of its past they 
know its needs and are more energetic in supplying them. Bet- 
ter work is done by men when their hearts are in it. 

At the annual meeting Treasurer Lassiter made an elabo- 
rate report, initiating no new measures, in general terms ex- 
patiating on the importance of reopening the University under 
good auspices, but confessing the hopelessness of success. 
There was no income. There were some claims of land in 
Tennessee, he said, to which the bar of the Statute of Limi- 
tations was effectually pleaded. 

On the whole, Mr. Lassiter's jeremiad led to no tangible 
result. The Board showed its want of appreciation of his 
labors by cutting down his salary to three hundred dollars 
and electing Dr. W. S. Whitted, of Henderson County, in his 
place. Mr. Whitted appears, however, not to have accepted 
the post and Mr. Lassiter continued to act. 

Another pursuit after the ignis fatnus of Tennessee lands 
was inaugurated. The attorney selected was Hyams T. John- 
son, of Humboldt, Tennessee, but nothing was done in conse- 
quence, possiblv for want of retaining fee. A shadowy claim 
for an escheat in England was likewise investigated, fruit- 
lessly of tangible results. 

A claim, which seemed to have more hopefulness was in- 
quired into by an able committee, at the head of which was 
Hon. Samuel F. Phillips, afterwards Solicitor-General of the 
United States. This arose under the will of Robert Donald- 
son, a wealthy resident of Hyde Park, New York, a graduate 

Efforts to Resuscitate the University. 43 

of this University, once a resident of Fayetteville. After him 
Donaldson Academy was named. He bequeathed a handsome 
amount to the University, to a large extent disinheriting his 
children, because, it is said, they joined the Roman Catholic 
Church, whereas he was a strict Presbyterian. It was found 
on investigation that the will was fatally defective under the 
laws of New York. 

The Trustees made a fortunate decision in regard to a 
request for donation of land at Chapel Hill. The School Com- 
mittee of Chapel Hill, Morgan Closs, W. H. Bunch, and 
H. C. Andrews, made application to the Board for two acres 
on the Pittsboro Road, next to the lot known as the Hubbard 
lot, to be used for a school for the colored. It was stated 
that it was distinctly understood that divers persons, friendly 
to education, would make liberal contributions for the erection 
of a schoolhouse. The Board declined to make the donation 
because the land was covered by mortgage. The lot so ap- 
plied for is now covered by pleasant residences occupied by 
white families, and the village school for the whites is located 
in the same neighborhood. That for the colored is in a part 
of the village inhabited by citizens of that race. 

Ineffectual Efforts to Resuscitate the University. 

On January 16, 1871, the Faculty had a meeting, President 
Pool absent. Professor Mclver offered a resolution, stating 
that no member of the Faculty desired to be in the way of the 
resuscitation of the University, and that it was evident that 
the present force did not have the confidence of the public. 
Professors Mclver and Patrick voted in the affirmative and 
Brewer in the negative. 

Professor Mclver, who had a full share of Scotch tenacity, 
on October 17, 1872, offered a resolution to secure a full reor- 
ganization of the Faculty. The preamble recites that the Pres- 
ident and Professors elected by the Executive Committee on 
January 1, 1869, had failed to make the University acceptable 
to the people of the State, the exercises of the institution have 
been suspended for two years, and the President and Profes- 
sors have engaged in other pursuits. 

44 History of University of North Carolina. 

The chairs of the members of the Faculty were then to be 
declared vacant, and the best qualified were to be elected to 
take their places "without any reference to political party." It 
was found that nothing could be done. A committee was ap- 
pointed to confer with leading alumni and ascertain the terms 
on which they would come to the relief of their Alma Mater. 
This led to no tangible result. 

But for the help of the Board of Education the institution 
would have come to an untimely end sooner than it did. In 
1869, $6,000 was borrowed from the Board, largely on pledge 
of State bonds; in 1870, $7,691.15, making a total of $13,- 
697.60. Payments on this debt were as follows: In 1873, 
$1,424.50; in 1874, $1,070; total, $2,494.50, leaving $11,203. 
But the Board claimed interest on the loans, making a total 
debt of $17,296.10. As the North Carolina bonds belonged to 
the Land Scrip Fund, it was really unlawful to pledge them, 
but there was no public criticism of the transaction. In 1875 
the General Assembly concluded to restore the principal of the 

An effort was contemplated at this time to obtain relief from 
the mortgage to the Bank of North Carolina. Action was be- 
gun in State Courts. Attorney-General Hargrove and Super- 
intendent Mclver were appointed the committee to act with the 
Governor to secure this end. The movement led to no result. 

An adjourned meeting on the 13th February, 1873, was 
agreed to, with the intent to consider means for resuscitation of 
the University. In the meantime Superintendent Mclver was 
instructed to memorialize the General Assembly in relation to 
the Land Scrip Fund with the view to procure payment on 
interest on the bonds. The request met with no response. 

At this meeting, the last, as appears by the minutes of the 
Board, no steps were taken to revive the institution. Mr. Ed. 
Graham Haywood was heard in advocacy of the legality of the 
suit, dismissed for want of jurisdiction by Judges Bond and 
Brooks, and the committee heretofore appointed on the subject 
were authorized, if they deemed it advisable, to appeal to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 

This suit, as has been explained, was in the name of the 

Efforts to Resuscitate the University. 45 

State in the Federal Court to set aside the mortgage to the 
bank and declare the debt void. Lawyers generally thought 
that Air. Haywood's eloquence and learning were exerted to 
prove a legal absurdity. 

In July, 1873, there was held, at the instance of the State 
Board of Education, a State Educational Convention in which 
the resuscitation of the University was discussed. Hon. B. F. 
Moore was President. The Vice-Presidents were Rev. Dr. 
Braxton Craven of Trinity College, Professor Stephens of 
Peace Institute, Judge D. A. Barnes, and Dr. S. S. Satchwell. 
The secretaries were Professors O. W. Carr and John E. 

On motion of Dr. Craven a committee of three was ap- 
pointed to report: (1) On the school law; (2) the University; 
(3) Normal Schools; and (4) on a permanent organ of the 
Convention. He was then called on for an address, which he 
delivered in good style and with his usual thoughtfulness and 
ability. He chose as his subject, "The Teacher." He was fol- 
lowed by the Rev. Mr. Doub. Major Robert Bingham then 
gave an excellent lecture on "Our University." He was fol- 
lowed by Rev. Dr. Wingate. A committee on the University 
was appointed, composed of Rev. Dr. N. McKay, Rev. A. W. 
Mangum, Mr. J. H. Mills, Mr. J. G. Elliott, and Mr. J. M. 
Love joy. 

Dr. McKay reported a' resolution that the revival of the 
University at the earliest practicable moment is essential to the 
thorough improvement of the education of the people. It was 
supported by Messrs. Lovejoy and Wingate. Dr. Craven ex- 
pressed himself in favor of a University provided that it should 
be not in name only and no better than a college. It should be 
fit to send out broad, highminded men. All denominations too 
should be represented. 

Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard agreed with Dr. Craven that all 
denominations should be represented. That to which he be- 
longed, the Baptist, by far the largest in the State, had never 
been represented. The institution should be administered on 
fair and just principles. 

This speech aroused Rev. A. W. Mangum, who alleged that 

46 History of University of North Carolina. 

the Methodists were just as numerous as the Baptists. He 
contended that the Methodists should have representation. 
The Board of Trustees should be fair. Mr. J. W. Norwood 
agreed with Dr. Mangum, but pronounced his remarks out of 
place at this time. The report was then adopted unanimously. 

Mr. Thomas M. Argo offered a resolution that the University 
should be entirely removed from the field of political and 
religious controversy. Mr. Fuller moved its adoption, but Rev. 
Joseph M. Atkinson and Judge A. A. McKoy opposed it on the 
ground that it was equivalent to discarding the Christian re- 
ligion. Mr. R. B. Peebles moved to change "religious" into 
"denominational," so that the resolution should read, "In the 
opinion of this convention the early revival of the University 
and establishment in a position of dignity and usefulness is 
impossible unless upon a basis entirely impartial in denomina- 
tional and political representation." This passed unanimously. 

Superintendent Mclver induced a number of the Trus- 
tees to invite a meeting of the Alumni Association of the 
University in the Senate Chamber on the 1st of February, 
1873, with the object of devising means for the revival of the 
University. The invitation was accepted, fifty-five being in 
attendance, among them Mr. B. F. Moore, Judge Battle, 
Judge Pearson, Col. Daniel M. Barringer, General Clingman, 
Judge Rodman, Governor Caldwell, Hon. S. F. Phillips, Judge 
Dick, Col. W. L. Saunders, Messrs. William and Robert Bing- 
ham, Professor Mclver, Judge Gilmer, Judge McNeill, Mr. 
K. P. Battle, and others of like weight in the community.. Mr. 
B. F. Moore was called to the chair. Justices E. G. Reade and 
Nathaniel Boyden were elected honorary members. 

Judge Battle's motion that a committee of five be appointed 
to confer with the committee of Trustees, who had been ap- 
pointed and had called this meeting, was concurred in and the 
chair appointed Messrs. W. H. Battle, W. A. Graham, R. M. 
Pearson, and R. P. Dick, and the chairman was added by vote 
of the alumni. Adjournment was then had until next after- 

The committee, through its chairman, made a long report, 
dwelling on the importance of the University to the State and 

Letter of Superintendent McIyer. 47 

the good that it had done in the past, on the necessity of 
freedom from party politics and sectarian influences, and con- 
cluding that there should be an entirely new Faculty and new- 
Board of Trustees. To this end it was proposed that the 
appointment of Trustees should be in the hands of the Alumni 
Association, whose love for the University would always make 
them act for its best interests. Let the Alumni Association 
nominate and, as the Constitution requires, let the Board of 
Education appoint. To effect this let the present Trustees re- 
sign their places. 

There were three objections to this scheme, understood to be 
that of Superintendent M elver. These were : First, the at- 
tempt to procure the resignation of the Trustees ; second, the 
necessity of the Board of Education acting as dummies and 
appointing the nominees of the Alumni Association ; third, 
being founded on comity and not on law, it could not be ex- 
pected to continue long in working order. There was no 
formal appeal to the Trustees to surrender their posts. Noth- 
ing further was heard of the reorganization. 

In order to be perfectly fair towards the "Pool Administra- 
tion," I give the following letter from Professor Alexander 
Mclver, who told the truth as he saw it: 

CinorocK, N. C, June 4, 1900. 
Hox. Kemp P. Battle. 

My Deab Sir: — At your request, I give my recollections of the 
University under the Trustees of 1868. 

When Mr. Dewey, assignee of the State Bank, gave notice to Gov- 
ernor Caldwell of his purpose to sell the University buildings, etc., 
under the mortgage to the bank, the Governor requested me to see 
Mr. E. G. Haywood and get him to attend to the case. I called to see 
Mr. Haywood at his home and requested him to attend to the case, in 
the bankrupt court. He asked: By whose authority do you make 
the request? I answered, By the authority of the Trustees of the 
University. That Governor Caldwell as president and I as secre- 
tary of the Board of Trustees thought that the suits which he had 
brought for the University contained the defense which should be 
made in the bankrupt suit, and that, if he would defend that suit, 
it would terminate his legal services in the suits which he had 
brought. He agreed to this and did attend to the bankrupt suit 
without any additional fee. He gained the case, and by the decision 

48 History of University of North Carolina. 

made by Chief Justice Waite he gained what he had sued for, to 
wit: the release of the University property from the mortgages 
which the old Board of Trustees had placed upon it. 

Besides relieving the University property of its mortgages, the 
Trustees of 1868, in a meeting held in the Executive Office, declared 
their willingness to resign if the Alumni Association of the Univer- 
sity would come to the relief of the University and aid in reorganiz- 
ing it, by naming a Board of Trustees to be appointed by the State 
Board of Education, that would restore patronage and confidence. 
Only four or five of the present Trustees gave their assent to this. 
Others did not answer. Senators John Pool and General Abbott and 
Judge Settle voted against it. Chief Justice Pearson made a very 
able and patriotic talk in favor of it and carried it by a large 

The Alumni Association met in the Senate Chamber, Hon. B. F. 
Moore, president. The offer of the Trustees of the University was 
made to them by the secretary of the Trustees. It was received 
with the utmost good will and a favorable response was given: that 
they would do all in their power to revive the University and restore 
it to public favor. 

The State Educational Association, of which your honored father 
was president, and which he pronounced the ablest body of men that 
ever assembled in North Carolina, gave its most cordial support to 
the University. It was the spirit of good will coming from all these 
sources that breathed upon the dry bones of the University and 
made them live. These movements all terminated in the larger 
movement to restore the University by Constitutional Amendment. 
But they all had their uses as essential parts of the revival in 1875. 
But for the action of the Trustees of 1868 in preventing the sale of 
the property it might have passed into private hands. But for the 
movements of all parties to restore it, it would have become heavy 
on the public. 

The Trustees no doubt made a sad mistake in electing a Faculty 
in 1869, and attempting to start the University at a time of so much 
political excitement and prejudice. The Faculty themselves saw this 
mistake, and, not willing to hold their places without suitable 
patronage, tendered their resignations and relinquished more than 
half their salaries which had not been paid. The Trustees wishing 
to retrieve their mistake so far as they could, accepted their resig- 
nations and closed the University in 1870, and left the different 
members in the houses which they occupied upon the condition that 
they would protect the property of the University. The Trustees 
themselves shortly afterwards offered to resign as Trustees if the 
Alumni Association would restore it to confidence and good will. 
But they took care of the property and turned it over to their suc- 
cessors under the Constitutional Amendment, redeemed, regenerated, 

Debt to Bank of North Carolina. 49 

and disenthralled, as Governor Caldwell assured your father in the 
Convention of 1873 he would do. The great fact to be emphasized 
is: that good will toward the University from all parties is what 
restored the University in 1875. 

With utmost respect, 

Alex. McIver, 
Ex-Superintendent of Public Instruction and 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees of 1868. 

A few comments are made on Professor Mclver's state- 
ments. The decision of the Court did not "release the Uni- 
versity property from the mortgages." It cleared only such 
property as was essential to the life of the University as a 
State institution. 

It remained for the new 1874 Board to obtain a decree 
defining this exempted property. They succeeded beyond ex- 
pectation, by the liberality of the Court, as will be seen here- 
after. The McIver Board had no part in this. The Professor 
lays stress on the fact that the old Board had mortgaged the 
University property. But even if they had not done so the 
creditors would have obtained a judgment at law, which would 
have bound the property as strongly as the mortgage. The 
movement to induce the Trustees of 1868 to resign proved to 
be chimerical. It led to no result. A majority of the Trustees 
did not resign. They refused their consent to hold their places 
in trust for the nominees of the Board of Education. Xor did 
the friends of the University offer any pecuniary support. 
There was a settled conviction that the absence of the assent 
of a large majority of the Trustees of 1868 was equivalent to 
a defeat of the plan. A change of the Constitution giving the 
appointment of Trustees to the General Assembly, instead of 
to the Board of Education, was imperatively necessary to the 
revival of the University. In this movement many leaders of 
both political parties, Professor McIver included, cooperated. 

When the mortgage to the bank was executed it was thought 
to be for the advantage of the University to carry into effect a 
compromise by which the debt to the Bank of North Carolina 
was reduced three-fourths, from $90,000 and interest to 
$25,000 in gold, or $35,700 in currency. It was hoped that 

50 History of University of North Carolina. 

enough could be borrowed to liquidate the indebtedness. Pres- 
ident Swain's futile trip to New York was for the purpose of 
negotiating the loan. As to the claim that the University's 
property was saved by the Board of 1868, it is quite certain 
that the Board of 1874 would have brought the question up for 
adjudication, if that of 1868 had not anticipated them. 

Constitutional Amendment. New Trustees. 

Finding that the public demanded a number of amendments 
to the Constitution by the method of legislative enactment, the 
friends of the University procured in 1871 the passage by the 
necessary three-fifths majority of an ordinance taking the 
election of Trustees from the Board of Education and giving 
it to the General Assembly. This became a part of the Consti- 
tution in August, 1873, after a favoring vote by the people and 
a two-thirds vote of a second General Assembly. 

Public opinion gave the credit of the passage of this measure 
through the General Assembly in 1871 to two University 
alumni, brothers-in-law, Montford McGehee of the Class of 
1841, and Richard C. Badger of that of 1859, the former a 
Democrat, the latter a Republican. They united their strength 
and influence in behalf of the University and thus secured the 
necessary three-fifths and two-thirds majority. The amend- 
ment was afterwards incorporated in the Constitution of 1876. 

The Assembly determined by Act of January 28, 1874, to 
delegate the management to sixty-four Trustees, elected by 
joint ballot. Only two of the last Board were reelected — Rev. 
Dr. Neill McKay and James A. Graham. Of those deprived 
of their offices in 1868 were found on the new Board, William 
H. Battle, first elected in 1833; William A. Graham, in 1834; 
Charles Manly, in 1838; Bartholomew F. Moore, in 1840; John 
Kerr, in 1846; Cushing B. Hassell, in 1848; Walter L. Steele, 
in 1852; Paul C. Cameron, in 1858; Rufus L. Patterson, in 
1858; Thomas I. McDowell, in 1858; Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, in 
1862; Kemp P. Battle, in 1862; David M. Carter, in 1864; Sea- 
ton Gales, in 1865. 

The new Board first met in the Citizens National Bank in 
Raleigh on the 18th February, 1874. William A. Graham was, 

New Trustees. 51 

on motion of Paul C. Cameron, elected temporary Chairman, 
and on motion of W. L. Steele, Wm. L. Saunders was 
appointed Secretary pro tempore. A certificate, signed by W. 
L. Saunders, Clerk of the Senate, and S. D. Pool, Clerk of the 
House, giving the names of the Trustees elected, was read. 
The following were present, their names in alphabetical order : 
James S. Amis, Kemp P. Battle, Paul C. Cameron, John E. 
Dugger, W. T. Faircloth, B. F. Grady, Wm. A. Graham, James 
A. Graham, John A. Gilmer, Junior, George Green, Louis Hil- 
liard, John Manning, P. B. Means, W. L. Saunders, Walter 
L. Steele, fifteen, ten being a quorum. It was then unani- 
mously resolved that a committee, of which Mr. Manning 
should be chairman, should wait on Gov. Tod R. Caldwell and 
request him to preside at the meeting. His Excellency de- 
clined, because, in his opinion, the General Assembly had no 
power to elect Trustees, but that they should have been nomi- 
nated by himself and confirmed by the Senate. 

Notwithstanding this rebuff the Board continued its sessions. 
On motion of W. L. Steele, Wm. A. Graham was elected Presi- 
dent of the Board. Kemp P. Battle was elected permanent 
Secretary and Treasurer and authorized to demand of the late 
Treasurer all effects in his hands belonging to the University. 
William A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, K. P. Battle, John Man- 
ning, W. L. Saunders, W. T. Faircloth, and John A. Gilmer 
were chosen to be the Executive Committee. The Board by 
lot divided the members into four classes, the terms of those 
of the first, second, third, and fourth classes expiring on the 
30th days of November, 1875, 1877, 1879, an d 1881, respec- 
tively. The bond of the Secretary-Treasurer was fixed at 
$20,000, a sum so large as to suggest the hopes of the Trus- 
tees as to future incomes rather than the present bank account. 

The next day, on motion of W. A. Graham, Messrs. Steele, 
Cameron, and Saunders were appointed a committee to visit 
Chapel Hill, and report the condition of the University build- 
ings and other property and of the available funds. 

Messrs. W. A. Graham, J. J. Davis, and K. P. Battle were 
appointed to take steps for bringing the validity of the appoint- 
ment of the Trustees to judicial determination. 

52 History of University of North Carolina. 

Fortunately for the speedy settlement of this question, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer Lassiter, being a resident of Granville, 
had deposited the seal of the University and the books relat- 
ing to his office in the office of Superintendent Mclver. The 
Superintendent, being in sympathy with the new Trustees, 
readily consented that suit might be instituted against him for 
the possession of this property and to expedite the case as much 
as possible. Consequently one action was brought against 
him and another against President Pool at the May, 1874, 
term of Orange Superior Court. 

On motion of W. A. Graham, a committee was ap- 
pointed to solicit from friends of the University donations 
outright or in establishment of scholarships and professorships. 
Owing to the declining health of the Chairman this committee 
did not report. 

Mr. P. B. Means moved that a committee be appointed to 
frame a plan of organization, according to the most approved 
models. It does not appear that this committee reported. 

The following points were made by the defendants against 
the validity of the new Board : 

1. That the Constitution required that all officers, not other- 
wise provided for in the Constitution, should be nominated 
by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate. 

2. That, as the General Assembly in 1873 voted for twenty- 
six amendments, and after publication, as required by the Con- 
stitution of 1868, the following General Assembly by a two- 
thirds vote submitted to a vote of the people only nine amend- 
ments, the provisions of the Constitution of 1868 had not been 
complied with. It was contended that the identical twenty-six 
amendments should have been submitted to the people or none 
at all. 

On behalf of the University, Messrs. John W. Graham and 
James A. Graham appeared in the Superior Court, refusing to 
accept a fee for their services. The Judge, Tourgee, decided 
against them and appeal was taken to the Supreme Court at its 
June Term, 1874. 

In that Court, in June, 1874, Hon. B. F. Moore and ex- 
Judge William H. Battle, who had been classmates at the Uni- 

Report of Steele Committee. 53 

versity, graduating in 1820, argued the question for their Alma 
Mater, likewise without charge. At the January Term, 1875, 
the decision was for the University on all points. 

The possession of the property of the institution was then 
surrendered to Andrew Mickle, the agent appointed by the new 
Executive Committee, and the seal, books, and papers in the 
custody of Superintendent Mclver were turned over to Treas- 
urer Battle. Ex-Treasurer Lassiter also surrendered the 
bonds belonging to the Land Scrip Fund not pledged to the 
Bureau of Education, with the exception of five, which he 
had pledged to the State National Bank as collateral security 
for a loan to pay his own salary. This latter transaction was 
disapproved by the Board, and suit being instituted on the 
Treasurer's bond, recovery was duly had. 

Report of the Steele Committee. 

The next meeting of the Trustees was on April 9, 1874. 
Messrs. Fourney George, Mills L. Eure, Thomas D. McDowell, 
W. W. Peebles, and John H. Thorpe, who were not present at 
the preceding meeting, took their seats. 

An elaborate report was submitted, prepared by W. L. 
Steele, Chairman. He was a strong man, not used to give 
way to his feelings, but in a few words he showed how deeply 
he felt at the condition of his Alma Mater. 

"In company with P. C. Cameron, on April 3, I visited 
Chapel Hill on a special mission given us by the Board of 
Trustees to inspect the condition of the prostrate University. 
Never shall I forget the sadness that overpowered me when 
my eyes fell for the first time upon the ruined spot. It was 
akin to that which swells within my bosom when I stand be- 
fore the grave of my mother. With dejected hearts we per- 
formed the duty assigned us, as well as we were allowed to 
by those who were then assumed to be in authority there, and 
left inspired with a firm purpose as far as we could to raise 
her from the ashes of humiliation and place her once more 
upon the elevation from which rude hands hurled her, and 
restore her to her ancient prerogative and power." 

I abbreviate the rest of the report. 

54 History of University of North Carolina. 

A written request was made of Dr. Pool for the keys and 
possession of the buildings. He declined to surrender their 
custody, on the ground that the Governor had refused to recog- 
nize the Trustees as lawfully elected, but allowed the com- 
mittee the privileges of visitors. Accordingly they inspected 
all the buildings, except Smith Hall, the key of which was in 
the possession of Mr. James B. Mason, and made a full report 
as to their condition. They found that there was need of ex- 
tensive repairs. The Dialectic Hall and Library were in good 
order. The books numbered 7,490. The Philanthropic Hall 
and Library were in worse condition than the Dialectic. The 
committee were informed that several hundred of the books 
were scattered among the inhabitants of the village, most of 
which could probably be recovered; 6,901 volumes were counted 
on the shelves. 

It may be interesting to our alumni to condense the com- 
mittee's description of the buildings as they were in 1874, 
eight in number. 

1. Person Hall, or "the Old Chapel," 36 by 54 feet, one 
story high. 

2. The "New West Building," 40 by 114 feet, three stories 
in height. It has 14 dormitories 16 by 18 feet, and the Dia- 
lectic Society Hall and Library, 36 by 56 feet. It was in a 
better condition than any other. 

3. The "Old West," 36 by 120 feet, three stories, with 
twenty-eight sleeping rooms, 16 by 18 feet, with two halls 30 
by 36 feet, lately used by the Dialectic Society for a Debating 
Hall and for a Library. Besides some broken sashes and 
many window panes, "the lower rooms in the South end were 
open, and the passage defiled by the ordure of cattle and 
horses." ( This confirms the statement of an old inhabitant 
that he had seen horses looking out of the windows of the 
Old West.) 

4. The Old East is of the same size as the Old West. 
Doors were broken, mantels fallen, floors covered with broken 
plaster, one floor badly cut with an axe ; all except the outer 
walls presenting an aspect of neglect and ruin ; in many fire- 
places the iron supporting the arches had been removed. 

Report of Steele Committee. 55 

5. The New East has a size of 40 by 116 feet, four stories 
high. It has twenty-two dormitories, 16 by 18 feet, and the 
Debating Hall and Library of the Philanthropic Society, each 
36 by 54 feet. It is most illy constructed of all the buildings. 
Too much inferior mortar was used, resulting in the falling of 
the stucco in some places. Many window panes were broken. 
This and the New West were intended to be heated with pipes. 
The heating apparatus is in bad condition and must be re- 
paired before the winter months. 

6. Smith Hall, usually called the Ball Room, has a length 
of 122 feet and a width of 35 feet. The committee were told 
that the chemical and philosophical apparatus and the cabinet 
of minerals were somewhere in this building, but being denied 
access to it they could not verify the statement. 

7. • The South Building is 50 by 116 feet, with an attic and 
belfry. It has twenty-four dormitories, 16 by 18 feet, and 
two only 12 by 15 feet. There are two recitation rooms 28 
by 36 and three 20 by 30. The front second story room, 
known as the Mathematical Room, or, as President Swain loved 
to call it, the Philosophical Chamber, was open, evidently by 
a key, and some valuable instruments belonging to the Engi- 
neering Department were exposed to damage and removal. 
The opposite room on the North side, used by the President 
for his lectures, was locked. Extensive repairs on doors, win- 
dows, plastering and roofs are needed. One exception is the 
old Dialectic Hall. The overhead plastering, where are the 
gilded name and motto of the Society, look as fresh and 
bright as they did over forty years ago. 

8. Gerrard Hall, or the "New Chapel," is 45 by 64 feet. 
The wooden shingles laid on forty years ago need replacing 
and some sashes reglazing. 

Mr. Foster Utley, the former college carpenter, and now 
reelected, estimated the repairs at about $3,000, but this was 
too low by one hundred per cent. (The opinion of the commit- 
tee, very experienced men, turned out to be correct.) 

The Campus was in a state of total neglect. The wall was 
broken in some places, the gates rotted down, the beautiful 
shrubberv srrazed and broken into. The two excellent wells 

56 History of University of North Carolina. 

were in ruins, the embankment around the Old East and Old 
West defaced and trodden down, and the old oaks in many 
places scarred and chopped with the axes of wood choppers. 
(It must be remembered, in justice to the Pool management, 
that cattle and hogs were not yet shut up by law and hence, en- 
tering by the open gate, they worked their way among the 
treasured preserves of the Campus.) The committee found it a 
ground of censure that the drivers of vehicles were allowed to 
go to the Raleigh Road, passing by the South Building. (It 
had been the policy of the Faculty to keep the buildings iso- 
lated, but this has been abandoned, the road legalized by subse- 
quent administrations, and named Cameron Avenue. It is 
bordered by beautiful Norway maples, planted by the bounty 
of the Trustee in whose honor it is named.) 

There were four residences, the report states, belonging to 
the University, then in the hands of renters. The shrubbery 
of one or more of the gardens had been cut down and had 
given place to cotton. There was a generally neglected look. 
The piazzas were sadly decayed. 

There were eleven vacant lots of size varying from one to 
eight acres, in the occupancy of various persons, whether pay- 
ing rent the committee could not ascertain. 

The University owned a large area of land in Buncombe, 
Henderson, and Madison counties, the particulars of which 
could not be ascertained. ( Information in regard to this tract 
will be given hereafter, also in regard to the John Calvin 
McNair tract in Robeson County.) 

It was recommended that suit against Dr. Pool for posses- 
sion of the property of the University should be instituted at 

The committee then gave extracts from the report of Treas- 
urer Lassiter to the former Board, criticising sharply his in- 
vestment of a large part of the Land Scrip Fund in Special 
Tax bonds. It was said "he should have known that these 
bonds bore a suspicious character." Some of the purchases, as 
the committee were informed, were made even after the Gen- 
eral Assembly set upon them its seal of condemnation. (The 
fact that most of the Special Tax bonds purchased were of a 

Debts of the University. ^j 

peculiarly obnoxious class, having been issued for the Western 
Division of the Western North Carolina Railroad, of which 
George W. Swepson was president, might have been men- 
tioned as increasing the in judiciousness of the purchase. All 
acts appropriating special tax and some other bonds to railroad 
companies were repealed March 8, 1870.) 

The report is signed by Walter L. Steele, Paul C. Cameron, 
and William L. Saunders. They were devoted and sagacious 
friends of the University, Colonel Steele and Mr. Cameron 
Trustees for years under the old regime ; Colonel Saunders was 
Secretary of State, and soon afterwards was Secretary and 
Treasurer of the University as well. 

Treasurer Battle reported that he found the creditors of 
the University, except the assignee of the Bank of North 
Carolina in bankruptcy, not disposed to harass it. The bank's 
debt of $35,000, secured by mortgage, could have no more 
favorable terms because R. Y. McAden and one Wilson had 
procured an injunction against further compromise. Miss 
Mildred C. Cameron's debt of $10,000 and ten years interest 
can be funded into long term bonds at six per cent interest. 
Mrs. Eleanor H. Swain, the widow of President Swain, holds 
a note for $3,000, for money lent to aid in building the New 
East and New West, and about $2,300 bonds issued to pay the 
Faculty. About $2,000 of bonds issued for the same purpose 
held by other persons, the owners offer to compromise on 
the most liberal terms. So it appears that if the debt due the 
bank can be got out of the way, there would be no great 
difficulty in freeing the University from pecuniary obligations. 
The debts could be the more easily settled if the Supreme 
Court should decide that the property of the University, which 
belongs to the State as much as the Capitol Building, court- 
houses and jails, can not be alienated, voluntarily or involun- 
tarily, by the Trustees or by creditors. 

The only solvent assets, counting State bonds not repudi- 
ated, are $18,410.64 securities pledged as collateral to pay 
the Faculty and repay the Board of Education, and also the 
escheated mountain lands. 

58 History of University of North Carolina. 

Suit in Bankruptcy. 

The friends of the University were afterwards greatly en- 
couraged by a decision of the Circuit Court of the United 
States at the June Term. 1874. A short statement of facts is 
necessary to make this clear. 

From 1789 it had been supposed by the best legal talent 
that all the property of the University was subject to sale by 
the Trustees. When the war ended it had $200,000 worthless 
bank stock and owed about $20,000 to individuals and over 
$90,000 to the bank. It was thought to be a good arrange- 
ment to compromise this bank debt for $25,000 in gold or 
$35,700 in paper currency. The bank agreed to this, on condi- 
tion that a mortgage should be made covering all the property 
of the University, which was done. When the institu- 
tion passed into the hands of the new Trustees, in 1868, 
they employed counsel to contest the validity of the mortgage. 
By consent of the Attorney-General, Mr. W. M. Coleman, suit 
was brought in the Circuit Court of the United States in the 
name of the State, returnable in June Term, 1869, asking for 
a decree nullifying the mortgage. This bill was dismissed for 
want of jurisdiction. 

In 1874, Charles Dewey, assignee in bankruptcy, brought 
suit to have the property of the University sold under the 
mortgage. This was resisted by order of Governor Caldwell 
and the Executive Committee on the ground that, as the State 
Supreme Court had already decided that property of counties 
and other municipal corporations could not be sold without the 
consent of the Legislature, the property of the University, 
being a State institution, was similarly protected. 

At June Term. 1874, the Circuit Court, Chief Justice Waite, 
Circuit Judge Hugh L. Bond, and the District Judge, George 
W. Brooks, unanimously decided that the bank debt was valid, 
but that neither the judgment creditor nor the Trustees them- 
selves had power to alienate such property as constituted the 
life of the University, as distinct from the endowment for its 
support. Mr. George H. Snow, a prominent lawyer of Ra- 
leigh, was appointed Commissioner to report as to what per- 

Suit in Bankruptcy. 59 

sonal and real property should be exempt from sale under the 
foregoing decree. 

On motion of ex-Governor Graham, Messrs. P. C. Cameron, 
John Manning, and Kemp P. Battle were instructed to meet 
the Commissioner and represent the University's interest. 

Although anticipating, it is well to finish the story now. 
The committee and the Commissioner met at Chapel Hill in 
the summer of 1874. The impoverished village had no hotel 
nor boarding house and they were the invited guests of pri- 
vate families, Mr. Snow going to Air. S. M. Barbee's, Mr. 
Manning to Dr. Mallett's, Mr. Cameron to Mr. Mickle's, Mr. 
Battle to Mrs. Spencer's. A careful inspection was made of 
buildings, apparatus, libraries, Campus, and Faculty residences. 
The Commissioner reserved his decision and report. 

Before making his final report the Commissioner consulted 
Judge Bond. The Judge said, "B e libe ral, it is for the educa- 
tion of the young men of the country. Be liberal !" The Com- 
missioner replied, "For instance. Judge, some say that the Pro- 
fessors' houses are not necessary, that the Professors could 
have rooms in the University buildings." "Yes," said the 
Judge, "they could be hung up on the trees. Be liberal." And 
so the Commissioner made a liberal report. 

The chief difficulty was about the 700 acres of woodland. 
Fortunately the most of it was in a solid block from the Dur- 
ham to the Pittsboro Road. I was able to prove that I applied 
to President Swain in behalf of friends to purchase lots south 
of the town, and was peremptorily refused, on the ground 
that it was the policy of the University to confine sales to the 
north and west, so as to have no settlements south, southeast, 
and southwest of the Campus. It was thought that it would 
be difficult to preserve discipline if the dormitories and lecture 
halls should be surrounded by a cordon of citizens, with their 
colored dependents. As Colonel Carter said, in advocating 
the confirmation of the report, "Why, may it please your 
honor, Chapel Hill has only one policeman, and he is lame. 
He could not outrun a student if one pursued him." The re- 
sult was the Court gave the University the Campus and 600 
acres of land, all houses, libraries, and property appurtenant. 

60 History of University of North Carolina. 

There is a parcel of seventy acres called the Piney Pros- 
pect rectangle, which was ordered to be sold, although it was 
between the roads mentioned. The Judge was moved to do 
this because the map showed that it was comparatively 
isolated, its nearest point being half a mile from the Campus. 
The loss is to be regretted because it contains the Point Pros- 
pect mentioned by Governor Davie, and is often visited by stu- 
dents. At present it is in friendly hands but in unfriendly 
hands it might be withdrawn from public recreation. "Point," 
in old times was called "Pi'nt," hence the change of name to 
"Piney" Prospect. 

When the sale of the lands not reserved to the University 
was had, Mr. P. C. Cameron, in order to save his sister's debt, 
bought all the parcels offered. He also bought the mountain 
lands* and by his various purchases more than paid the debt to 
his sister. Much of it has been since sold by his executors and 
the Piney Prospect rectangle is now owned by a Land Com- 
pany, Prof. Patrick Henry Winston being a large stockholder. 

The decision of the Circuit Court was sustained by the fol- 
lowing reasoning: As long ago as 1852, in the case of Univer- 
sity v. Maultsby, 8 Iredell Equity, 257, it was decided by our 
Supreme Court that the University is State property. What 
is therefore its life as an institution of learning the Trustees 
can not sell nor mortgage, nor can the judgment creditor seize 
it, any more than he could the Capitol Square or a courthouse. 
But property constituting endowment the Trustees control. 
They can change it from one investment to another. The in- 
vestment in bank stock was perfectly legitimate. It was made 
by express permission of the General Assembly. The bank 
stock was merely an exchange for other funds. The fact of its 
afterwards losing its value, can not affect the law. The Uni- 
versity has yet the $200,000 stock. Why President Swain, who 
turned his own bank stock into land, and Treasurer Manly, did 
not urge the Trustees to sell during the war enough stock to 
pay off the University debts, can only be accounted for by the 

*The mountain land was an escheat of many thousand acres, the extent of which was 
unknown until surveyed afterwards. 

The University's Assets. 6i 

general excitement and unreasoning wrath against public of- 
ficials exhibiting any particle of distrust of the success of the 
Confederacy. They doubtless feared that not only themselves, 
but the institution would become odious to the hotheads of 
the South. If the Confederacy had been established the Bank 
would have remained solvent. Besides, the investment having 
been authorized by the General Assembly it may be that a 
sale could not be made without the approval of that body. 

The Board of Trustees convened on February 10, 1875, in 
the Governor's office, Governor Brogden presiding. The Trus- 
tees present were Messrs. Amis, K. P. Battle, Cameron, Car- 
ter, J. J. Davis, Day, Dugger, Faircloth, Grady, Wm. A. Gra- 
ham, Jas. A. Graham, Kerr, McKay, Means, Patterson, Peebles, 
Saunders, Shaw, Steele, and Tate. 

Treasurer Battle reported that ex-Treasurer Lassiter had 
turned over to him most of the securities of the University. 
The assets were of a deplorable nature. About $10,000 were 
either in Confederate bonds, or due by insolvent individuals. 
The $200,000 stock in the Bank of Xorth Carolina was not 
worth one dollar. There were $5,500 bonds of the City of 
Wilmington valued at about $2,200; $10,000 State of Virginia 
bonds, if at par $11,200 worth about $6,900, and $1,500 of 
solvent individual securities, all of which were especially 
pledged for the eight per cents issued to pay the Faculty, and 
for $8,800 to the Board of Education in addition. There was 
a $2,500 claim supposed to have escheated but the rightful 
heiress soon appeared and carried that off — or rather her attor- 
ney did, for she never realized a cent for it. 

One hundred and twenty-five, thousand dollars in good 
money, the proceeds of the sale of Land Scrip granted by the 
United States chiefly for instruction in the principles of agri- 
cultural and mechanic arts, was turned over by Treasurer 
Manly to R. W. Lassiter, holding the same office. What was 
the condition of that fund in 1874? 

Treasurer Lassiter reported that he had invested this sum 
in bonds of this State as follows : Forty bonds issued before 
the war, $40,000 ; 40 bonds issued under the Funding Acts and 

62 History of University of North Carolina. 

to the Western North Carolina Railroad Company, not Special 
Tax, $40,000; Special Tax bonds, $160,000. Total cost, $120,- 
000; leaving $5,000 in the Treasury. 

All should have coupons from January 1, 1869, except $6,000 
issued to the North Carolina Railroad Company, which was 
under the Swazey suit, 80 per cent of coupons from January 1, 
1864, to January 1, 1872, paid in cash. Twenty thousand dol- 
lars in bonds of the above, belonging to the Land Scrip Fund, 
were pledged with the Board of Education for $6,000, as 
already stated. There was also a receipt of the Board of Edu- 
cation for ante-war bonds, pledged for balance of a loan of 

Treasurer Battle further reported that he had received of 
Gen. R. Barringer, attorney, $1,516.80 escheat of J. B. Wallace 
and expended $6.25, leaving cash on hand $1,510.55. 

Mr. Mickle, Bursar, reported books on hand, University 
Library, 8,394 volumes ; Dialectic Library, 6,943 volumes ; 
Philanthropic Library, 6,905 volumes. The mathematical and 
other apparatus for instruction were much scattered and 

As said heretofore Treasurer Lassiter failed to turn over to 
Treasurer Battle $5,000 of bonds belonging to the Land Scrip 
Fund, stating that he had hypothecated them with the State 
National Bank for a loan wherewith to pay his salary. The 
new Board of Trustees declined to ratify this and directed 
a resort to the law. 

The case against the Treasurer well illustrated the danger 
of "sleeping on a lawsuit." It appeared to the Treasurer, as 
well as to his lawyers, Messrs. R. H. Battle and S. F. Morde- 
cai, that if the University should sue the Bank, the defendant 
would take the ground that it was the innocent holder of bonds 
payable to bearer, with no notice that the ex-Treasurer was 
without authority to hypothecate them. The safer course, 
therefore, was to bring suit on the Treasurer's official bond 01: 
which was one solvent surety, Mr. C. S. Winstead, of Person 
County. This surety, although an able and usually prudent 
man, for some time took no steps to secure himself, but con- 
fined his efforts to urging on President Battle the propriety of 

Ex-Treasurer's Surety Loses. 63 

releasing him and looking only to the bank. He became a 
Member of the Legislature and endeavored in vain to get 
relief from that body. On his application the Trustees of the 
University cheerfully allowed him to use its name in suing 
the bank, which had sold the bonds much below the market 
value. The Court allowed him the excess of the actual sales 
over Lassiter's debt to the bank, but decided that he could not 
recover the excess of the market value over the actual sales 
because it was barred by the Statute of Limitations. He thus 
by delay lost hundreds of dollars. 


The Land Scrip Fund. 

Another committee, on motion of ex-Governor Graham, 
was appointed to memorialize the General Assembly to restore 
to the University the principal ($125,000) of the Land Grant 
Fund, which had been impaired by the investment by the late 
Board largely in worthless special tax bonds. 

The memorial of the Trustees, written by Chairman Gra- 
ham, was duly submitted to the General Assembly, then in ses- 
sion. The case of the LJhiversity was strongly argued by the 
distinguished Chairman and is of peculiar interest as being 
his last State paper. He showed what the University had 
done in the past, its forlorn condition then, and the necessity 
of reviving it. He then sketched the history of the Land 
Scrip, that it was given to the University on the condition 
that two professorships to teach the branches of learning re- 
lating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, should be estab- 
lished, that the Scrip was sold by the Board which expired 
in 1868, for the market price at that time, fifty cents an acre, 
the same obtained by Pennsylvania and New York, and three 
cents less than Ohio and five cents more than Rhode Island ; 
that $125,000 of the amount went into the hands of the recent 
Board, who had invested it in special tax bonds, and others, 
though unquestioned, on which the State is not paying interest ; 
that the General Assembly in accepting the Scrip agreed to 
replace it if lost, if not, to restore it to the General Govern- 
ment. The petitioners therefore ask that $7,500, the interest 
on $125,000, be paid to the University annually. 

Governor Brogden forwarded the petition, strongly recom- 
mending it and lauding the great work of the University since 
its foundation. 

The General Assembly. 

In order to increase the effect of the memorial by Mr. Gra- 
ham, Mr. K. P. Battle made a motion, which was carried, that 

The Land Grant Fund. 65 

Messrs. W. A. Graham, Carter, Steele, Vance, Kerr, and Pat- 
terson be appointed to bring to the attention of the General 
Assembly the condition of the University and the importance 
of its restoration, and on motion of D. M. Carter, W. T. Fair- 
cloth and K. P. Battle were added. At his own request Mr. 
Steele was excused and J. S. Amis was substituted. Owing 
to the sickness of the Chairman there was no meeting of this 
body, which in plain English might be called the lobbying 

After thanking the attorneys who had rendered such valu- 
able service to the institution in securing without compensa- 
tion a decision for the constitutional rights of the Board, 
and Governor Brogden for his patience and courtesy as the 
presiding officer, an adjournment was had until May 5, 1875, 
when the chief business would be the adoption of a plan of 

The bill to carry into effect the memorial for paying interest 
on the $125,000 Land Grant Fund was introduced in the House 
of Representatives on February 27, 1875, by Mr. Xereus Men- 
denhall, of Guilford, a worthy member of the Society of 
Friends, a veteran teacher of high reputation. It was referred 
to the Committee on Finance, of which Col. Samuel McDowell 
Tate was chairman. Messrs. D. M. Carter and K. P. Battle, 
in pursuance of their appointment by the Trustees, asked and 
obtained leave to address the committee on behalf of the bilk 
and were respectfully heard. 

On March 2 Mr. Tate, chairman, reported the bill with the 
chilling statement that "the committee were divided, a portion 
recommending its passage." It was made a special order for 
March 4, subsequently changed to March 9, when it was again 
postponed to March 11. These postponements were at the 
instance of friends of the measure, who were laboring to 
mitigate the intensity of the hostility threatening to be fatal. 
' All familiar with the temper of the public mind at that time 
towards appropriations, especially towards anything like pay- 
ing interest on the public debt, or aiding higher education, will 
realize that if nothing had been done by the Trustees the bill 
would never have seen the light. Accordingly, with the ap- 

66 History of University of North Carolina. 

proval of all, and at the request of many Trustees, the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer spent several weeks in the unpleasant busi- 
ness of lobbying for the- measure. The surviving members of 
the General Assembly will bear witness that he used no argu- 
ment, not even to the value of a cigar or glass of lemonade, 
other than earnest pleading for higher education. His work 
was chiefly with the friends of the University. 

The most active workers for the bill were Representative 
William N. Mebane, who exchanged his sophomoric gown in 
1861 for the uniform of a Confederate soldier; Col. Paul B. 
Means of the last class under the old regime, who had always 
been ready with head and time and purse to press forward his 
Alma Mater ; George V. Strong, a first honor man of the Class 
of 1845, who on this occasion made one of the most eloquent 
of his many eloquent speeches during a long and successful 
career at the bar ; and those able lawyers, Piatt D. Walker, of 
i865-'67, now Supreme Court Judge; John M. Moring, of 
i86o-'62; W. C. Fields, of Alleghany, of 1869. Good work 
was done by others, who, mainly on account of the Civil 
War, were not sons of the University. I recall the strong 
appeals of Col. S. McD. Tate, of Burke, one of our 
Trustees and one of the ablest men of the Piedmont country, 
whose position as Chairman of the Committee on Finance, 
gave him peculiar power ; of Alfred M. Erwin, of McDowell, 
whose advocacy could not possibly have had any taint of self- 
interest, because he was a confirmed old bachelor; of Mr. 
John A. Spears, of Harnett, and of the able chairman of the 
Judiciary Committee, who had at that day as little idea of ever 
having a position in our Faculty as he had of being Chief 
Justice of Porto Rico or the Philippines : our esteemed Pro- 
fessor of Law, ex- Judge James Cameron MacRae, then of 
Cumberland, who has recently passed into the hereafter. 

On the nth of March the bill failed to pass the second 
reading by a vote of 41 to 58. Mr. Norment, who voted with 
the negative for the purpose, moved to reconsider. The mo- 
tion to table this failed, 48 to 54, and the motion to reconsider 
prevailed by 58 to 46, and the bill was made a special order 
for March 15th. 

Land Scrip Fund. 67 

On this day the friends of the measure hoped that they 
could pass it without a division, but the Speaker decided it was 
lost on the aye and no vote. A motion to reconsider was at 
once carried, 61 to 31, and then the bill passed its second 
reading by the handsome majority of 53 to 43. 

Ordinarily the chief opposition to a measure is put forward 
on the second reading, but such was the animosity to this 
measure that every effort was made to defeat it on the third 
reading, which was set for March 17. Amid breathless ex- 
citement, surrounded by crowds in the lobby and galleries, 
fifty-one Members recorded their votes in the affirmative and 
fifty in the negative. The fate of the University hung on one 
vote. Great credit is due to John N. Isler, of Wayne, whd 
gave his support and induced two others to do the same. 
Judge MacRae, ever watchful, at once moved to make the 
triumph irreversible, and succeeded, by 59 to 38, twenty ma- 
jority. After this several Members were allowed to record 
their votes, so that the journal shows 51 to 48. 

Two incidents, of which I am personally cognizant, will 
show the perils surrounding the measure. The first was 
caused by the intense hostility of many Members to the Special 
Tax bonds. As first drawn the bill ordered the University, 
as a condition precedent to receiving the State's bond for 
$125,000, to surrender the Special Tax bonds to the State 
Treasurer to be burnt by him. The opponents of the bill thun- 
dered against this as an implied recognition of the bonds. Some 
friends were shaken by their argument. A hasty conference 
of Messrs. Sion H. Rogers, George V. Strong, and myself 
with these doubting legislators, was had. The bill was altered 
so as to read, "and the said Special Tax bonds, being uncon- 
stitutional and void, shall be burnt by the Trustees of the 
University." This satisfied the doubters. Without the change 
the bill would have been defeated. The other danger was of 
a personal nature. 

The friends of the bill had induced a few Members who felt 
bound to vote "No," not to do so when their names were called, 
but after the roll was finished, in the fond hope that some 
waverers misrht like to be with those who seeminglv were tri- 

68 History of University of North Carolina. 

umphant. An excellent gentleman, Mr. A. A. Mclver, of 
Moore, a relative of Superintendent Alexander Mclver, said : 
"Mr. Battle, I wish your bill to pass. My kinsman, Dr. Alex- 
ander Mclver, has explained to me its merits. If necessary it 
shall have my support. But my constituents are opposed to it, 
and in deference to them, if I am not needed, I will vote 'No.' ' : 
When his name was called, he kept silent. When the roll was 
finished the University was five or six in the majority, and Mr. 
Mclver said: "Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to vote 'No.'" 
Then so many Members, silent at first, followed his example, 
that there was a majority in the negative. Turning with a 
comically wry face, before the result was announced, he whis- 
pered, "I've got to do it." "Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to change 
my vote. I vote 'Aye ! !' " And I wish to record, in memory of 
my ancient friend and deskmate, Col. Rufus L. Patterson, of 
Salem, our Chief Marshal of 1850, and graduate of 1851, then 
a Trustee, that the Member from Forsyth, Dr. Wheeler, a few 
minutes before the vote was taken, said : "I intend to sup- 
port your bill. I have just received a letter from one of my 
constituents, Colonel Patterson, which convinces me that it is 
right." And the bill passed by only one vote! 

The measure came up in the Senate on March 17th and was 
made a special order for the next day. The sons of the Uni- 
versity had strong influence in this body, as will be seen from 
their names. 

C. M. T. McCauley, of Union, grandson of Matthew McCau- 
ley, one of the donors of the University site, A.B. 1838; Nich- 
olas W. Boddie, of Nash, a student of 1843-44; Joseph B. 
Stickney, of Beaufort, a student of 1847- '48; Leigh Richmond 
Waddell, of Johnston, A.B. 1852; William W. Peebles, of 
Northampton, A.B. 1853 ; William Foster French, of Robeson, 
1867- '68; James T. Morehead, of Guilford, A.B. 1858; William 
A. Graham, Jr., of Lincoln, a student of i856-'59; Charles 
Manly Busbee, of Wake, a student of i865-'68. And as read- 
ing clerk we had, then in his prime, Patrick Henry Winston, 
Jr., A.B. 1867, full of enthusiasm for his Alma Mater. 

Having ascertained their safe majority most of them con- 
cluded not to consume time by speaking. Mr. W. W. Peebles, 

The Bill Passes. 69 

of Northampton, however, could not be restrained, and short 
but strong speeches were made by him and Messrs. E. W. Kerr, 
of Sampson ; Wm. A. Graham, Jr., of Lincoln ; W. F. French, 
of Columbus ; Joseph Cashwell, of Brunswick and Bladen ; Col. 
Edward Cantwell, of New Hanover, and last, but by no means 
least, by one, although an alumnus and trustee of another 
institution, always our friend, active and efficient, long also a 
Trustee of ours, Charles Mather Cooke, of Franklin, now a 
Judge of the Superior Court. 

The bill passed its second reading by the handsome vote of 
25 to 14. Senators recorded in the affirmative may be found 
in the Appendix. 

The bill came up on its third reading on March 20th and 
passed without a division. 

The joyful news was forwarded by electric wire at once to 
Mrs. C. P. Spencer, who, with her mother and young daughter, 
remained at Chapel Hill in all its darkest hours and by her 
potent pen kept the University and its woes before the public 
eye. She summoned to her aid Misses Susan G. and Jenny 
Thompson (now Mrs. J. T. Kerr), Mr. A. D. Mickle, and per- 
haps others, and repairing to the attic of the South Building, 
exultingly rang out the glad tidings over the hills and vales for 
four miles around. The tuneful bell had lost by its slumbers 
none of its deep-toned sonorousness. It seemed to rejoice to 
enter on its duties again, and to promise never again to cease 
"calling from duties done," or, "ringing for honors won," to 
the end of time. 

The reasons which actuated so many Members to oppose this 
bill, which it was well understood was proposed for the pur- 
pose of reviving the University, were not solely drawn from 
hostility to the institution. The time was not long after the 
panic of 1873, and the financial prospects were gloomy. Some 
Members honestly thought that all increase of expenses should 
be avoided. Others had become so hostile to the recognition, 
expressly or impliedly, of the validity of the Special Tax bonds, 
and were so determined, on account of the immense losses of 
the war, to pay only a portion of the honest public debt, that 
they regarded the proposition to give a bond of the State for 

70 History of University of North Carolina. 

the entire principal of the Land Scrip Fund as a dangerous 
precedent. But many of the opposition were undeniably ad- 
verse to the payment of public money for any institution of 
higher learning or even to support public schools. Not a cent 
of annuity had ever been voted for what was called the educa- 
tion of rich men's sons, and they wished to prevent its being 
done under any pretext whatever. Let the State, they argued, 
help the public schools, if any shall be aided, but not go into 
the training of lawyers, doctors, and preachers and the like. 
The argument in regard to the provision of the Act of Con- 
gress, that the State in accepting the Land Scrip had con- 
tracted with the United States to keep the principal intact, and 
that it would be a breach of faith to refuse to restore it, had no 
weight with them, for they argued that the State, owing to her 
great losses in the Civil War, must compromise all her debts, 
and that all her creditors, the Lmited States included, should 
be treated alike. They were not afraid that the United States 
would bring suit. 

It will be noticed that I do not mention the names of our 
opponents in the Appendix. I omit them purposely. Many of 
them have become our friends. And for those who did not, we 
relied upon our good work in behalf of education to approve 
itself to their judgment. 

The Executive Committee met on the 12th of March, which 
was before the bill passed the House. There were present 
Messrs. Wm. A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, and 
Kemp P. Battle. Mr. Graham was appointed Chairman and 
Mr. Battle, Secretary. The Committee entered at once on the 
work of repairs, Messrs. Cameron, Saunders and Battle being 
entrusted with the task, the understanding being that Mr. Cam- 
eron would kindly take on his shoulders all the supervision and 

As the act restoring the Land Scrip Fund required the Trus- 
tees to burn the special tax bonds, Messrs. B. F. Moore, D. M. 
Carter, and Treasurer Battle were ordered to perform this 
holocaust. They did so, Major Seaton Gales being a witness, 
on August' 19, 1875. They reported that they destroyed by fire 
one hundred and forty-six $1,000 bonds issued under act rati- 

Reorganization in 1875. 71 

fiecl January 29, 1869, entitled "An Act Amendatory to an Act 
to Incorporate the Western North Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany" ; fourteen bonds for $1,000 each, issued under "An Act 
to Reenact and Confirm Certain Acts of the General Assembly 
Authorizing the Issue of State Bonds to and for Certain Rail- 
roads," ratified December 18, 1868, issued for the Western 
North Carolina Railroad Company. 


The Board of Trustees convened in the Executive office on 
May 4, 1875, for the purpose of reorganizing the University. 
The Secretary submitted various schemes which had been 
lodged with him for presentation to the Board. Rev. C. B. 
Hassell offered one of his own and moved its adoption. On 
motion of Mr. P. C. Cameron all were referred to a committee 
consisting of Messrs. K. P. Battle, chairman ; John Manning, 
J. A. Graham, J. J. Davis, and Rev. C. B. Hassell. On the next 
day their report was unanimously adopted as follows : 

The University doors should be opened for students on the 
first Monday in September next, and continue until the second 
Thursday in June. Tuition to be $60; room rent $10 per 

There were to be six colleges. 

1. Agriculture. 

2. Engineering and the Mechanic Arts. 

3. Natural Sciences. 

4. Literature. 

5. Mathematics. 

6. Philosophy. 

I. The College of Agriculture to be divided into Schools of 
(a) Scientific Agriculture, (b) Practical Agriculture, (c) 

II. The College of Engineering and the Mechanic Arts was 
divided into Schools: (a) Mechanical Engineering, (b) Civil 
Engineering, (c) Mining, (d) Military Science and Tactics. 

III. The College of Natural Science was divided into 
Schools: (a) of Chemistry, (b) Zoology and Botany, (c) 
Geology and Mineralogy. 

72 History of University of North Carolina. 

IV. The College of Literature consisted of Schools of (a) 
English Languages and Literature, (b) Ancient Languages, 
(c) Modern Languages. 

V. The College of Mathematics included Schools of (a) 
Pure Mathematics, (b) Natural Philosophy or Physics, 

(c) Commercial Sciences. 

VI. The College of Philosophy embraced Schools (a) 
Metaphysics and Logic, (b) Moral Science, (c) History, 

(d) Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law. 
It should not be forgotten in considering the scheme that it 

was necessary to satisfy the people that the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College Act of July 2, 1862, was honestly carried 
out. In order that this may be understood I copy its language. 
The interest of the fund must be appropriated "to the endow- 
ment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 
classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures may respec- 
tively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 
professions of life." It thus appears that the leading object of 
the University was to teach, not agriculture and mechanic arts, 
but the branches of learning relating thereto. Greek and Latin 
were likewise to be taught, and the students were to have a lib- 
eral as well as a practical education so as to be fitted for any 
profession or pursuit. It seems clear that the report of the 
committee, which was adopted by the Board, provided for 
carrying into effect the Act of Congress, as far as the Uni- 
versity had means. 

Col. E. G. Haywood, attorney, addressed a communication to 
the Board designed to prove that the decision of the Circuit 
Court of the United States in Dewey, Assignee, v. The Uni- 
versity, et. al., is erroneous, and suggested an appeal to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. The matter was referred to 
the Executive Committee, who declined to follow his advice. 

Mr. Manning, in order to show our good faith in expending 
the Land Grant interest moved, and the motion was carried, that 

Repair of Buildings. 73 

as soon as practicable a farm and workshop should be provided. 
In this connection it should be stated that the spirit of the law 
contemplates that such expenditures should be provided by the 
State or individuals. The eastern part of the Campus, border- 
ing on the Raleigh Road, was ordered to be reserved for ath- 
letic purposes and for a parade ground. 

At the same time a committee, K. P. Battle, chairman ; B. F. 
Moore, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, N. McKay, J. Manning, 
W. L. Saunders, J. A. Gilmer, and J. E. Dugger were appointed 
on Mr. Moore's motion, to provide for the opening of the Uni- 
versity for students. 


The University was exceedingly fortunate in the selection of 
Mr. Paul C. Cameron as chairman of the Committee on Re- 
pairs. He had long experience in building and had a sound 
head for business, perfect reliability, tireless energy and vigi- 
lance, and great love of the University, as had his father and 
grandfather. He spent weeks in Chapel Hill, purchasing ma- 
terial in the cheapest market, North or South, East or West, 
and supervising and directing the work. Owing to the money 
received from donations he was able to buy everything needed 
at lowest cash prices. He dispensed with a contractor and 
finished the extensive repairs with unexampled rapidity and 
economy. When necessarily absent from Chapel Hill he sub- 
stituted his son, Colonel Benehan Cameron, who has since suc- 
ceeded his father as one of the most faithful Trustees of the 
fourth generation of such. The Board thanked the father for 
his wise and economical management. They offered to reim- 
burse him for his expenses, but he declined to receive a penny. 
It was a labor of love to him. 

When the work was begun only $1,200 was appropriated, 
the committee being instructed to confine expenditures to mak- 
ing the buildings barely habitable, leaving more full repairs to 
the future. But when contributions, unexpectedly liberal, 
were secured, it was decided not to delay, but to do all that was 
needful as soon as practicable. This left about $6,000 of the 
contributions to aid in defraying, from year to year, the cur- 

74 History of University of North Carolina. 

rent expenses. A committee was appointed to invest any sur- 
plus of subscriptions as a permanent endowment. Money, 
however, was so urgently needed for expenses that the Treas- 
urer called for it as fast as paid in and the committee were 
fundi officio, and surrendered their trust. 

Another hope of endowment proved to be a castle in the 
air. The University had $200,000 stock in the Bank of North 
Carolina, as has been said. The bank was being wound up in 
the Bankruptcy Court. Mr. Carter moved that the friends of 
the University holding stock should be requested to donate to. 
it whatever balance might acrue to them in the final settlement. 
Before voting on this, however, on motion of Mr. James A. 
Graham application was made to C. Dewey, assignee, for a 
report, and he gave the information that nothing would 
remain to the stockholders. It was useless, therefore, to act on 
the suggestion of Mr. Carter. I once asked the clerk of the 
Bankrupt Court what was done with the remainder. He smiled 
and said : "Oh, the lawyers made a 'divvy,' and took what 
was left." 

It was hoped to realize funds by procuring the passage of a 
law authorizing unclaimed dividends of corporations to be paid 
to the University, as derelict property, if unclaimed for five 
years, but the Supreme Court declared the act invalid. Four 
hundred and eighty-five dollars had been paid over by the 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Company. 

It is a sad proof of the poverty of the institution that the 
Executive Committee felt bound to refuse so small a sum as 
$100 for the purchase of books. 

On motion of ex-Governor Graham, the election of a Presi- 
dent was postponed indefinitely, it being the general opinion 
that one of the Professors might, for a while, act as Chairman 
of the Faculty. 

K. P. Battle moved that a committee of five be appointed to 
solicit contributions for the revival of the University, not to 
be used to pay any existing debt of the institution. This was 
carried, and the chair appointed Messrs. K. P. Battle, B. F. 
Moore, W. A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, and John Manning. 

On motion of Mr. R. L. Patterson the Treasurer was autho- 

Subscriptions for Revival. 75 

rized to borrow $5,000, if necessary, for carrying on repairs of 
the buildings, and he volunteered to be surety with such others 
as would join him, for the University. 

The Board then adjourned until the 16th of June. 

The note for $5,000, signed by Messrs. Patterson, Graham, 
Moore, Carter, Saunders, Manning, Battle, and perhaps others, 
was never needed, and was duly cancelled. 

His associates on the committee for raising contributions, 
for the reason either that they were elderly men or that their 
residences were distant from Raleigh, requested Chairman 
Battle to take charge of the duty. He cheerfully consented and 
by personal solicitation and by correspondence succeeded be- 
yond all expectation. He was able to canvass Raleigh, Golds- 
boro, Rocky Mount, and Tarboro in person. Ex-Governor 
Vance and Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot secured the subscrip- 
tions in Charlotte and Fayetteville, respectively. But most of 
the sums were obtained by correspondence, the plan being to 
write a personal letter to each supposed to be willing to sub- 
scribe, enclosing a list of the subscribers up to date. The sub- 
scriptions were payable in five equal annual installments, with- 
out interest, the first payment being on September 1, 1875. 
The entire expense for amanuensis, postage, printing, and sta- 
tionery was $62.66. Mr. Battle charged no traveling expenses, 
as his business carried him to the towns named. 

The result was that in six weeks the Chairman was able to 
report $18,787. In six weeks more this sum was raised to 
$20,167, of which $18,685 was eventually paid. To be entirely 
accurate, however, it is necessary to state that $1,000 of one 
subscriber was charged with the tuition of three grandsons who 
entered the University twelve years afterwards and whose tui- 
tion then amounted only to $600. But estimating the interest, 
as is fair, on the cash advanced in 1875, the donation amounted 
to considerably over $1,000. An advancement was likewise 
made of $280, and another of $500, to be paid in tuition, which 
was done in four years. All the other donations were uncondi- 
tional, except that they were not to be applied to any debt in- 
curred prior to April 1, 1875. It seems proper that the names 
of donors should be recorded, and they appear in the Appendix. 

y6 History of University of North Carolina. 

It should be recorded in honor of Professor W. C. Kerr that 
his subscription of $500, very large in proportion to his means, 
was on account of gratitude to the University for educating 
him without charge. He was on the beneficiary list of the 
Dialectic Society and was one of the best scholars of his class 
and an able debater. 

When the report was made the Board resolved to request 
ex-Governor Vance, who was then practicing law, to canvass 
all parts of this State and elsewhere to raise funds for an 
endowment, to be paid commissions. The request was declined 
and no one was nominated in his place. Probably he concluded 
that while friends of the University in their enthusiastic desire 
to see its doors opened were willing to make contributions, the 
impoverished condition of the Southern country would make 
further appeal barren of financial results. 

Contributions by Ladies. 

A pleasant feature of the rebirth was the interest taken by 
the good women of North Carolina. President Swain was 
fond of relating how the ladies of Raleigh, soon after the 
beginning of the century, donated to the infant institution a 
compass and a quadrant, and the ladies of New Bern, a 

And so those of Raleigh, three-quarters of a century after- 
wards, showed that they appreciated the value of higher edu- 
cation in training young men to be good citizens, enlightened 
sons and lovers, husbands and fathers. Mrs. Spencer, at the 
request of the Board, on motion of Mr. Cameron, was the 
mover of this generous act. The following list shows the 
result of her work : 

By the pupils of the school of Misses Nash and Miss Kollock in 

Hillsboro, Plateau's Apparatus. 
By the ladies of Louisburg, through Mrs. Joseph J. Davis, 

Parallellogram of Forces. 
By the ladies of Salem Female School, Fortin's Barometer. 
By the ladies of Raleigh, through Mrs. Annie Moore Parker, 

treasurer, Atwood's Machine, Galvanometer and Thermo- 

Electric Pile. 

Election of Professors. "jj 

By the ladies of Hillsboro, in rnemoriam of the late ex-Governor 
Wm. A. Graham, Holtz Electrical Machine, giving a 20-inch 

By the ladies of Salisbury, through Mrs. May Wheate Shober, 
Hydraulic Press and Turbine Wheel. 

By the ladies of North Carolina, through Mrs. Mattie A. Heck, 
Raleigh, Silk Centennial Banner, the Coat of Arms, and 
Floral Emblems painted by Rev. J. A. Oertel, for exhibition 
at the World"s Exposition in Philadelphia, in 1876. 

By-laws axd Election of Professors. 

Twenty-eight Trustees met on June 16, 1875, f° r the purpose 
of electing Professors. I give their names : William A. Gra- 
ham, of Orange; B. F. Moore, of Wake; Rev. Dr. Xeill McKay, 
of Harnett; P. C. Cameron, Orange; D. M. Carter, Wake; 
Mills L. Eure, Gates ; J. A. Moore, Halifax ; William H. John- 
ston, Edgecombe; J. E. Dugger, Warren; W. T. Faircloth, 
Wayne ; George Green, Craven ; Robert B. Peebles, Northamp- 
ton; W. L. Saunders, Xew Hanover; B. F. Grady, Sampson; 
John Mclver, Moore ; J. H. Thorpe. Edgecombe ; James S. 
Amis, Granville ; John Manning, Chatham ; Kemp P. Battle, 
Wake ; J. J. Davis, Franklin ; John A. Gilmer, Guilford ; James 
A. Graham, Alamance ; W. L. Steele, Richmond ; Zebulon B. 
Vance, Mecklenburg ; Paul B. Means, Cabarrus ; Rufus L. Pat- 
terson, Forsyth ; E. Hayne Davis, Iredell. Considering that 
they paid their own expenses these Trustees, as did those who 
attended other meetings, showed praiseworthy liberality and 
enthusiasm. The Governor presided. On account of the un- 
usual number adjournment was had to the Senate Chamber. 

An important question came up on motion of Colonel Steele, 
that the Professors should hold their offices at the will of the 
Trustees. This was voted down, but no case is known where 
the incumbent did not resign when requested by the Trustees. 
As Professors are entitled to six months' notice, where the 
resignation is asked for or obtained at once, it is usual to pay 
salary to the expiration of the six months. 

Some of the older Trustees, particularly Mr. B. F. Moore, 
were eager for the revisal and reenactment of the by-laws. 
Accordingly a committee was raised and duly reported the old 

78 History of University of North Carolina. 

Code with many changes, early in the administration of Presi- 
dent Battle, who was opposed to publishing a pamphlet em- 
bodying these rules, preferring to make known to the students 
from time to time such as it was proper for them to know. 
Availing himself of the emptiness of the treasury, the by-laws 
and amendments slept quietly in a pigeonhole until it became 
evident to all that the publication was not needed. In a short 
while the good old Trustees who had been raised to think 
printed by-laws were a necessary part of the University, pupils 
of Caldwell and Swain, went up to the School of the Here- 
after, and no one was left to call for the pamphlet. The simple 
rule is that each man must behave like a gentleman. If he 
knows how and will not, or if he does not know how, we have 
no use for him. Let him leave. Necessary notices are printed 
in the catalogue, announced to the classes or posted on the 
bulletin board. 

Thus disappeared without any formal repeal many regula- 
tions which were a source of annoyance to the students and 
created hot feeling against the professors and tutors whose 
duty it was to enforce them. Henceforth a student may call 
on his friend in study hours whether for conversation or joint 
study. Henceforth no watchful eye will witness his sitting up 
beyond 10 o'clock. Henceforth he can go to the village in 
study hours, whether to buy fruit or call on the barber or his 
ladylove. It is allowable to sit by a friend in class although 
not in alphabetical order, and to occupy a chair more comfort- 
able than wooden benches. And monstrous innovation ! text- 
books can be taken ad libitum into the recitation room. Offend- 
ers are not now called before all the Faculty but before the 
Students' Council or President, subject to appeal in bad cases 
to the Faculty Committee. 

Other legislation at this and subsequent meetings during 
1875 and the first half of 1876 was the offer of a scholarship 
for $1,000, the proposal of a William A. Graham Professor- 
ship, the amount afterwards fixed on being $30,000. This 
movement failed. The Trustees stood firm on the rule that 
students not residents of Chapel Hill must occupy University 

Election of Professors. 79 

On motion of Mr. Moore a committee of nine was empow- 
ered, after consultation with the Faculty, to revise the scheme 
heretofore adopted, and to add, if deemed advisable, Vegetable 
Physiology and Astronomy. 

Colonel Carter moved that the salaries be $1,500 per annum, 
that heads of families should have houses rent free, and 
that the Professor of Mathematics should be Bursar at a sal- 
ary of $500 per annum, but the motion was defeated by a vote 
of 13 to 5. The salaries were fixed at $2,000 per annum and 
house rent. 

Mr. A. Mickle, who had been acting as agent for the Uni- 
versity, was elected Bursar at a salary of $400 per annum. 
Salaries were to begin September 1st following. 

The calculation of those who voted for salaries at $2,000 was 
that tuition money supplemented by excess of contributions 
over what was needed for repairs, with the $7,500 paid by the 
State, would suffrce to balance expenses for at least four years. 
After that it was thought that the increase in the number of 
students would supply the treasury with the necessary funds. 

Having concluded to postpone indefinitely the election of a 
President and to have one of the Professors to act as Chairman 
of the Faculty, the Board caused to be read the testimonials 
offered for the various chairs and proceeded to elect the Pro- 
fessors by ballot. As a matter of course the loss of prestige 
consequent on the decline and temporary closing of the Uni- 
versity, and the doubt as to its success arising from its slender 
income; also the vigorous opposition in the General Assembly, 
coupled with the violent antagonism elsewhere, prevented many 
teachers from presenting their names as candidates. This 
made the range of choice as to most of the chairs quite limited. 

For the Chair of Agriculture, Professor John Kimberlv and 
Mr. Wm. A. Allen were nominated. Professor Kimberlv was 

For the Chair of Engineering and the Mechanic Arts, the 
nominees were A. L. Anderson and Ralph H. Graves. Mr. 
Graves was successful. 

For the Chair of Literature, on motion of Mr. Manning it 
was resolved to elect two Professors. The following were 

80 History of University of North Carolina. 

placed in nomination : Professors J. DeB. Hooper and M. 
Fetter, Messrs. George T. Winston, E. Woodard Hutson, John 
C. Calhoun, C. H. Martin, Rev. Wm. Royall, Jacob Battle, J. C. 
Lynes, John P. Weston, G. B. Doggett, John Wilson, Isbon T. 
Beckwith, Professor Morris, Rev. E. L. Patton, J. W. Fitts, 
James Southgate. Professor J. DeB. Hooper was declared 
elected and the election of the second Professor under Mr. 
Manning's motion was postponed for the present. 

For the Chair of Mathematics Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips and 
Professor Alexander Mclver were nominated. Dr. Phillips 
was the successful candidate. 

For the Chair of Philosophy the nominees were Rev. A. W. 
Mangum, Mr. W. J. Solomon, -Mr. John H. Wheeler. Mr. 
Mangum was elected. 

For the Chair of Natural Sciences Messrs. A. F. Redd and 
Sylvester Hassell were placed in nomination. Mr. Redd was 

Mr. Carter then moved that the additional Professor in the 
College of Literature should be only an Adjunct. This was 
agreed to and Mr. George T. Winston was chosen without 
opposition. His salary was fixed at $1,500. 

Short sketches of the Professors chosen seem appropriate. 
Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., was the son of Rev. James Phil- 
lips, D.D., long Professor of Mathematics in the University. 
He was born July 30, 1822, graduated here among the best 
scholars in 1841, then for several years studied in the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Princeton. He was tutor of Mathe- 
matics in this institution from 1844 to 1854, Professor of Civil 
Engineering i854-'6o, Professor of Mathematics i86i-'68. On 
the closing of the institution in 1868 he was chosen to the Chair 
of Mathematics in Davidson College, where he taught that 
science and for several terms Political Economy. He was a 
Presbyterian preacher of great power and was likewise emi- 
nent as a mathematician. In addition to his talents he was 
conspicuous for tireless energy and boundless benevolence. 

Professor John DeBerniere Hooper, born in 181 1, was a 
native of Wilmington, in this State. Graduating at this Uni- 
versity with highest distinction in 1831, he taught several years 

The New Professors. 8i 

as tutor. After teaching some years in a classical school in 
Raleigh, he was Professor of Latin and French in this institu- 
tion from 1838 to 1848. He then resigned and became Prin- 
cipal of schools in Warren, Fayetteville, and Wilson. He was 
recognized as one of the most accurate scholars of the old 
Faculty and as skilled in teaching. His department was Greek 
and French. 

Rev. Adolphus Williamson Mangum, D.D., was born April 
1, 1834, in Orange County, North Carolina. He graduated at 
Randolph-Macon College in 1854 with highest honor. He then 
entered the Methodist Episcopal ministry and was pastor, with 
constantly growing reputation, in various parts of North Caro- 
lina, including Charlotte, Salisbury, Greensboro, Goldsboro, 
Raleigh, and Chapel Hill. He was a Chaplain in the Confed- 
erate Army. His department was Moral Philosophy, History, 
and English Literature. 

• Alexander Fletcher Redd was born in Virginia. He was 
trained at the Virginia Military Institute. He was teacher of 
Chemistry and Physics in the school of Mr. James H. Horner, 
who with others warmly endorsed him. When elected he was 
associate editor of the Biblical Recorder. He had under his 
charge Physics and Chemistry. 

Professor John Kimberly was a native of New Jersey. In 
early life he became a teacher in the Albemarle section of the 
State and gained a wide reputation. Devoting much attention 
to the study of Chemistry he was in 1856 elected Professor of 
Agricultural Chemistry in this University. He resigned in 
1866 and carried on a farm in Buncombe County near Ashe- 
ville until his election to the Chair of Agriculture. His in- 
struction was altogether theoretical, as was required by the 
Act of Congress, unless means was given by the General 
Assembly, or other agency, for practical work. 

Ralph Henry Graves, born April 1, 1851, son of the widely 
respected teacher of the same name, was a first honor student 
at this University in i867-'68. He then had a distinguished 
career at the University of Virginia, especially in mathematics, 
attaining the degree of Bachelor of Science, and Civil and 
Mechanical Engineer. He was then Professor of Drawing 


82 History of University of North Carolina. 

and Technical Mechanics in the Polytechnic College at Blacks- 
burg. Afterwards he taught in the school of Horner and 
Graves at Hillsboro, until elevated to his professorship. In 
the assignment of duties his department was styled "Engi- 
neering and the Mechanic Arts," but his teaching was in the 
main theoretical, as was required by law, since the University 
had no fund for building workshops and purchasing machinery. 

George Tayloe Winston was born at Windsor, in Bertie 
County, October 12, 1856. He was a student of this Univer- 
sity with high honor when it closed under the old regime in 
1868, being ready to enter the Junior class. Thence he 
matriculated at the United States Naval Academy, where he 
remained two years, being No. 1 in his class. Finding from a 
cruise to Europe that sea life injured his health, he resigned 
his place and entered Cornell University. After taking a high 
stand he received his degree in 1874 and for the ensuing year 
was Instructor in Mathematics. He was then, as has been 
stated, elected Adjunct Professor in this University, and was 
assigned to instruction in Latin and German. 

As Professors Phillips, Hooper, and Kimberly were members 
of the old Faculty and their learning and skill in teaching were 
fully known to the Trustees, it was not necessary for them to 
offer testimonials. Professor Kimberly, however, exhibited 
certificates from leading men in Buncombe County attesting his 
knowledge of practical agriculture. The others, without ex- 
ception, laid before the Board testimonials of the strongest 
character from their professors and prominent men, as to their 
learning and aptness to teach. 

It was charged by fault finders that conciliation of the lead- 
ing religious denominations, rather than merit, dictated the 
choice by the Trustees. An inspection of the list of candidates, 
as well as the distinct recollection of the Trustees now surviv- 
ing who voted, shows that this is not true. Of course it was 
very fortunate that each of the leading denominations had a 
representative. In the light of the history of the mutations in 
the Faculty, it will hardly be realized that active efforts were 
made in many sections to keep students from coming to the 
University by the charge that it was an "Episcopal concern," 

Graham Declined Presidency. 83 

because there was a preponderance of members of that denom- 
ination, yet it is a fact that such false assertions were widely 
disseminated. It is conceded that these critics believed that 
their charges were true, but they were mistaken. 

It was at this meeting that Mr. Cameron made an urgent 
appeal to ex-Governor Graham to allow the Board to elect him 
President of the University. An expression of pain passed 
over his face as he firmly declined. He was thinking of the 
insidious and fatal disease which was sapping the foundation 
of his life. 

There are persons other than the Faculty connected with the 
reopening who must not be neglected in this chronicle. The 
first is Andrew Mickle, the Bursar, a man of unpretending 
manners, but of rare intelligence, whose virtues were as solid 
as the adamantine hills. He was prospering as a merchant 
when the war began, but during its progress ruined his fortune 
by acting on the chivalric notion that it was wrong to raise 
prices of his goods, because it was as difficult for his neighbors 
to obtain Confederate money as it had been to obtain good 
money. And so, as the currency depreciated, he sold his mer- 
chandise for much less than cost. He bore his poverty with 
the same dignity which characterized him in his prosperity, and 
when the Trustees resolved to depart from the old plan of 
devolving the bursarship on a Professor, it fell by universal 
consent to him, with whom millions of dollars would have been 
as safe as in the Bank of England. 

Another indispensable and equally worthy officer of the Uni- 
versity was the University carpenter, Foster Utley. He w r as 
born in Wake County, on a farm. His mother was a Walton, 
said to have been of the family of the noted fisherman and 
author, Isaak Walton. The transparent purity of character, 
the boundless benevolence, the sturdy honesty, the quiet humor, 
the love of nature, the delight, on a rare holiday, of sitting for 
hours on a mossy bank under a beech tree root, with his cork 
floating on the quiet waters or dancing among the ripples, his 
devout thankfulness to God, whether the yellow perch yielded 
to the "eloquent squirm" of bait or passed by in cold indiffer- 
ence, remind us of the sainted father of the art of angling". 

84 History of University of North Carolina. 

To complete the personnel of the institution, the Faculty 
chose, to wait on the students, ring the bell and for other simi- 
lar services, one who had occupied a similar position under the 
old Faculty. He had been a slave of President Swain and, 
therefore, he appears on the records of 1875 as Wilson Swain, 
though he afterwards preferred the surname of Caldwell, his 
father having been a slave of President Caldwell. He was 
an exceedingly intelligent, courteous, faithful man, reliable 
always, and had the unbounded regard and confidence of the 
Faculty and students. 

Death of ex-Governor Graham. 

This was the last public meeting attended by Wm. A. Gra- 
ham. The closing work of his great career was in behalf of 
the uplifting of the youth of the land, the restoration of the 
institutions whose halls he had left fifty-one years before. 

William Alexander Graham was so actively connected with 
the University that he deserves a special notice. He grad- 
uated a first honor man in 1824; ten years afterwards was 
elected a Trustee, and held the office until 1868, was elected 
again in 1874, and continued to be a Trustee until his death; 
he was sometimes pro tempore President of the Board and 
sometimes a member of the Executive Committee. In his 
long tenure of thirty-five years he seldom missed a meeting 
of the Board of Trustees, and his handsome and attentive 
face was seen at nearly all our Commencements — in truth, 
he never missed unless imperative official business detained him. 
His five sons were educated at this University. 

Governor Graham, as he was generally called, was one of 
the most perfect public men we have had — high-toned, honor- 
able, talented, above all tricks and suspicions of demagoguery, 
a strong but not eloquent speaker, and always well read 
and prepared on questions under debate. I heard one of our 
ablest lawyers, Samuel F. Phillips, who served with him on 
the Judiciary Committee in the General Assembly, when dis- 
cussing the Revised Code, say "Graham has a broad, states- 
man-like knowledge of the law." I heard a verv intelligent 

The Reopening in 1875. 85 

member of the Convention of 1861, Wm. S. Battle, of Edge- 
combe, say: "When I came here I thought you Whigs over- 
rated Governor Graham, but I was mistaken. As a statesman 
and parliamentarian he is head and shoulders above any man in 
the Convention." The University lost an able and valuable 
friend when he died. 

He was honored with the degree of LL.D. in 1849; was 
Speaker of the House of Commons, 1834-41 ; United States 
Senator, 1840- '43; Governor, i845~'49; Secretary of the Navy, 
i850-'53; Whig candidate for Vice-Presidency, 1852; Senator 
in Second Confederate Congress, State Senator, and Member 
of the Convention of 1861. He was born in Lincolnton Sep- 
tember 5, 1804, and adopted Hillsboro as his home. Died 
August 11, 1875. 

He was elected United States Senator in 1866, but was not 
allowed to take his seat. He was fortunate in his biographer, 
the address on his "Life and Services," by Montford McGehee, 
being unexcelled, if equaled, in the annals of this State. 

The Board, at the instance of his old friend, Paul C. Cam- 
eron, passed most touching resolutions expressive of their sense 
of appreciation of his work, certifying that the untiring zeal 
and great liberality with which Governor Graham devoted his 
efficient labors to the University, entitle his memory to be en- 
shrined in the hearts of those who love the institution. 

Reopening. Curriculum. 

On the 30th of June, 1875, a committee of five Trustees, 
viz., Kemp P. Battle, chairman, and B. F. Moore, Rev. Dr. 
McKay, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, and W. L. Saunders, 
met the Faculty in Raleigh for the purpose of adopting rules 
for the reopening of the University. The Faculty were called 
on for recommendations, which were duly submitted and ap- 
proved. Publication was made by the Secretary of the leading 

The opening was to be on the first Monday of September, 
1875, with two weeks vacation at Christmas, to continue until 
the second Thursday in June, 1876. Tuition $60, but pro- 

86 History of University of North Carolina. 

vision would be made for meritorious students who could not 
pay. With pardonable optimism it was declared that the build- 
ings had been repaired and repainted inside and out and rooms 
would be ready for several hundred students. The Campus 
was being placed in order and in a few weeks the College 
property would be not inferior in beauty and fitness for edu- 
cational uses to any in the Union ! It was of good omen that 
the Secretary could exaggerate like that. It showed en- 
thusiasm. He believed then what he wrote. 

In order to obey the mandate of the Act of Congress of 
1862 instruction in military science in all the classes was 
ordered. It was found, however, that our people were so 
sick of war and all likeness to it that there was no demand 
for military teaching, and it was postponed from year to 

It was thought best to notify the public that hazing was 
absolutely prohibited. It was defined to be teasing, vexing, 
striking or committing a breach of the peace. The last was 
called a high offense. 

The titles of the Faculty were then given, their chairs being 
called Colleges. For example, Charles Phillips, Professor of 
the College of Mathematics, and so on. Judge W. H. Battle 
had not then reopened the Law School, and that was not 
on the list. 

The departments were to be combined into four courses of 
study, each leading to a diploma. Students not seeking a 
diploma could obtain certificates of proficiency. This course 
was called Optional. The degrees to be Bachelor of Arts, 
Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Agriculture, and Master 
of Arts. 

For admission into the course of Arts the student must 
have a competent knowledge of the elements of English Lan- 
guage, Geography, Algebra through equations of the second 
degree, Latin Grammar, Prosody and Composition, four 
Books of Caesar, five Books of Virgil's ^Eneid, or the equiva- 
lent in Ovid, Sallust or Cicero's Orations ; of Greek Gram- 
mar and Composition, four Books of Xenophon's Anabasis, 

The Curriculum. 87 

or Memorabilia, and of two Books of the Iliad. These were 
called Preparatory Studies. 

For admission into the Science course the requisites to be 
the same, omitting Latin and Greek. For admission into the 
course for Bachelor of Agriculture, the requisites to be Arith- 
metic, the English Language, and Geography. 

The courses of study for Bachelor of Arts to be: First 
year, four recitations in Mathematics per week, five in Latin 
and Greek each ; second year, four recitations in Mathematics, 
Latin and Greek each ; third year, three in Natural Philosophy, 
three in Chemistry, French, and German each, and two in 
Logic and Rhetoric ; fourth year, three recitations in Astron- 
omy, three in Mineralogy and Geology, and eight in Mental 
and Moral Science. International and Constitutional Law, Po- 
litical Economy, and English Literature. 

For the degree of Bachelor of Science : First year, four 
recitations per week in Mathematics, three in Chemistry, five 
in English and two in History. For the second year, four reci- 
tations in Mathematics, three in Chemistry and German each, 
two in Logic and Rhetoric and two in Zoology. For the 
third year, three in Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Miner- 
alogy and Geology each, and five in Mental Science. 

For the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture the studies were : 
First year, five recitations per week in Mathematics, five in 
English, two in History and two in Botany. For the second 
year, four in Mathematics, three in Chemistry, two in Logic and 
Rhetoric, two in Zoology and three in Agriculture. For the 
third year, three in Mineralogy, three in Geology, three in 
Political Economy and Constitutional Law, eight in Agri- 
culture, Engineering, etc. 

The Bible to be taught in all the courses, counting one 

Students to be required to attend one religious service on 
Sunday at the church of their choice, and daily Prayers in 
Gerrard Hall, absences from them or recitations to be reported 
to parents or guardians. 

Students should be at least sixteen years old at entrance. 
Students to preserve the utmost decorum and courtesy towards 


88 History of University of North Carolina. 

each other. Secret societies or clubs to be forbidden without 
the express permission of the Trustees. The Faculty to be 
authorized to order a student to be removed for neglect of 
studies or evil influence on his associates. 

Instruction was to begin at 8 a. m. and end at 2 p. m., but 
Laboratory work in Chemistry to be in the afternoon. The 
breakfast hour was fixed at 7 a. m. ; dinner at 2 p. m., and 
supper at 6:30. (Until the completion of the State University 
Railroad it was customary to keep these hours nominally winter 
and summer, moving the College clock and ringing the bell 
without regard to the true time. The University time was often 
over half an hour faster or slower than the true time.) 

Unmarried professors were requested to room in the Uni- 
versity buildings. Accordingly Professors Graves and Win- 
ston selected the third story of the South Building. After- 
wards Professors Toy. Yenable and Atkinson selected the 
New West. In pursuance of the policy to trust to the sense 
of decorum of the students the request after some years was 

The day of the opening was advertised to be September 6th. 

On the 31st August ( 1875) the Board of Trustees had 
another meeting; present: K. P. Battle, P. C. Cameron, D. M. 
Carter, W. T. Faircloth, J. A. Gilmer, John Kerr. Rev. Dr. N. 
McKay, John Manning, B. F. Moore, and H. C. Thomas. 

Dr. Charles Phillips was unanimously chosen Chairman of 
the Faculty. 

General Frank H. Cameron submitted a plan for raising 
an endowment for the University by its friends! insuring 
their lives for its benefit, but nothing resulted from it. 

Authority was given the Treasurer to borrow not exceed- 
ing $3,000 at any one time, on pledge of unpaid subscrip- 
tions, for the purpose of paying current expenses. 

The Executive Committee for i875~'76 were B. F. Moore, 
W. H. Battle, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, Seaton Gales, 
W. L. Saunders, and K. P. Battle. 

Messrs. Hooper and Mangum were allowed $100 each in 
lieu of house rent, they not occupying the Faculty houses. 

Governing Regulations. 89 

A by-law was adopted that the Professors should take rank 
according to the designation of the Executive Committee. If 
the Committee failed to act the President or Presiding Pro- 
fessor had the power. 

The Chief Marshal was directed to be selected alternately 
by the two literary societies, beginning with the Dialetic as 
that was the first founded. He must be from the Junior class 
and was to have the power of selecting his assistants, three 
from each society. 

Colonel Carter offered a resolution, which was adopted, 
(Strongly favoring a railroad to Chapel Hill as essential to 
the growth of the University. At a subsequent meeting, not 
seeing that a railroad was practicable, he favored a turn- 
pike to Durham as within our means. If he had foreseen the 
days of the automobile his scheme would have seemed emi- 
nently practical. 

On motion of Judge Battle the winter vacation was ordered 
to continue four weeks, the term beginning the 6th of Janu- 
ary. Mr. B. F. Moore moved that the summer vacation 
should be six weeks. Mr. K. P. Battle moved that the summer 
vacation should be extended to twelve weeks and that in winter 
there should be two weeks holiday, long enough to enable the 
students to spend Christmas at home and aid their parents in 
attending to necessary business on the first of January. This 
was at first 'defeated but after a year was agreed to. The old- 
fashioned Trustees were persuaded that chills and fevers 
would infallibly torment the bodies of those who should abide 
in the eastern counties after the middle of July. In this no- 
tion experience has proven them in error, while the argu- 
ments in favor of the change are cogent. The hot months 
are unfavorable to stud}-. Many of our students are poor 
and find that in the three months of vacation they can earn 
funds necessary to enable them to continue their University 
course. Others by taking summer courses are much advanced 
in their studies. Many parents, accustomed to leave home 
for summer resorts, are desirous of having their sons with 
them. Professors often utilize this period for study in the 
great Northern Universities and even in Europe. Oppor- 

90 History of University of North Carolina. 

trinity was given to hold the Summer Schools for Teachers. 
The change has been found to be very beneficial to all classes. 
At present, however, on motion of Mr. J. E. Dugger the vaca- 
tion was six weeks after the first Monday in June and the 
term was to close four weeks before the first Thursday in 

It was enacted that no degree, except honorary, be granted 
except where there has been residence for at least one year. 

The Committee on Repairs, through Mr. Paul C. Cameron, 
the chairman, who did practically all the work, reported that 
he had expended $10,677.76 for repairs generally and $2,- 
249.09 for gas works and piping, and chemical and natural 
philosophy apparatus. The Board was impressed with the 
wisdom and economy with which the work had been con- 
ducted and passed a vote of thanks to him for the same. 

With a commendable desire to keep down expenses it 
was enacted that no student should board at a house where 
was charged over $15 per month. This law was well ob- 
served for years, indeed until broken into by the actual or 
supposed necessities of the athletic teams. There was a 
general spirit of economy in those early days. Not only did 
reputable boardinghouse keepers furnish board at $9 and 
$10 per month, but private tables under the management of 
messmates enabled them to live satisfactorily at the rate of $7 
and $8 per month and in some instances less. 

Rev. Dr. Neill McKay moved that the students in the 
College of Agriculture should be allowed to study in other 
departments and the Faculty must lay out courses in the 
College of Agriculture which may enable the students to 
receive instruction in the College of Arts. This was re- 
ferred to the Executive Committee, who declined to grant 
the motion on the ground that it would trammel the latter 

The apportionment of rooms among the students was differ- 
ent from the old. The two East Buildings went to the Philan- 
thropic Society, and the two West to the Dialetic, but the 
South was divided equally between them by a north and south 
line, the latter getting the west half and the former the east. 

Organization of Faculty. 91 

A committee, of which Col. D. M. Carter was chairman, was 
appointed to explain this to the students. The ante-war ar- 
rangement gave all the north rooms in the South Building to 
the Phi's and the south rooms to the Di's. This was because 
the Phi Hall and Library was on the north side, Di Hall and 
Library on the south. As the halls have been changed to the 
New East and New West and the libraries consolidated the 
present arrangement is acceptable. 

The married members of the Faculty took possession 
of the University dwellings by amicable arrangement. Dr. 
Phillips, being Chairman of the Faculty, as was right, selected 
the President's house, occupied by President Swain at his 
death ; Professor Kimberly that next to the Episcopal Church ; 
Professor Redd the house where Dr. Mitchell so long re- 
sided. Professors Winston and Graves were in the South 
Building until in the course of time, they, too, married, when 
to Professor Winston was awarded the residence which Dr. 
James Phillips occupied for many years, and Professor Graves 
bought one for himself. Professor Hooper occupied a private 
dwelling on Cameron Avenue, owned by Miss Sally Mallett. 
After Professor Kimberly resigned he removed to the Kim- 
berly house. 

The Faculty met on the 4th of September and organized 
by electing Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips as Chairman, the fact that 
the Trustees had already conferred this honor being over- 
looked. Professor Winston was chosen Secretary of the 
Faculty and Professor Graves Librarian. Of all these it may 
be said that there was no question as to the ability of each, 
but Dr. Phillips was afflicted by repeated attacks of sickness. 
Professors Winston and Graves were excellent officers, but 
Graves' Librarianship was a sinecure, the University Library 
containing no books tempting to the average reader. 

The Faculty had no doubt of their power and duty to en- 
force attendance on religious exercises. Attendance was re- 
quired at the Sunday morning services of one of the four de- 
nominations having churches in the village, Baptist, Methodist, 
Presbyterian, and Episcopalian, and also at the Bible classes 

92 History of University of North Carolina. 

conducted Sunday afternoons by different Professors. Stu- 
dents were expected to inform the Bible class Professor 
whether they had attended divine service in the morning. 
Tradition has it that some irreverent youths, by spending a 
few minutes in the Church, long enough to catch a glimpse 
of the ladies, or standing in the Church door, or peering in 
at the windows, and then hurrying to their rooms, deemed 
themselves justified in answering, "Yes, Sir ! I was at 
Church !" This tradition is undoubtedly true as to ante-war 
times, a strong argument against enforcing religion on young 
men, nearly grown, by disciplinary methods. 

Reminiscence of the old Blue Laws is found in the regula- 
tion then enacted forbidding talking and noise at Prayers or 
other Divine service in the Chapel, a prohibition which a 
youth having sense enough to find his way to Chapel Hill is 
now presumed to know, without being told by a by-law. 

The Professors then proceeded to map out their duties. 
To Dr. Phillips in Mathematics was given sixteen recitations 
per week ; to Professor Hooper fifteen, viz., nine in Greek 
and six in French ; to Professor Redd seven in Chemistry, 
with laboratory work added ; to Professor Graves five in En- 
gineering and five in Algebra, in all ten, with instruction in 
Arithmetic added because of the possession of the Land Grant 
Fund. Mr. Kimberly, Professor of Agriculture, had three 
in Physical Geography with work to be added when students 
in that department should appear. Dr. Mangum's work was 
four hours in History, four in Logic,, and five in English, a 
total of thirteen. Professor Winston took charge of five hours 
in Latin with one class and four with another, three in 
German and three in a more advanced class, making in all 
fifteen hours per week. 

To the three courses leading to degrees, the Classical, the 
Scientific, and the Agricultural, was added the Optional, 
leading to certificates but to no degree. The students in this 
course corresponded to the old Irregulars, or "Malish" (Mi- 
litia), described in the first volume. At first there was only 
one Agricultural student, but after awhile four others joined 

Fraternities Not Allowed. 93 

him. There was a general impression that the department 
was and would be a failure. 

It was resolved to recommend the Trustees not to grant 
permits to the Greek Letter fraternities. The question was 
brought up on the petition of Messrs. Ernest Caldwell, James 
C. Taylor, Henry T. Watkins, Richard B ; Henderson, and 
R. L. Payne in behalf of the A K E Fraternity. The Faculty 
strongly opposed the application on the ground that all the 
energies and means of the students should be exerted in behalf 
of the two literary societies until their debts were paid and 
they should be reinstated into their ante-war prosperous 

Visiting the State Fair, or any other place, was only to be 
granted on a written request from parent or guardian. 

The old plan of opening Faculty meetings with prayer was 
resumed. Dr. Phillips, Professor Mangum and Professor Redd 
being called on in turn. The latter was not a minister of the 
gospel, but was licensed to preach under the rules of the Bap- 
tist Church. The practice was discontinued after a few years 
for the reason that the meetings of the Faculty assumed a 
more business and hurried character. 

The Marshals were to be elected by the two societies, and a 
sumptuary law was adopted by the Faculty in the interest of 
economy that they should not wear any regalia, except a 
rosette or ribbon around the arm, these officers before the 
Civil War having been decorated with broad, costly silken 
bands from shoulder to waist. This provision was afterwards 
ignored as was the prohibition against sitting in a chair during 
lectures, as learning without hard benches seemed impossible. 

There were other changes. The terms Senior, Junior, 
Sophomore, and Freshman were replaced by first, second, 
third, and fourth classes, corresponding to Freshman and so 
on. But old customs were too strong for this innovation and 
the time-honored names and abbreviations have been restored. 

The precedent was set of a holiday on the 22d of February, 
the societies afterwards electing a Washington orator, whose 
address, however, had often very little reference to the Father 
of his Country. At the first, or possibly the second of these 

94 History of University of North Carolina. 

anniversaries, Francis D. Winston, lately Judge and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, at the close of an eloquent laudation of the 
great patriot, exhibited an ancient and well-worn hatchet which 
he affirmed was the identical weapon that felled the fabulous 

cherry tree. 

First Arrival. 

There is a tendency in the human mind to be desirous of 
ascertaining and glorifying the originators of great move- 
ments. We wish to know who brought letters to Greece, who 
founded Rome, who first set foot on American soil, who dis- 
covered oxygen, who kicked the first football, and so on. Thus 
it happens that Hinton James has gained immortal fame by 
being the first to trudge through the muddy roads of the win- 
ter of 1795, and presenting himself to the delighted gaze of 
the first presiding Professor, Dr. David Ker, exactly four 
weeks after the session began. 

My readers, therefore, are in a state of anxiety to know the 
name of the Hinton James of the nineteenth century. I am 
glad to be able to crown him with honor. I am proud to 
set him on the pinnacle of fame. 

In thus awarding the honor I am compelled to ignore the 
claims of Mr. James C. Taylor and Dr. Isaac M. Taylor, be- 
cause their residence was Chapel Hill, and, being on the 
ground, they could not possibly, in the graphic language of 
General Forrest, "git thar first." Not counting them, the glory 
belongs to the elder of two brothers, who, with Charles Bond, 
preceded all other candidates by a day's journey. When their 
conveyance reached the boundary line of Chapel Hill at the 
hamlet of Couchtown, the hilltop on the Durham road, the 
elder suddenly leaped from the vehicle and dashed forward 
with the amazing speed for which duck-legged youths are often 
famous, shouting, "Hurrah ! I am the first student on the 
Hill!" He reversed the history of Esau and Jacob. Esau 
was ahead this time. The unsuspecting Jacob (Hebrew for 
Robert) had no time to offer his mess of pottage. When I 
tell you that this long-headed — if short-legged — youth went to 
the Legislature, with about one thousand majority against his 
party, intent on looking out for the interests of his Alma Mater, 

The Formal Opening. 95 

it will be guessed that his name is Francis Donnell Win- 
ston, the Hinton James of 1875. 

The youth, Robert, thus outgeneraled, has his share of the 
blood of the old Scandinavian vikings. After great search- 
ings of the heart he devised his scheme and bided his time. It 
was a signal and cruel revenge. Frank's Nemesis came when 
there appeared to receive the silver cup for the first boy baby 
of the Class of 1879 — James Horner Winston, son of Robert. 

The good old county of Bertie has another honor which 
should be here recorded. On the opening day one youth only 
entered the agricultural department. I therefore proclaim that 
Charles Bond was the first student of the first college of agri- 
culture in North Carolina. 

Celebration of the Opening. 

The formal celebration of the opening of the University was 
held September 15, 1875. It was eminently successful. The 
numerous visitors were surprised and gratified at the renova- 
tion of buildings and grounds effected under the direction of 
the chairman of the Committee on Repairs, Mr. Cameron. Mrs. 
Spencer called to her aid the young ladies of Chapel Hill and 
decorated the Chapel with exquisite taste. The portraits of 
great men of the University borrowed from the two societies — 
Davie, Caldwell, and Swain, Mitchell, and Phillips, Hawks 
and Badger, Ruffin, Graham, and Manly — were hung on the 
walls. There was a single motto in letters of evergreens : 
"Laus Deo." 

The Salisbury band, without charge, furnished excellent 
music. At 11 o'clock Mr. John R. Hutchins, of the Class of 
1852, as Chief Marshal, and Mayor A. S. Barbee, of the Class 
of i860, and several of the students as assistants, formed a 
procession, as in the days of yore, in front of the South Build- 
ing and marched to the Chapel. The rostrum was occupied 
by Governor Brogden, Judge Battle, Dr. William Hooper, 
Governor Vance, Dr. Phillips, and Professors Mangum and 
Redd. Trustees and distinguished visitors were in the area in 
front. The Chapel was full, floor and galleries, of worthy men 
and beautiful women. Among the men were about fifty stu- 

96 History of University of North Carolina. 

dents of the Horner School, near Hillsboro. The band began 
with "Auld Lang Syne." Prayer was offered by Dr. William 
Hooper, who matriculated seventy years before. The opening 
hymn was then read by Professor Redd. It was composed by 
William A. Betts, a graduate of 1880, late an honored member 
of the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, now in the Florida Conference, whose father, Rev. A. 
D. Betts, a graduate and Trustee, married his mother, a beau- 
tiful girl of Chapel Hill, while in the Senior Class. 

Great God of Heaven: condescend 

To meet Thy servants here; 
Where once we worshipped, Thee again 

We gratefully revere. 

Be present while with joyful hearts 

We consecrate anew 
This hallowed spot, in Thine own name, 

And to Thy service true. 

Favor again, God, these walls 

Where once Thy Spirit shone; 
Send help and wisdom, and may all 

The glory be Thine own. 

Dr. Phillips, the Chairman of the Faculty, rose to introduce 
Governor Brogden. He prefaced his introduction by a few 
remarks as to the past and future policy of the institution. 
Among other things he said that it had been sarcastically re- 
marked that the University had "neither politics nor religion." 
In the broad sense of these words it was false, as we teach the 
principles of true statesmanship and of Christianity. But in 
the sense that the professor will rigidly abstain from attempt- 
ing to influence students for or against any political party or 
religious denomination, the charge is true. All parties and 
sects shall be treated with perfect impartiality. 

Governor Curtis H. Brogden then made an address, full of 
animation, with language ornate and strong, pressing the im- 
portance of education, classical, professional, technical, pri- 
mary and collegiate, as necessary to modern progress. The 
Governor made many friends. His compliments to the ladies 

T. J. Jarvis 

Mrs. Phillips Spenxer 

Wm. L. Saunders 

Richard H. Battle 

The Formal Opening. 97 

were very happy, but some of them wondered if he believed 
all he said why he had not sued for and obtained for himself 
one of the angelic beings he described. 

Ex-Governor Vance then in his usual felicitous style intro- 
duced the orator of the day, ex-Judge William H. Battle, a 
graduate of the Class of 1820. To quote from a contemporary 
letter to the Raleigh News: "Judge Battle's was the tender 
task to awaken the echoes of memory, and bid us remember, 
resemble, and persevere." He took a survey of the history of 
the University. He gave sketches of some of its illustrious 
sons, and an estimate of their influence on the history of the 
State. Both addresses were highly appreciated. 

Professor Mangum, with a graceful compliment to the 
author of the hymn, Mrs. Spencer, who had written it for this 
occasion, gave out the following lines, which were sung to the 
tune of Old Hundred, the band leading. 

Eternal source of light and truth, 
To Thee again our hearts we raise; 

Except Thou build and keep the house, 
In vain the laborer spends his days. 

Without Thine aid in vain our zeal 
Strives to rebuild the broken walls; 

Vainly our sons invoke the muse 

Among these sacred groves and walls. 

From off Thine altar send a coal, 

As burning seraphs erst have brought; 

Relight the flame that once inspired 
The faithful teachers and the taught. 

Pour on our path Thy cloudless light, 
That from Thy constant favor springs; 

Let heart and hand be strong beneath 
The shadow of Almighty wings. 

Recall, O God! the golden days; 

May rude, unfruitful discord cease; 
Our sons in troops exulting throng 

The ancient haunts of white-robed Peace! 

98 History of University of North Carolina. 

So shall our upward way be fair, 

As that our sainted fathers trod, 
Again the "Priest and Muse" declare 

The holy oracles of God. 

The proceedings in the Chapel were closed by a benediction 
and the audience separated with their hearts full of thankful- 
ness for the new life of the institution they loved so well. 

The venerable Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies were re- 
inaugurated during the evening. The Dialectic was called to- 
gether by Thomas M. Argo, Esq., the last Secretary, and Judge 
Wra. H. Battle was made temporary President. 

The Philanthropic Society was called together by Col. Wm. 
L. Saunders, in whose care its books were placed in 1868 when 
the last meeting was held. 

It has been shown how the good old University was started 
again on its career of usefulness and honor. Its friends have 
been rapidly swelling in numbers, while its enemies are mani- 
festly growing fewer. May its prosperity for the next third 
of a century increase as rapidly in proportion as it has in- 
creased since 1875 ! 


Newspaper Attacks After the Revival. 

It was at this time that a labored newspaper attack was made 
on the constitution of the Board of Trustees and the Faculty 
by Rev. L. S. Burkhead, president of the Board of Trustees of 
Trinity College. The points made were that, although the 
Methodists were about one hundred thousand in number and 
paid their proportion of taxes, yet in the management of the 
University the Episcopalians and Presbyterians, about one- 
tenth in number, were the controlling power. Indeed, it was 
charged that the Episcopalians were about one-half of the 
Board of Trustees and of course managed things in their own 
interest. Especial complaint was made that a recent Methodist 
candidate for the Professorship of Natural History had not 
been elected. 

Mr. Burkhead favored a University provided that its in- 
struction should be so high as not to come into competition 
with the colleges and provided that the Methodists should 
have their share of the Trustees and Faculty. 

Hon. Walter L. Steele, a Methodist of high standing in the 
church, who was for years one of our most efficient Trustees, 
thought it best to answer these criticisms. And Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam Closs, a most influential Presiding Elder, took the same 
side. Instead of making a verbatim report of the points they 
made I give them as concisely as possible in my own language. 

The Trustees are of high character, chosen by the General 
Assembly, elected for their attachment to the University, en- 
tirely without reference to the denomination to which they 
belong. They vote for the best interests of the institution and 
no instance can be given to the contrary. If they had done so 
there were associates of another faith who would have cried 
aloud and spared not. 

ioo History of University of North Carolina. 

If the Professors are to be apportioned among the denomi- 
nations in proportion to numbers, we will be in a difficulty 
arising from the fact of there being denominations of like 
names. For example, there were Methodists South, Metho- 
dist Protestants, and Christian Methodists. The Baptists are 
divided into Primitive Baptists, Christian (Campbellites), and 
Free Will Baptists. And what is to be done for those belong- 
ing to neither of the denominations named and the large num- 
ber of those belonging to no church? These pay their taxes 
and are entitled to consideration as much as the large religious 

Moreover, the University is a State institution, not an in- 
stitution belonging to the religious denominations. It would 
be a gross breach of duty to pass by the best man and elect an 
inferior for ecclesiastical considerations. The case complained 
of by Dr. Burkhead is in point. The Trustees sought for and 
obtained an expert in Natural History, who had devoted years 
to that special branch, whereas the Methodist candidate had no 
special training, though he was, of course, a man of general 
intelligence and information. 

It was asserted and could not be contradicted that the Trus- 
tees had never voted on denominational considerations, and 
had never failed to elect a Methodist or Baptist of proper 
qualifications, whose name was before the Board. Meeting 
infrequently as they did they confined their attention to those 
presented to them, in other words to those who applied directly 
or through their friends. 

It may be true that the Episcopalian and Presbyterian Trus- 
tees are more in number than the Methodist and Baptist 
Trustees, but their church affiliation had nothing to do with 
their election. They were chosen by the General Assembly 
as State officers and they represent the State as such. The 
University is no more a sectarian institution than North Caro- 
lina is a Methodist State because Governor Jarvis is a Meth- 
odist. The Trustees were chosen because of their honesty, 
ability, and sincere desire to revive the University. If they 
should be elected on any other grounds the institution would 
certainly fail. If they should be chosen merely to equalize the 

Attacks on the University. ioi 

denominations, not because of desire to promote its prosperity, 
its success would be impossible. 

Many claim to be friends of the University provided only 
that "it be a University indeed" ; in other words, shall not 
compete with the colleges, shall have its courses so high that 
only the graduates of the colleges shall pursue them. These 
are really its enemies, or they are thoughtless. To have no 
undergraduate studies would demand that it have higher requi- 
sites than Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and other great institu- 
tions. Such a University would not have a dozen students and 
the General Assembly in disgust would withdraw the appro- 

It seems that the argument of Dr. Closs and Colonel Steele 
prevailed with the members of their church. The opposition 
soon died out. We hear no more of it. 

Another insidious attack on the University was not infre- 
quently used, and had weight with timid parents — that Epis- 
copal influences would so surround students that they might be 
induced to desert their religious faith. The answer to this is 
the fact that no such lapse as that has ever occurred, nor have 
any such influences ever been exerted. A University officer 
would be guilty of gross misfeasance if he should become a 
religious propagandist and numerous eyes, quick to detect 
wrong-doing in a member of the Faculty, would be ready to 
expose him. One familiar with college life knows that prose- 
lyting is impossible. There is no tradition in over one hundred 
years of the University life that it was ever attempted. 

One of the most common arguments against the University 
was that the denominational colleges would be deprived of 
their students and seriously injured if not ruined by its success. 
The plainest answer to this is a flat denial. President Battle 
counted up the Senior classes of the, schools that he visited 
and others which he did not visit, and estimated that there 
were five thousand youths quite as able to obtain higher educa- 
tion as the eight hundred then in the University and all the 
colleges. Stir up the spirit of education and the numbers of 
all will be doubled or trebled. This estimate has been proved 
to be true and we now hear no more of this objection. 

102 History of University of North Carolina. 

It was endeavored to prevent the resort of young men to the 
University by urging upon parents the danger to the morals as 
well as religious principles of their sons. Hence arguments 
were sedulously used throughout the State, not only that the 
University was "an Episcopal concern," because some of its 
officers were of that faith, but that it bred infidelity and 
atheism, in which there was not a word of truth ; that it was 
a hotbed of drunkenness and wildness, because before the war 
there was a considerable amount of the same, but a minimum 
amount now ; and other statements of the same character. The 
plan was adopted successfully of not dignifying these charges 
with answers, and it was not long before our students, settling 
in various communities, proved by their orderly behavior and 
high character that the University was a safe place for young 
men. It was ridiculous to keep up the cry of danger of per- 
versions when not one pervert was ever heard of, while on the 
contrary students frequently joined their own churches while 
members of the University. 

Again, it is manifest that if the State is debarred from help- 
ing her own institution on account of supposed injury to cer- 
tain denominational colleges, a serious injustice would be done 
to the various minor religious organizations, and to persons be- 
longing to no church. It would be forcing them to subject 
their children to loss of higher training or to influences which 
their consciences do not approve, a species of propagandism 
contrary to the genius of our institutions, although pleasing to 
bitter partisans. 

A prominent preacher published in a much read newspaper 
an attack on President Battle for besieging the Legislature for 
"State aid," alleging that Presidents Caldwell and Swain both 
attained great success without it. The reply was overwhelm- 
ing, that the State gave the University military land warrants 
to be located in Tennessee, — that its prosperity under Caldwell 
arose from the sale of a large portion of these warrants soon 
after 1820. The sales ceased after the panic of 1825 and the 
University almost ceased to have life. The remainder of the 
warrants were sold in 1835 for about $200,000 and prosperity 
under Swain came from that sale. And when bv the results of 

Reply to Attacks. 103 

the war the endowment from State aid was lost the University 
was in sore straits, nigh unto death. Always whenever it had 
no State aid, arising from the donated escheated warrants, the 
institution languished. It is impossible to have a successful 
University on tuition receipts alone under any circumstances, 
and the impossibility becomes more manifest when there is a 
large number of free students. The assailant of Dr. Battle 
then changed his expression from "'State aid" to "State aid by 
taxation," a distinction too absurd for reasonable men. 

It was of the utmost importance that, in the various attacks 
by the opponents of the University, no acrimonious words 
should be used nor angry controversy engaged in. My plan 
was to confine myself to a simple explanation, correcting errors 
in good temper on the assumption that the adversary was 
under an honest mistake and would be pleased to know the 
truth. I was under great temptation to print an angry answer 
when an editor denounced me for being a lobbyist and "using 
all the arts of one." I consulted my constant adviser, a very 
wise man, Colonel William L. Saunders, Secretary of State, a 
Trustee and Secretary and Treasurer of the University. The 
Colonel was amused at my excitement. He said, ''Where will 
you publish your answer? If in the News and Observer those 
who take your adversary's paper will never read it. If you 
send it to his paper, and if he publishes it at all, he will accom- 
pany it with a comment and with innuendos which will nullify 
or weaken the disclaimer. Better let it alone. The Members 
of the General Assembly know to what extent you are a lobby- 
ist. Such a preposterous charge will not injure you at all." 
I saw the wisdom of his counsel and avoided controversy. 

The following statement is made to show the care necessary 
to conciliate opposition when the fate of the University was 
trembling in the balance. Some of the University alumni in- 
dulged in such bitter taunts against the Republicans for having 
ruined the institution, that there was danger that party antag- 
onism might be aroused against the new management. I 
took occasion to interview Judges Settle and Tourgee, Mr. 
Dockery and others, and to promise faithfully that the Uni- 
versity should be conducted strictly without partisan bias. The 

104 History of University of North Carolina. 

Trustees who were active in the revival of the institution, 
such as ex-Governor Graham, Rev. Dr. McKay, Colonel Steele, 
Colonel Carter, Colonel Saunders, Mr. P. C. Cameron, Judge 
Wm. H. Battle, Colonel Means, Mr. F. H. Busbee, Colonel 
Kenan, General Carr, Captain Day, Mr. R. H. Battle, and oth- 
ers carefully pursued this policy, and the Faculty did likewise. 
The students also showed a freedom from party prejudice 
quite remarkable. I once visited the Dialectic Society when in 
session. I noticed that out of the seven officers, the presidency 
and four others were held by Republicans. The students 
showed little party feeling even in election times. ■ 

Afterwards when the Republican State Convention was 
about to meet I paid a visit to Judge Settle to interest him in 
preventing a declaration against the University being made a 
part of the Republican platform of principles. He and I were 
members of the Dialectic Society together. He had command- 
ing influence with his party, having been already picked out as 
the nominee for the Governorship. I can not say how much 
my visit accomplished, but certainly no attack was ever made 
by him or his party on the institution. I was able to tell him 
after he and Vance spoke at Hillsboro that our students, who 
were allowed to hear the contest, gave the preference to his 
speech over Vance's as a specimen of oratory. Mr. S.. F. 
Phillips did me the honor of saying that my trying to write a 
plank in the Republican platform was worthy of Governor 

New Professors. 

In July, i8/5-'76, Mr. Carey D. Grandy, of Oxford, was ap- 
pointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Chemistry. 
He received his collegiate education at the Virginia Military 
Institute and was an able and thorough teacher. 

In the same summer Mr. Frederick William Simonds was 
elected by the Trustees Professor of Geology, Zoology, and 
Botany. His training was at Cornell University, where he was 
Instructor. Soon after his election he obtained a degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy at Syracuse University, that institution 
requiring a rigid examination but in proper cases dispensing 
with residence. He proved to be an expert in his department. 


Alexander McIver 

A. \Y. Mangum 

John Manning 


Historical Society Incorporated. 105 

In his instruction he required the pupils to draw the parts of 
insects, plants, and geologic formations with accuracy and 
neatness. Being requested to give a lecture in Raleigh before 
the State Agricultural Society, he made a profound impression 
on his hearers. An intelligent farmer, who had been for years 
a teacher, Mr. David Ker, uncle of Prof. W. C. Kerr, remarked 
as he left for home, ''The best thing I saw at the Fair was that 
Chapel Hill Professor at the blackboard, drawing the figures 
in his lecture with both hands." 

Dr. Simonds was Professor until May, 1878, when he was 
unfortunately the victim of a severe attack of pneumonia, his 
wife being prostrated at the same time with the same disease. 
They thought it best to live for some years in California. He 
resigned his chair and became Superintendent of the Graded 
Schools of Los Angeles. After recovering his health he ac- 
cepted the Professorship of Natural History in the University 
of Texas, which position he now holds. Our Faculty passed 
very flattering resolutions of commendation and regret at his 
departure from Chapel Hill. 

The Historical Society. 

The Historical Society of Xorth Carolina held a formal ses- 
sion in June, 1876. Judge John Kerr was elected President 
in place of ex-Governor Graham, deceased. 

The ante-war Historical Society had no charter, was a mere 
voluntary organization. It was thought best to procure an act of 
incorporation, especially with the view of receiving the books 
and papers in the possession of Mrs. Eleanor Swain. This was 
done March 22, 1875, w ^h the name of the Historical Society 
of North Carolina. The incorporators named were William A. 
Graham, William Hooper, Thomas Atkinson. Charles Phillips, 
F. M. Hubbard, Charles F. Deems, Braxton Craven, William 
H. Battle, M. E. Manly, B. F. Moore, R. M. Pearson, E. G. 
Reade, Nereus Mendenhall, John H. Wheeler, Z. B. Vance, 
Calvin H. Wiley, George Davis, William Eaton, R. B. Creecy, 
D. H. Hill, S. D. Pool, W. C. Kerr, William S. Harris, K. P. 
Battle, G. D. Bernheim, George V. Strong, Cyrus L. Hunter, 
and Cornelia Phillips Spencer. This list contains some of the 

io6 History of University of North Carolina. 

names of those who had the reputation of being interested in 
historical pursuits. The corporation had the powers conferred 
in Chapter 26 of Battle's Revisal, as well as those specially 
named in the charter. The corporation could acquire and hold 
property, principally books and papers of the late Historical 
Society of North Carolina. The officer in charge of the 
Capitol could give the Society the use of a room, provided it 
would not inconvenience a State officer or a committee of the 
General Assembly. The corporation was organized under this 
charter, ex-Governor Graham being chosen President. 

Notwithstanding the distinguished names of the corporators 
the people of the State could not be induced to become mem- 
bers of the Society. Three strenuous efforts have been made 
to procure members at the small fee of one dollar, but in vain. 
Mrs. Swain refused to surrender the books and papers of the 
old Society, alleging that they were the private property of her 
late husband. Mrs. Spencer, who was one of her intimate 
friends, at the request of the Society, exhausted her powers 
of persuasion in the endeavor to induce her to change her 

At President Swain's death there were in the collection, letters 
of Washington, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Joseph 
Bonaparte, Baron DeKalb, Edmund Fanning, General Gates, 
General Greene, Cornelius Harnett, Thomas Jefferson, John 
Paul Jones, La Fayette, James Madison, James K. Polk, John 
Rutledge, Count de Rochambeau, Baron Steuben, Talleyrand, 
Chief Justice Taney, General Wayne, Daniel Webster, Gen- 
eral Lincoln, and many others. Some are still on hand. 
Evidently some came from the papers of Governor Burke and 
Governor Caswell, and strictly belonged originally to the State. 
Until the building of the Capitol at Raleigh public documents 
were kept by officers at their homes and often were not care- 
fully separated from their private papers. Very many were 
hopelessly lost. President Swain should not be harshly blamed 
for the loss of manuscripts in his possession as trustee, be- 
cause his death was unexpected. He had until he was stricken 
senseless a full hope of recovery, and at the time of his 
death he claimed to be President of the University. There was 

Important Historical Collections. 107 

no other President, Mr. Pool being elected some months after- 
ward. We must suppose that if he had lived that he would 
have done what was right. He never claimed the papers as his 
own. On the contrary he had aided in publishing in a forgot- 
ten copy of the University magazine the fact that they belonged 
to the Historical Society. At the date of his death there was 
no one entitled to receive them. He was petitioning the new 
Board to recognize him as President of the University and 
rightful custodian of the property. Mrs. Swain, finding the 
books and papers in his library alongside his own, and mixed 
with letters of her grandfather. Governor Caswell, naturally 
thought that they were vested in her as executrix. President 
Pool made no claim for them, so she had nearly seven years 
possession before the new North Carolina Society applied to 
her for their transfer, and naturally regarded her title as inde- 

Afterwards she found a paper stating that the bound books 
in the collection were the property of the Historical Society, 
and she promptly surrendered them. Furthermore she be- 
queathed by will the unsold papers and manuscripts to the 
State or to the University as her executors, Judge Walter 
Clark and Mr. R. H. Battle, should elect. After subjecting 
them to the inspection of Col. W. L. Saunders to be used in 
finishing the Colonial Records, they decided in favor of the 
University, so that the title is not in the Historical Society. 

While the collection is valuable there are lamentable gaps in 
it. It is stated and believed, though I know not the authority, 
that autographs were selected and sold to Dr. Thomas Addis 
Emmett, of New York, for $400. Mr. Paul C. Cameron is 
authority for the statement that at least one hundred letters, 
addressed to his grandfather, Richard Bennehan, were loaned 
to President Swain. Not one can be found. A similar fact is 
true in regard to the Webb papers from the collections of 
Members of Congress to Alexander Mebane and Richard Stan- 
ford. Mr. John M. Webb, the eminent teacher of Bellbuckle, 
Tennessee, made a special journey of twenty miles to recover 
these from President Swain, but was influenced to return home 
without them. They have all disappeared. The portrait of 

108 History of University of North Carolina. 

George III, which General Nathanael Greene turned face to 
wall and wrote on the back, "Oh, George ! hide thy face and 
mourn," was loaned to President Swain. It was sold at the 
auction of Mrs. Swain's effects and was purchased by Mr. 
Wm. J. Andrews, of Raleigh. 

A part of Judge Archibald Murphey's collections were once 
in the custody of the mythical North Carolina Historical So- 
ciety. They were loaned to Joseph S. Jones, usually called 
Shocco Jones, the author of "A Defence of North Carolina." 
When he left North Carolina for Mississippi he deposited 
the box containing the Murphey papers in the building of the 
Branch Bank of Cape Fear, at Raleigh. After some years 
Wm. A. Graham, then Governor, and President Swain induced 
the bank officers to surrender them to the latter. I think some 
of these have disappeared. 

Death of Dr. Hooper. 

On the 4th July, 1876, Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper, former Pro- 
fessor in the University, then living with his son-in-law, Prof. 
J. DeBerniere Hooper, journeyed to Philadelphia to attend a 
meeting of the descendants of the Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. The visit was fatal to him. He never re- 
covered from the exposures suffered in the journey. He died 
on the 25th of August, and at his request was buried by the 
side of his mother and her second husband, President Joseph 
Caldwell, in the grave once marked by a crumbling sandstone 
shaft. In 1904 the remains of the three bodies were trans- 
ferred to the east side of the new Caldwell monument as is 
particularly described in the first volume of this history. 

The Faculty passed resolutions, penned by Mrs. Cornelia 
Phillips Spencer. "Dr. Hooper's life was a bright example of 
Christian virtue, of rare culture and of singular social excel- 
lence." In 1816 he brought his bride, a daughter of Solicitor- 
General Jones, to Chapel Hill and began his life work as 
preacher and teacher. He devoted with unselfish aim to the 
service of his fellow men, talents and attainments which in the 
academy and in the pulpit, or with the aid of the press, were 
never idle. "He gave the University his best vears, was dur- 

Needs of the Departments. 109 

ing his whole life its staunch friend, and shed on her the lustre 
of his ripe and elegant scholarship, his broad and catholic 
charity, his unblemished career as a most useful and honored 
citizen and noble Christian gentleman." 

Meeting of Trustees. 

In i876-'77 Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips was granted a furlough 
for the purpose of going North in order to consult experts in 
regard to his disease. The benefit proved to be very slight, if 
any at all. Professors Graves and Grandy very ably supplied 
his place. 

Professor Redd, who had under his charge two great de- 
partments, Chemistry and Physics, found it impracticable to 
do justice to them without a large addition to the apparatus 
for instruction. The $200 heretofore allowed him proved 
altogether insufficient. He accordingly asked for $600 for 
General Chemistry, $1,000 for Applied Chemistry, and $1,500 
for Physics, in all $3,100. The Board concluded to allow him 
$2,000, not a large sum, but seriously encroaching on the assets 
of the University. Professor Redd was not, however, long 
burdened with Physics, it being thought best, with his con- 
currence, to place that department under charge of Professor 
Graves. Professor Kimberly was voted $200 for his depart- 
ment. Mr. Kimberly was nearly as lavish in his requests as 
Professor Redd. He had been teaching in the basement of 
Smith Hall, the old laboratory. He asked for $1,500 to re- 
move to the New East Building and $1,300 for the purchase 
of various utensils. As he resigned his professorship no action 
was taken, though $200 was voted to his department. 

Messrs. B. F. Moore, Seaton Gales, and K. P. Battle were 
appointed to raise funds by donation for additional apparatus 
and Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer was requested to procure 
gifts of the same kind. The success of Mrs. Spencer is else- 
where shown ; that of the committee was inconsiderable. 

Professor Winston offered a prize of $10 for the best Latin 
student and $15 for the best and $10 for the next best of the 
students of 1877. Professor Redd offered similar prizes in 

no History of University of North Carolina. 

Mrs. Spencer handed over to the Treasurer of the Board 
$43 contributed by the young ladies of the Misses Nash and 
Kollock school for the purchase of a barometer. Also a check 
for $25 sent by Mrs. Jos. J. Davis, paid by ladies of Louis- 
burg, for the purchase of scientific apparatus. 

Behavior of Students. 

The first session of the reborn University, ending June, 1876, 
was harmonious as a rule. The sixty-nine students seemed 
to feel their responsibility, to realize that the eyes of the State 
were on them, that apprehension was felt that at Chapel Hill 
would be a revival of the wild pranks that were played in the 
days before the war. There were two or three, however, 
whose spirit of mischief or love of fun could not be repressed. 
Nocturnal peals came from the University bell, and shouts 
resounded which were not in the course of elocutionary prac- 
tice. Some of the old by-laws, reinstated by the Trustees, 
were exceedingly vexatious and their reasonableness was not 
apparent to the students. The younger Professors occasionally 
engaged in races after law breakers and showed fleetness of 
foot in pursuit of robbers of the repose of the students and 

On one occasion there was a revival going on in one of the 
churches of the town. At a mock meeting of a small group of 
students burlesque sermons were preached, ridiculous ex- 
hortations addressed to grinning sinners, pretended mourn- 
ers called up. This thoughtless desecration steeled the hearts 
of the Faculty against the offenders, five in number. Efforts 
were made to procure pardon for them. Ladies in town peti- 
tioned for them. The two societies added their petition, offer- 
ing to be responsible for their good behavior. But the Faculty 
were unrelenting. When those under condemnation, who were 
popular among their fellows, entered their carriage to journey 
over the melancholy road to Durham, the students in sympa- 
thetic procession, in some instances deserting their classrooms, 
escorted them to near the corporate limits of Chapel Hill. 
Passing the house of Dr. Phillips they were stopped by the 

Report of Visiting Committee, 1876. 111 

highly respected Chairman of the Faculty. His solemn and 
touching address of admonition and appeal, beginning: "Gen- 
tlemen, this is all wrong," will never be forgotten by those who 
heard it. It was instantly and completely successful and the 
marchers turned back ashamed. There were no further signs 
of insubordination. Four of those dismissed were later allowed 
to return and became graduates. 

Three members of the Visiting Committee, viz., Kemp P. 
Battle, Chairman, Rev. Dr. N. McKay, and John Manning, 
Rev. Dr. Wiley and Major Gales absent, spent several days 
at Chapel Hill and made a critical inspection of the condition 
of the University and the methods of instruction. They con- 
cluded that the Agricultural Department, as separate from 
the others, was a failure and would probably continue to be 
so. Those taking the branches relating to agriculture could 
do so in other classes pursuing scientific subjects. The com- 
mittee therefore recommended that a young man be employed 
who had paid particular attention to Biology, Botany and 
kindred branches at an initial salary of $1,000. As Professor 
Kimberly was an expert in Chemistry only, which was under 
the charge of Professor Redd, and was not an expert in these 
subjects, he resigned his chair and returned to Buncombe, 
where he soon died. The saving of a large part of his salary 
was of importance to the University treasury. 

The Visiting Committee further reported that, owing to the 
frequent disability fit)m sickness of the Chairman of the 
Faculty, Dr. Phillips, the interests of the University required 
the election of a President. He should not have as onerous 
duties in teaching as Dr. Phillips had, but should spend much 
time in making addresses and popularizing the University. The 
Board adopted the suggestion and agreed to meet on the 16th 
of June, 1876, in Raleigh, for the purpose of choosing this 

On the 26th of May, 1876, died a very prominent educator, 
Ralph Henry Graves, the elder, who was an efficient Tutor of 
Mathematics in the University, 1837 to 1843, an< 3 then a 

ii2 History of University of North Carolina. 

Principal of classical schools of high reputation, for some 
years a partner with James H. Horner, in the excellent Horner 
and Graves School at Oxford and Hillsboro. He was father of 
Prof. R. H. Graves, of the University. The resolution passed 
by the University is not at all exaggerated. It was said "His 
course affords an example of elevated principle in his social 
relations, of faithfulness and proficiency in the discharge of 
his professional duties, and of honorable zeal in the cause 
of education. Of a spirit pure and unselfish he united the 
firmness of the faith which he professed with Christian hu- 
mility and meekness. * * * The memory of his virtue 
will still live and shed a benign influence upon the minds of 
all who appreciate moral excellence." 

The resolution was written by Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, 
the elegance of whose style was much admired. 

Commencement of 1876. 

In preparing for Commencement the Faculty concluded to 
abolish public declamation, as being beneath the dignity of 
the University. It was thought best to teach the manner of 
speaking in the classroom. The two societies were requested 
to choose six debaters each, leaving to the Faculty to desig- 
nate out of these three from each. This plan was not accept- 
able to the electing bodies, so they chose three representatives 
each and tendered them to the Faculty, who acquiesced in the 

Mr. R. H. Smith, of Halifax, a prominent planter and law- 
yer of Halifax, was chosen to deliver an address on Agricul- 
tural Education. He declined and Prof. W. C. Kerr, State 
Geologist, was substituted. Judge Robert P. Dick accepted 
the invitation to deliver an address on Education. Mr. K. 
P. Battle was invited to deliver an address on the Past, Present 
and Future of the University, but he was unable to comply 
on account of conflicting engagements. Governor Vance was 
pressed to deliver an address on the Life and Character of the 
late President Swain, which he was unable to do until the next 
year. Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, of the Baptist Church, 
was selected to preach the annual sermon. 

Commencement of 1876. 113 

The Commencement of 1876 revived the memories of the 
grand ceremonies of old times. The attendance was large, 
the addresses of the best, and the weather in temperature and 
shine of sun perfect. The preacher and orators had won wide 
fame as public speakers. 

The original speeches by the society representatives were 
voted to be quite equal to' the efforts usually heard on such 
occasions. They were delivered on Tuesday night. Arthur 
Arrington, of Louisburg, spoke on "The Influence of Great 
Examples" ; William B. Phillips, of Chapel Hill, on "The An- 
cient German Confederation" ; W. J. Peele, of Northampton 
County, on "Liberty"; R. L. Payne, of Lexington, on "Esse 
quam Videri" ; J. B. Lewis, of Xash County, a Eulogy on 
Edwin W. Fuller, and John H. Dobson, of Surry County, on 
"North Carolina." 

On Wednesday morning the address before the two literary 
societies was delivered by Hon. Alfred Moore Waddell, a 
Representative in Congress and an alumnus of the University 
of the Class of 1854. He was distinguished for his eloquence 
and polished diction and fully on this day sustained his repu- 
tation. He was introduced to the audience by R. E. Caldwell, 
with whom on the stage were J. McNeill and E. J. Hill. 

In the evening the annual sermon was preached by Rev. 
Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard. He was eminent as one of the 
ablest preachers in his denomination in the State, the Baptist, 
and indeed in any denomination. His sermon was full of 
wise counsel, couched in burning words, directed against the 
infidelity of the age. 

On Thursday, being Commencement Day, there was an 
oration by Hon. Robert P. Dick, of the Class of 1843, a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of this State and afterwards of the 
United States District Court. The invitation to him showed 
a determination to have no politics in the management of the 
institution. His address was so felicitous and eloquent that 
the Trustees gave him a vote of thanks. The behavior of 
the students throughout the week was so exceedingly orderly 
that the Board of Trustees recorded a vote of thanks to them 

ii4 History of University of North Carolina. 

While there was general commendation of the speeches of 
the representatives of the two literary societies, not a few of 
the young ladies said that the words of, Mr. P. C. Cameron 
in congratulation of and counsel to the young men who had 
won prizes were among the best things at Commencement. In 
truth his short speeches were always the most appropriate of 
their kind. 

At the close of Judge Dick's address, there being no gradu- 
ates, the annual report was read. 

A contemporary writer makes this note : "Messrs. W. B. 
Phillips, of Chapel Hill, and R. L. Payne, of Lexington, proved 
themselves so nearly equal in scholarship in their chemical 
studies that the Faculty was unable to decide between them, 
and a medal was assigned to each. The two young rivals in 
honorable strife walked up arm in arm to receive their prizes." 

The Chief Marshal, Mr. Frank M. Fremont, filled his office 
with grace and dignity and was well supported by his aids, 
W. B. Phillips and R. L. Payne, Di's, and Julian Baker and 
Joseph C. Powell, Phi's. The ladies were present in full force 
from Hillsboro, Raleigh, Fayetteville, Charlotte, Greensboro, 
Pittsboro, Louisburg, Durham, Lexington, Xew Bern, and 
Chapel Hill. The young people had their usual festivities at 
the Ball on Thursday night, and everything passed off as merry 
as a marriage bell. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity {D.D.), was 
conferred on Rev. Joseph Caldwell Huske, of Fayetteville, 
and Rev. Evander McNair, of Arkansas. Dr. Huske was a 
graduate in 1841. 

In recognition of the ability with which he had conducted 
his department, George T. Winston was created a full Pro- 
fessor of Latin and German. Professor Hooper was confined 
to Greek and French. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees it was voted that the 
interests of the University required the election of a President 
and a special meeting was called for that purpose in the Gov- 
ernor's office in Raleigh on June 16th and that the Secre- 
tary should give notice of the same especially to each Trustee. 

Election of a President. 115 

As the time of election of a President approached there de- 
veloped two parties with their peculiar views on the subject 
of fitness for the position. 

Some few of the younger Trustees wished for a man who 
had been strikingly identified on the part of the South in the 
recent war. They favored Jefferson Davis, Joseph E. John- 
ston, William Preston, son of Albert Sidney Johnston, or 
Gen. Matt W. Ransom. The other party thought that the 
financial and other difficulties required a native of the State 
known to and acquainted with her people, peculiarly identified 
with the University and loving it with his whole soul, a Demo- 
crat, yet not an active politician, and therefore not offensive 
to men of the opposite party. He must also be a man with 
experience in dealing with men and not easily ruffled into 
loss of temper or vindictive retaliation by opposition however 
malignant. Above all he must be a "one-idead man," and 
that idea the University. 

Secretary Battle had addressed all his energies to the re- 
vival of the University, the difficulties in the way being more 
formidable than can be understood at this day. The success 
of the lovers of the University has already been chronicled, 
but with only sixty-nine students the first year, a gratifying 
number, however, under the circumstances, it was manifest 
that better things must be accomplished. An officer must be 
chosen who would not only be the directing power at Chapel 
Hill, but who would keep the University before the public by 
writings and speeches, and, whenever possible, by obtaining 

Several Trustees had from time to time in 1875 expressed 
to Mr. Kemp Plummer Battle their wishes that he would con- 
sent to allow his name to go before the Board for the office, but 
his answer was that he had a home in Raleigh, of which he and 
his wife were fond, and that he doubted if he had the tempera- 
ment of an executive officer, that when he was student and 
Trustee eight years the duties of President Swain seemed to 
him the most irksome and unpleasant of any imaginable. But 
when he saw the failure of the plan of having a Chairman of 
the Facultv and the urgent need of an active chief officer, and 

n6 ' History of University of North Carolina. 

that no available man was before the public, he began to have 
grave "searchings of heart." 

The urgency of an old friend, a deskmate at school when 
they were ten years of age, determined him to undertake the 
perilous task. It was Col. Rufus Lenoir Patterson, a Republi- 
can, a great-grandson of Gen. William Lenoir, of the Revolu- 
tion, and son of Gen. Samuel F. Patterson, once State Treas- 
urer. He was a Trustee of the University as were his father 
and great-grandfather, and had lived in Raleigh when a boy, 
his father then being President of the Raleigh and Gaston Rail- 
road Company. Mr. Battle took him to ride around the city to 
see the changes in thirty years. They naturally talked of the 
University, of which Patterson was a graduate in 1852. He 
said, "Kemp, you must agree to be President. There are some 
Trustees in favor of electing a man on the war idea, of per- 
petuating feelings of hostility, which ought to be allowed to 
slumber. His influence will inculcate hostility to our party ; 
his election will be considered an insult and the Republicans 
will be bound to oppose him. We have confidence in your 
fairness. You are not a bitter partisan. I feel safe in pledg- 
ing my party to your support." 

Secretary Battle saw the reasonableness of what he said. 
He knew the strength of the forces antagonizing openly and 
secretly the L T niversity, and that the Republicans held the bal- 
ance of power. It could not be advanced to a higher sphere 
without their cooperation. The plan of appealing to the bitter 
ideas of the Civil W T ar would make the University one-sided 
and end in disaster. Besides no great man of the Confederacy 
talked about could be induced to undertake the work for any 
salary that could be paid him. To offer the Presidency to a 
second rate man simply for his war services would be a fatal 
mistake. This was the state of things when the Board of 
Trustees met on the 1 6th of June, 1876. 

Little was clone on the first day. The Board met the next 
day in the Governor's office. On account of the number, 
twenty-seven, adjournment was had to the Senate chamber. 
The Trustees present were : J. S. Amis, D. M. Carter, W. 
H. Day, P. B. Meahs, W. L. Saunders, J. H. Thorp, J. A. 

President Elected. 117 

Gilmer, John Manning, Dr. John Mclver, R. B. Peebles, W. 
L. Twitty, John Kerr, N. McKay, B. F. Moore, R. L. Pat- 
terson, W. L. Steele, Joseph Williams, W. H. Battle, K. P. 
Battle, P. C. Cameron, J. A. Graham, Lewis Latham, Z. B. 
Vance, C. H. Wiley, P. H. Winston, Jr., J. E. Dugger, and 
S. M. Gales. After some routine business Judge Kerr moved 
to go into the election of a President. The motion was car- 
ried. His motion to make the salary $2,000 was amended by 
Mr. Manning so as to read $2,500. In order to throw light 
on the question whether a President should be elected the 
Treasurer's report was called for. 

The reports by the Treasurer of the receipts and expendi- 
tures during the half-year are pathetic, instructive too, in 
showing from what small things the new University has 
grown. There was the interest on the land grant, $3,750. 
Then there was an extraordinary item and not likely to be 
repeated, an escheat of $1,516.80. This was liable to be re- 
paid if an owner should appear in five years, which fortunately 
did not happen. The next item was tuition fees collected semi- 
annually from the sixty-nine students, which was for the year 
$1,680. There were temporary loans $1,096, and subscriptions 
to the revival of the University not needed for repairs $3,320. 
In all $11,362.80, and of this meagre amount the prospective 
amount of tuition fees was a totally uncertain quantity, the in- 
terest paid by the State would of course remain stationary, the 
loans and subscriptions would soon disappear, and no escheat 
would probably again fall in. 

The expenditures for the first term included $6,651.31 for 
repairs, $3,860 for salaries, $322.02 for apparatus, $300.20 for 
advertising and printing, and $98.64 for court cost, freight 
and postage, leaving a balance in the treasury of $405.61. 

The New President. 1876. 

Judge Gilmer moved to go into the election of a President, 
which was agreed to. Secretary Battle obtained leave to re- 
tire and W. L. Saunders took his place. The vote was by 
ballot. Kemp Plummer Battle was nominated by Judge Gil- 

n8 History of University of North Carolina. 

mer and received sixteen votes, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, 
nominated by W. H. Day, five; M. W. Ransom one, and 
Montfort McGehee three, so that Battle was chosen by over 
three-fifths majority. Being sent for he accepted the office, 
making no speech because many Trustees were desirous of 
taking the train soon to start. Resigning the office of Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, Major Seaton Gales was chosen in his 

A newspaper of the day has this to say in regard to the 
propriety of electing Secretary Battle to the Presidenc) : 
"When reorganization was undertaken the first suggestion 
was the selection of a President who would give character to 
the institution and attract patronage by the fame of its chief. 
High scholarship was not so much the desideratum as that 
brilliant general reputation in arms or in politics, so fasci- 
nating to young men. Most fortunately the fortunes of the 
University were then too humble to attract these shining lights 
down into the obscure academic groves, and the choice was 
then narrowed to home and our people. It fell, when nar- 
rowed, by common consent upon Kemp P. Battle, to whom 
the common judgment assigned, and very rightly too, remark- 
able qualifications. He had been educated at the University, 
he had served for some years as tutor in the institution, he 
had become a lawyer and a successful one, he was a planter, 
and a good and practical one, he had been State Treasurer of 
North Carolina, and in every position had displayed sound 
practical sense, enlightened by broad views ; and also such 
perfect integrity and just and fair dealing that every feature 
combined to make his selection the'fittest that could have been 
made. He accepted with much personal sacrifice, for he sur- 
rendered his business and the comforts of his charming home 
in Raleigh to engage in the arduous work of reconstructing 
the University, with a certain amount of privation and with 
unmistakable assumption of very new and very hard labors. 
* * * To his tact, his judgment, his vast industry and his 
indomitable energy, his learning, his suavity of manner and 
his large acquaintance with men, the resuscitation of the Uni- 
versity is largely due." 

President Battle's Qualifications. 119 

To the above considerations moving the Trustees to their 
choice can be added that from childhood Secretary Battle had 
been devoted to the University, as had been his near ancestors, 
his grandfather having matriculated in 1798, and his father 
having graduated in 1820. He was a resident of Chapel Hill 
during the most impressible part of his life, from his eleventh 
to his twenty-fourth year. He was a Trustee of the old and 
the new University and of the Executive Committee in both. 
As chairman of a committee in 1867 he had made an elaborate 
report on reorganization, which was nearly unanimously 
adopted. And he had been active in procuring payment of in- 
terest on the land grant by the General Assembly and contribu- 
tions for repairs by the alumni and other friends. 

Another consideration in favor of Secretary Battle was, as 
Colonel Patterson urged, his acceptability to the leaders of 
the party opposed to his. This was for two causes : First, 
as State Treasurer, owing to the complication of the revenue 
laws existing in i866-'68, he was called on to decide a large 
number of disputed questions. He thus acted as a Judge and 
was so fortunate as to gain the reputation of being strictly 
impartial. In the second place, he had become weary of the 
excitement of politics, and. from being an ardent partisan, he 
became a quiet lawyer. The third cause of his having the 
favor of the Republicans was that when as president he as- 
sisted in reviving the State Agricultural Society, in the con- 
duct of the Fair, the first held after the war, he gave the 
leaders their due weight as judges and other officers. This 
gave offense to suspicious political leaders of his own party. 
He was, to his amusement, censured in the leading newspaper 
for this course, and called "Mugwump" and "Brindle-tail,"' 
but he correspondingly gained the favor of opponents. This 
led to Governor Caldwell's selection of him as Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, stating that he as such Superintendent 
might obtain appropriations from a Democratic Legislature 
for the education of the children of the State, but that one 
of the opposite party would not be listened to. Although the 
Supreme Court decided that the Governor had no right to ap- 

120 History of University of North Carolina. 

point the Superintendent, his endorsement of Secretary Battle 
gained him favor with thinking men. 

By an exhibition of ordinary honesty Mr. Battle happened 
to gain popularity among the colored people. When president 
of the State Agricultural Society, a silver trumpet was offered 
to the Firemen's Company sending up the highest stream from 
engines worked by human power, and it was won by the col- 
ored company of Raleigh. The secretary read out the victory 
as gained by a white company. It was probably a mistake 
but the negroes thought otherwise. As soon as the president 
heard of it he rectified the error, and afterwards presented the 
trumpet in public to the captain of the company in the presence 
of his members and of a large assembly of citizens gathered 
to witness the ceremony. He accompanied the gift with a 
short speech certifying to the skill and energy always shown 
by the colored people in fighting fires in the city. They were 
at that time suspicious of the fair dealing of the whites in 
public matters and gave the president of the Agricultural So- 
ciety the credit of obtaining their rights. 

Moved by this kindly feeling, when there was a vacancy on 
the Board of Commissioners of Raleigh, the Republicans being 
in the majority, the colored members united with the Demo- 
crats and elected Mr. Battle to the place. He found the 
finances of the city in apparently inextricable confusion, but 
availing himself of the experience gained in the office of State 
Treasurer, he soon untangled the knot and placed the money 
matters of the city in satisfactory shape. A Sinking Fund 
was placed in his charge, a position he held until he removed 
to Chapel Hill. 

When Johns Hopkins University, with its ample endow- 
ment, was inaugurated. President Oilman and his Professor 
of Greek, Dr. B. L. Gildersleeve, made a tour of the Southern 
colleges in order to gain information useful in carrying out 
the will of the founder in regard to scholarships. They sought 
an interview with President Battle, who happened to be in 
Raleigh. In the course of the conversation Dr. Gildersleeve 
asked "What is the income of your institution?" He replied. 
"Seven thousand five hundred dollars from the State and tui- 

The President's Policy. 121 

tion fees." With a sympathizing look he said, "I am sorry 
for you." The gloominess of the existing conditions was ad- 
mitted, but the University had been in worse straits in former 
days and had emerged with flying colors. 

Session of 1876. 

There was much interest felt in the opening of the new ses- 
sion in July, 1876. It showed a healthful increase from sixty- 
nine to one hundred and twelve, and the friends of the insti- 
tution took heart. 

Before his election President Battle had agreed to deliver 
on the 4th of July, 1876, an address on the early history of 
Raleigh in commemoration of the selection of the site of the 
city in 1792. There was required much research and nothing 
could be done with his University duties until the discharge 
of this engagement. As soon as that was finished he jour- 
neyed to Chapel Hill. The mode of conveyance from Dur- 
ham was very primitive. The strength of the horses was ex- 
hausted when they had arrived at the bottom of the long hill 
ascending to the village, and the newly elected head of the 
University, instead of arriving on the scene of his labors with 
the stately ceremony befitting such an occasion, with alacrity 
walked a mile up the hill, but, unlike the "mighty King of 
France," did not walk down again. 

He at once plunged into his new duties. In addition to 
those pertaining to the executive department, he gave instruc- 
tion in Constitutional and International Law, Political Econ- 
omy and, to the Land Grant students, Business Law. In order 
to obtain if possible a knowledge of the character of the stu- 
dents he informed himself of the histories of their fathers' and 
mothers' families. He copied these into a book which the 
students soon called the "Pedigree Book." To the best of 
his ability he carried out the policy of making them self- 
respecting gentlemen. He gave credence practically to their 
words even if he had doubts as to the statement. He ad- 
hered to this natura] manner of treating them familiarly as 
friends and no one became in consequence presumptuous. 

122 History of University of North Carolina. 

By the Act for the creation of the Agricultural Department 
the Scientific Department of the University was strengthened, 
the State Geologist being required to lecture two months on 
such subjects as the Faculty might prescribe. They chose the 
Geology of North Carolina. 

As it was absolutely essential to deal fairly with the Land 
Grant appropriation the President sought and obtained leave 
to visit some Agricultural and Mechanical colleges which 
had the reputation of being successful. Fortunately Prof. W. 
C. Kerr. State Geologist, whose wide acquaintance with scien- 
tific men much facilitated the investigations, accompanied him. 
They visited Tuft's College at Boston, The Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, the Sheffield Scientific School, under 
control of Yale University, the Wesleyan University, where 
experiments were being carried on by Prof. W. O. Atwater, 
the Connecticut State Fair, Williams College, the New Jersey 
Agricultural and Mechanical College under the charge of Rut- 
gers College, and at a subsequent time the President alone 
visited the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Virginia, 
at Blacksburg, now Virginia Polytechnic Institute. His ob- 
servations led him to the conclusion, and he so reported, that 
this University was carrying out the Act of Congress of 
1862, by theoretical teaching of the branches of learning re- 
lating to Agricultural and the Mechanic Arts. The cultiva- 
tion of fields and orchards and the rearing of cattle, together 
with experiments on all such subjects, could not be undertaken 
unless special funds should be given for the purpose. 

In this year it was thought best to strengthen the teaching 
in the branches relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts 
by the employment of William H. Smith, of Michigan, a Doc- 
tor of Philosophy, as Professor of Natural History. He 
proved to be a teacher of decided merit, quite an accomplished 
expert in his department. A pamphlet w T as prepared by him 
for general distribution instructing in the art of taxidermy, 
probably the first attempt of this kind in the State. The circu- 
lar was issued October 30, 1876, in pamphlet form. It con- 
tained minute directions, such as had never been given before 
in this State, for skinning and preserving the skins, feathers 

The Agricultural Department. 123 

and eggs of birds and mammals, for the preservation of rep- 
tiles, fish, insects, plants, crabs, lobsters, starfish and sea 
urchins, corals and sponges. Instructions were also given in 
regard to specimens of minerals, rocks and fossils, soils and 
well borings. If the directions given by Professor Smith had 
been more generally followed throughout the State the Uni- 
versity Museum would have been greatly increased in value, 
and a practical acquaintance with it would have enlightened 
our people. For personal reasons Professor Smith resigned 
in the spring of 1877. 

In the fall of 1876 the executive committee of the State 
Grange made inquiries of President Battle as to the work of 
the Agricultural Department of the University. On Novem- 
ber 1 st he made an elaborate reply, which was extensively 
published and quieted criticism for nearlv ten years. After 
reciting the Act of Congress he called attention to the cata- 
logue which showed that the "branches relating to Agricul- 
ture and the Mechanic Arts" had especial attention. "For 
example. Chemistry, including the composition and analysis 
of soils, manure, etc. ; Botany, Zoology, including domestic 
animals and their foes ; Geology, including character of soils ; 
Mineralogy, especially the minerals of our State ; Mechanics, 
including agricultural implements ; Physics, light and heat as 
influencing plant life ; also Meteorology ; Engineering, includ- 
ing road making, land surveying, etc. ; Mathematics necessary 
for Mechanics, Engineering, etc. All this is in addition to 
the English Language and Literature, Political Economy, 
Constitutional and International Law, and the Greek and Latin 
and the German and French languages needed to make our 
students intelligent citizens."' 

The sequel, however, shows that, moved largely by the ex- 
ample of Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges of other States, 
who had supplemented the Congressional grant by large dona- 
tions from the public treasury, the public came to demand an 
education more largely practical than the words of the Act 
of Congress required. For the present, owing to the expense 
necessary, the construction adopted by the University was 
allowed to stand. The details of the instruction offered were 

124 History of University of North Carolina. 

left to the Trustees and Faculty of the University. Theoreti- 
cal and not practical instruction "was employed. When at a 
later date the practical mode of instruction was adopted by the 
State the costly buildings and apparatus of the College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts at Raleigh show that President 
Battle was correct in the position that all this could not be 
done on the slender means of the University, $7,500 per an- 
num. In 1887 the transfer of the $125,000 Land Grant Fund 
was made to the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

Election of Trustees in 1876- '77. 

As has been explained, by Act of i873-'74, it was provided 
that there should be sixty-four Trustees of the University 
elected by joint ballot to be divided into four classes, sixteen 
in each class, so that every two years that number, increased 
by vacancies for any cause, must be elected. At the election 
in i876-'77 the Senate appointed a committee to recommend 
nominees. The committee consulted with friends of the in- 
stitution and reported a faultless list. In the House of Rep- 
resentatives a motion was made and carried to adjourn for 
a short while and let the Members from each Congressional 
District select the nominees. The result was that good and 
true men on the Senate list were omitted and, owing to the 
more numerous voters in the House, its ticket was chosen. 
Unfortunately two of the most active and useful members of 
the Board, identified with the reopening of the institution. 
Colonels W. L. Saunders and D. M. Carter, were omitted. 
They immediately sent in resignations of their unexpired terms. 

Knowing that this oversight was accidental, and being un- 
willing to part with such valuable officers, realizing too that 
the plan adopted by the House, if continued, would result in 
a Board of Trustees whose members would be too remote 
from Chapel Hill for efficient business. President Battle pro- 
posed that sixteen additional Trustees should be elected "from 
points conveniently accessible to the University" and to be 
classified as was the existing Board. The bill was passed in 
1877, Colonels Carter and Saunders were reelected and con- 
sented to serve. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 125 

The plan of election of Trustees now usually adopted (1912) 
is to have a joint select committee of the two Houses, who in- 
vestigate and report to their bodies the names of those who 
ought to be chosen. The nominations are invariably ratified. At 
first effort was made to give the minority party a fair repre- 
sentation. Recently complaint has been made that the domi- 
nant party is disposed to take more than their share. There 
has been no charge, however, that the spirit of party has been 
evident in the choice of Professors or in the practical man- 
agement of University affairs. Of course the General As- 
sembly can change at will this mode of selection. It is praise- 
worthy that there never has been any symptom of ''packing" 
the Board in order to carry into effect any measure. 

The University Secretary and Treasurer. 

When President Battle was elected President he had been 
borrowing, as Treasurer, considerable sums for annual ex- 
penses from the Citizens National Bank of Raleigh on his 
individual credit, pledging as collateral the expected receipts' 
from donations. These loans were negotiated more readily 
because he had been a director and attorney for the bank from 
its organization. Major Gales continued to hold both offices 
of Secretary and Treasurer until April 1, 1877, when he re- 
signed the Treasurership and President Battle took his place, 
declining any part of the salary, which was all paid to Gales, 
his object being to obtain money from the bank more easily. 
On the death of Gales in 1878 Col. W. L. Saunders was chosen 
Secretary under the same arrangement, but when all the sol- 
vent subscriptions were collected, President Battle gave up the 
Treasurership and Colonel Saunders held both offices. Ordi- 
narily it would have been dangerous to endorse a note in bank 
with only a subscription paper as collateral, but President 
Battle well knew the subscribers and his trust in their faith- 
fulness was not in vain. By the arrangement the Professors 
and other officers were regularly and promptly paid until the 
exhaustion of the subscriptions. 

The Secretary and Treasurer held ex officio another office, 
that of Escheator-General. His duties were to appoint a 

126 History of University of North Carolina. 

lawyer in each county to keep watch on all escheats, that is, 
roughly, land having no owner. For many years, when aliens 
could not inherit land in North Carolina, substantial benefits 
were derived from escheats, but a change in the law renders 
them of little value and the emolument to the officer of five per 
cent on receipts by no means corresponds to the grandeur of 
the title of Escheator-General. 

Law School Inaugurated. 

The Law School of Judge Battle was reopened in January, 
1877, under the stipulations laid down on October 3, 1845, 
and recited in the various catalogues since. A striking feature 
of the same was that his Independent students were not sub- 
ject to the usual University discipline, nor was he responsible 
for the conduct of any but the law students. There were 
two classes, the Independent, having no connection with the 
University, and the Lhiiversity class, consisting of students of 
the Lniversity. Particular attention was directed to prepara- 
tion for obtaining license to practice law, and it was sought 
in addition to give a broad general knowledge of the law. The 
degree of Bachelor of Laws, ordinarily obtained after two 
years of study, was granted. The fees were : for the Inde- 
pendent class, $50 per term or $100 a year; for the University 
class, $35 per term or $70 a year. On the payment of $150 
the student could attend four terms. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees Air. P. C. Cameron 
strongly urged that the University should use every effort to 
secure the construction of a railroad from Chapel Hill to the 
North Carolina Railroad. 

On his motion likewise the Board tendered its thanks to 
Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer for her unflagging interest in the 
University, her able efforts in its behalf and for her clear and 
intelligent reports of transactions in connection with one of 
its most important adjuncts. This was the Summer Normal 

Thanks were offered to Governor Vance for his able, elo- 
quent and instructive address on President Swain. And to 

Person Hall Destroyed. 127 

Col. D. M. Carter for his strong and effective argument for 
the University in the Circuit Court of the United States, in- 
volving the quantity of land to be allotted to it, as necessary 
to its existence as a State institution. 

On February 6, 1877, Person Hall was destroyed by fire. 
The Faculty concluded that it was caused by the pipe of a 
large stove being located too near a rafter in the roof. The 
walls were so thick that the only loss was the interior wood- 
work and the tin, aggregating about $1,000. This was one 
of the earliest buildings, finished in 1798. For a long time it 
was fitted for and used as a Chapel. In 1838 Gerrard Hall 
was completed, called the New, and the other the Old Chapel. 
About 1840 it was divided into four rooms for the use of the 
Professors of Greek, of Latin, of Logic and Rhetoric, and 
of the Tutor of Ancient Languages. Shortly before the fire 
the partitions were removed and the building given to the 
department of Chemistry. By the aid of contributions from 
Professor Redd, J. S. Carr, S. F. Phillips, John W. Fries and 
others the building was speedily restored to its original shape. 

A ludicrous circumstance happened at the fire. While the 
flames were raging in the attic a ladder was produced and a 
student, Engelhard, started to mount it. Professor Redd ex- 
citedly shouted, "Come down, Mr. Engelhard, that is danger- 
ous. The walls may crumble.'' Then turning to a negro, he 
said, "I will give you $10 if you will go up." The negro 
thought he was worth to himself as much as Mr. Engelhard 
was to himself and declined the bounty. There was no danger, 
however, as the walls were so firm that they were not taken 
down in the rebuilding. A sketch of General Person may 
be found in the first volume. 

In the next month the time honored speeches of Latin Salu- 
tatory and Valedictory were abolished, though by an odd in- 
consistency the best scholar in the graduating class was for 
several years termed the Valedictorian, his speech, however, 
not at all flavored with farewell ideas. As explained in 
Volume I, up to 1838 the Salutatory oration was the prize of 
the highest distinction. After that vear it was reduced to the 

128 History of University of North Carolina. 

second rank and the Valedictory was first. Then, on the 
initiative of President Swain, because serious difficulties had 
occurred from the conflicting claims of ambitious honor men, 
they were grouped in three classes. Those who were in the 
first class, at one time as many as eight, cast lots for the Salu- 
tatory and Valedictory orations. The memory of former 
precedence made the latter the most prized, while the drawer 
of the other frequently exchanged it with one entitled to an 
English speech. Rarely a student was so preeminent that the 
Valedictory was conceded to him by the Faculty. General 
Pettigrew was one of these. 

Visiting Committee and Board of Trustees. 

The second Visiting Committee was P. C. Cameron, D. M. 
Carter, W. S. Saunders, Calvin H. Wiley and Rev. Dr. Neill 
McKay. They made an oral report which was very favorable 
to the management, after a visit to the University in the 
spring of 1877. 

At the June, 1877, meeting of the Board the Faculty made 
an earnest report on the subject of beneficiaries. The present 
system led to a serious injury to the independence of students, 
to the culture of the University and to the finances. It re- 
sulted in a majority being on the nonpaying list. They recom- 
mended that all, save the county appointees, should pay $30 at 
the beginning of each term. The recommendation was adopted 
with an amendment offered by Mr. R. H. Battle, that the 
Faculty by a two-thirds vote could admit without payment. 
This provision to some extent checked the movement towards 
free admission of nonpaying students. 

On account of the continued ill health of Dr. Charles Phil- 
lips, Carey D. Grandy, an accomplished mathematician, was 
added to the Faculty with a salary of $700. 

It is sad proof of the poverty of the institution that the 
Executive Committee felt bound to refuse the Librarian so 
small a sum as $100 for the purchase of books and periodicals. 

Mr. Cameron moved that President Battle, if he sbould 
think proper, should be allowed at the expense of the Uni- 
versity to canvass Northern cities for subscriptions. After 

The Commencement of 1877. 129 

inquiries of Dr. Deems and other friends at the North it was 
concluded that such solicitations were not likely to be suc- 
cessful. The liberal people had been already so importuned 
that there was a feeling of disgust. Many college and school 
presidents had made the effort and returned in despair. More- 
over it seemed not compatible with the dignity of the State 
to beg among strangers for a State institution. The money 
heretofore raised was nearly all from our own citizens, princi- 
pally alumni. An elaborate appeal to Mr. W. W. Corcoran 
for aid to the University of President Polk, Vice-President 
King, Senator Mangum and others of his personal acquaint- 
ances, was forwarded by our Congressman Steele. He replied 
very courteously, but declined a donation. 

Commencement of 1877. 

The Commencement of 1877 was pronounced by many to 
have had a larger attendance than any of its predecessors ex- 
cept the Buchanan Commencement of 1859. The farmers 
were present in great numbers and manifested peculiar in- 
terest. The village was crowded, but the packing powers of 
the hotels and boarding houses and the hospitality of the citi- 
zens provided for all. 

The accustomed procession was formed on June 6, 1877, 
and marched to the hall, under the order of George McCorkle, 
Chief Marshal. After music by the Salem Band the Presi- 
dent made a short statement of the history of the University, 
and then ex-Judge Daniel G. Fowle, soon to be Governor, 
at the request of the Philanthropic Society, delivered a strong 
address on the Principles of Civil Liberty. He drew many 
of his illustrations from the occurrences during the adminis- 
tration of Governor Holden. The speech was earnest and 
eloquent and was very forcibly delivered. 

A short meeting of the Historical Society was held. Col. 
John D. Cameron called attention to the death of the Presi- 
dent, Dr. William Hooper, and moved that Judge Kerr take 
the chair. Mr. P. C. Cameron, after a short and touching 
eulogy, moved for a committee to draft resolutions in regard 
to Hooper's career, which motion prevailed. 

130 History of University of North Carolina. 

He was for years a distinguished Professor of the Uni- 
versity, generally of Ancient Languages, but for awhile of 
Rhetoric and Logic. Some of his addresses and sermons were 
published and show much literary power. A further sketch 
of him is given in Volume I. 

President Battle called attention to the fact that the treas- 
ury of the association was empty. A committee appointed on 
his motion proceeded to collect one dollar from each member, 
and a considerable sum was raised. 

In the afternoon of Wednesday, Rev. Dr. Charles Force 
Deems, of the Church of the Strangers, Xew York City, de- 
livered the Baccalaureate sermon. He had been pastor of 
many congregations in our own State, and then had achieved 
greatness in the great metropolis. Much was expected of him 
and his hearers were enraptured. His text was, "I am not 
mad, most noble Festus !" and he showed that the opponents 
of Christianity are the true madmen. 

On Wednesday evening the representatives of the societies 
delivered their original addresses. The subject of Francis 
Donnell Winston was, "The Union and the Century"; of 
Alfred Daniel Jones, "The Teacher Must First be Taught" ; 
of John Moore Manning, "Patrick Henry"; of Julius John- 
ston, "There is Xo Utopia Here"; of William Lanier Hill, 
"Man Has Done Nobly ; Will Do More Nobly Still" ; of Henry 
Thomas Watkins, "Eulogy on William A. Graham." There 
were strong men in this list and the speaking was good. 

At eleven o'clock on Thursday a procession was formed to 
escort Governor Vance to the Hall, where he delivered his 
address on President Swain. Never did a speaker have a 
more congenial theme. 

I give his estimate of the character of President Swain, 

from which may be caught a glimpse of Senator Vance's style. 

"In many senses of the term Governor Swain was a great man. 
As an author, though a man of letters, he neither achieved nor at- 
tempted anything lasting. As a politician, though he rose rapidly 
to the highest honors of his native State, he did not strikingly 
impress himself upon his times by any great speech nor by any 
great stroke of policy. In this respect he was inferior to many of 
his contemporaries who constituted, perhaps, the brightest cluster 

Vance's Address on Swain. 131 

of names in our annals. As a lawyer and a judge he occupied com- 
paratively about the same position; and as a scholar he was not 
to be distinguished, being inferior to several of his co-laborers in 
the University. 

"But in many things he was entitled to be called great, if we 
mean by that term that he so used the faculties which he possessed 
that he raised himself beyond and above the great mass of his 
fellows. In him there was a rounded fullness of the qualities, in- 
tellectual and moral, which constitute the excellence of manhood in 
a degree never excelled by any citizen of North Carolina, whom I 
have personally known, except William A. Graham. If there was in 
Swain no one grand quality of intellect which lifted him out of 
comparison with any but the demigods of our race, neither was 
there any element so wanting as to sink him into or below the 
common mass. If there were in him no Himalaya peaks of genius 
piercing into the regions of everlasting frost and ice, neither were 
there any yawning chasms or slimy pools below the tidewater of 
mediocrity. * * * If there be those who singly tower above him 
in gifts or attainments or distinction, there is no one whom as a 
whole we can contemplate with more interest, affection and admira- 
tion, no one whose work for North Carolina will prove to be more 
valuable, or more lasting, or more important to future generations, 
no one to whom at the great final review, the greeting may be more 
heartily addressed, 'Servant of God, well done!' 

"No estimate of Governor Swain's walk through life could omit 
the consideration of his Christian character. It was especially 
marked by catholicity of feeling towards all good men of whatever 
name. He was accustomed to refer this to the circumstances of 
his bringing up. He would say: 'My father was a Presbyterian 
elder, and an Arminian; my mother was a Methodist and a Cal- 
vinist, who loved and studied Scott's Commentary. Their house 
was the home of preachers of all sorts west of the Blue Ridge. 
Bishop Asbury blessed me when a child. Mr. Newton, a Presby- 
terian, taught me when a boy, and Humphrey Posey, a Baptist, used 
to pray for me when a youth. So I love all who will show that they 
are Christian.' * * * He was a decided Presbyterian. * * * 
In private life he was most upright, kind, social and hospitable. 
* * * He had a proper conception of the value of wealth, and 
all his life practiced a judicious economy, but he knew well how 
to lend and how to give. 

"His remains lie buried in Oakwood Cemetery, near Raleigh, 
close beside the sleeping soldiers of the Confederacy, and the soil 
of our State holds the dust of no son who loved her more or served 
her better. Peaceful be his rest as he waits for the clear breaking 
of the day over the brow of the eternal hills." 

132 History of University of North Carolina. 

Senator Vance closed with a poetical extract so beautiful 
that I must needs record it : 

"The daisies prank thy grassy grave, 
Above, the dark pine branches wave; 

Sleep on. 
Below, the merry runnel sings, 
And swallows sweep with glancing wings, 

Sleep on, old friend, sleep on. 

Calm as a summer night at rest, 
Thy meek hands folded on thy breast; 

Sleep on. 
Hushed into stillness life's sharp pain, 
Naught but the pattering of the rain, 

Sleep on, dear friend, sleep on." 

Governors Vance and Swain were born and raised in the 
same county and in the same lovely mountain air. They had 
both occupied the highest State offices and there were personal 
ties to stir up the enthusiasm of the orator. It was by Presi- 
dent Swain's assistance, a loan freely given and soon repaid, 
that Vance was able to obtain his legal education at the Uni- 
versity. Governor Vance's talent and literary ability were 
freely given to this task. The result was a captivating pen 
picture of a most interesting and unique personage. A corre- 
spondent writes, "It was a tribute of the noblest order. It 
was chaste in style, grand in thought, and couched in lan- 
guage of singular vigor, terseness and beauty." 

At the conclusion, Mr. Paul C. Cameron, on the part of the 
ladies of Hillsboro, presented to the University a Holtz's elec- 
trical machine. His speech was couched in eloquent language, 
in praise both of Governor Vance and President Swain. He 
stated that the former was as much an object of interest and 
good will to the people of the State as when he led his regi- 
ment to the field, or as when from his first Executive chair he 
sent out salt and meal to feed the hungry, and distributed cot- 
ton cards to clothe the naked. No man is more nearly equal 
to all that he assumes, no man can wear with more force and 
truth as his motto, "semper paratus." The ladies of Hillsboro 
made this offerins: in commemoration of William A. Graham. 

Hon. W. L. Steele Addresses Alumni. 133 

No one was so richly rewarded for his well spent life of virtue 
and labor. On no monument may be inscribed with more vir- 
tuous purpose the Latin maxim, Labor ipse est voluptas. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon Hon. Walter Leak Steele, 
a Representative in the Congress of the United States, deliv- 
ered the address before the Alumni Association. Senator A. G. 
Thurman had been invited to perform this duty, accepted the 
invitation and then failed on account of sickness. Colonel 
Steele had only twenty-four hours' notice, but delivered a 
most instructive address. His reminiscences of University 
life and of the old Professors were extremely interesting, his 
defense of the University strong and true, and his prediction 
of future success was that it was not only probable but cer- 
tain. His reminiscences were a happy combination of pathos 
and humor. The audience seemed delighted to have an ad- 
dress on University topics, past, present and future, sand- 
wiched among political or literary subjects. 

On Thursday came the orations of the graduates. Frank 
Murray Fremont led, his subject being "Foreign Immigra- 
tion." He advocated immigration from Europe but prohibi- 
tion of that from China, the people of that country being, he 
said, the most corrupt and immoral race on the face of the, 
globe, slavish, cringing, and powerful. Then came Joseph 
Clay Powell on "The Philosophy of Crime.'' Julian Meredith 
Baker read an essay on the Spectroscope. Then followed an 
oration on "The Progress of Japan," by James Cole Taylor, 
and the speaking was concluded by what the correspondent 
called "the gem of this branch of the Commencement exer- 
cises," an oration by William Battle Phillips on "Woman in 
Politics." It sparkled with humor and abounded in good 
sense. The judges decided that for combined polish of style 
and force of thought Mr. Fremont was entitled to the Mangum 
medal, the prize in oratory established by his daughter in honor 
of Willie P. Mangum. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity ( D.D.) was conferred on 
Rev. George Patterson, Rev. W. J. C. Hiden, and Rev. Jacob 
Henry Smith. That of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) on Rev. 
Charles F. Deems and Judge Tohn Kerr. 

134 History of University of North Carolina. 

The recipients of medals were : 

Latin — Thomas H. Battle, Isaac H. Long. 
Physics — Julian M. Baker, Prank M. Fremont. 

The Graduates were : 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.): 

William Battle Phillips, Chapel Hill. 

Bachelors of Science (B.S.): 

Julian Meredith Baker, Tarboro. 
Frank Murray Fremont, Wilmington. 
Joseph Clay Powell, Tarboro. 
James Cole Taylor, Chapel Hill. 

Of these Phillips is (1912) a mining engineer of high stand- 
ing, Professor of Geology in the University of Texas; Baker 
is a very prominent physician in Tarboro ; Frank Fremont 
was an insurance officer in New York — lost his life in a rail- 
road accident ; Powell, who died recently, was a very success- 
ful planter, and Taylor cashier of the Bank of Chapel Hill. 

In order to obtain a degree the applicant must have attained 
a mark of at least 70 in all studies, perfect being 100. Under 
the old regime the honor men being grouped into classes, their 
names were read out in public at Commencement. After the 
reopening in 1875 for some time the names of those who 
achieved honors, viz., from 95 to 100 the highest, from 90 to 
95 the second, and from 80 to 90 the third, were read from 
the rostrum, but this after a few years was discontinued. I 
will not therefore attempt to record those attaining 80 and 
upward as the reader would find them tedious. 

The Chief Marshal, George McCorkle, and his aids, E. B. 
Engelhard, J. B. Lewis, and D. M. Williams, fully sustained 
the traditional reputation of the University for the grace and 
dignity of its officers. 

And the Ball Managers, led by the Chief, Fernando G. 
James, with assistants, J. H. Faison, N. H. Street, R. H. Davis 
and F. T. Barrow, prepared some of the most beautiful dances 
ever seen at the University. The practice of following up the 
dances by a supper was discontinued on account of financial 

Twelfth of October. 135 

and other reasons. The tradition was that they led to dis- 
order. An incident of one of the oldtime feasts should be 
recorded. It was the rule that no gentleman could attend the 
first table without a lady. A Freshman of fourteen summers 
gallantly offered his arm to an old maid of forty years and 
weighing two hundred pounds, and under protection of the 
rule marched boldly by the doorkeeper into the hall where 
the dainties were spread. The youth who had the pluck to 
do this has been president of two great universities and one 
great college. 

University Day Inaugurated. 

In 1877, at the request of President Battle, seconded by 
Governor Vance, the Executive Committee established the 12th 
of October as a perpetual holiday to commemorate the laying 
of the cornerstone of the Old East Building on that day in 
1793. For the first celebration ladies of the village with some 
students, headed by Mrs. Spencer, gave Gerrard Hall a lovely 
decoration. The entire length of the interior was festooned 
with wreaths of pines and other evergreens. Over the ros- 
trum was an arch bearing the inscription, "Virtue, Liberty, 
Science." On the right and above the word "Phi'' was the 
portrait of the first President, Dr. Joseph Caldwell. On the 
left and above the word "Di" was the portrait of the "Father 
of the University," William Richardson Davie. Within the 
recess of the rostrum was suspended the portrait of David L. 
Swain. Opposite the rostrum were the words, "North Caro- 
lina" and suspended in the gallery was the beautiful banner 
exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of 1876 at Philadelphia 
by ladies of the State and then presented by them to the Uni- 
versity. The rostrum was artistically decorated with flowers, 
and the whole scene was strikingly picturesque. 

The Glee Club sang "The Old North State" and President 
Battle followed with an address of an hour on the incidents 
connected with granting the charter and laying the corner- 
stone. He sketched the characters of the leading men who 
spent time, talent and money in starting the institution, such 

136 History of University of North Carolina. 

as Davie, Treasurer John Haywood, Judge Alfred Moore, 
Alexander Mebane, Thomas Blount, and William H. Hill, the 
last three Representatives in Congress. Being called out Rev. 
Dr. Charles Phillips, Rev. J. A. Mason, Prof. A. F. Redd, and 
Professor Winston responded very happily and received 
hearty applause. 

On August 31, 1877, the Faculty, and the Executive Commit- 
tee on their recommendation, again denied the application of 
Fraternities to be admitted into the University. But Phi Kappa 
Sigma first and later others existed sub rosa for some years 
until prohibition was removed and now (1912) the list includes 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Kappa Alpha, Beta Theta Pi, Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Xu, Phi Delta Theta, 
Alpha Tau Omega, Kappa Sigma, Phi Chi (Medical), and 
Omega Upsilon Phi (Medical). After their admission there 
naturally followed the erection of handsome houses, with sleep- 
ing rooms for members and other conveniences. The clubs 
applied to the Faculty and Trustees for permission to build on 
the margin of the Campus. But it was concluded that the 
fee simple of the ground should be owned by the fraterni- 
ties, so that funds could be raised by mortgage. Therefore 
lots were bought of citizens of Chapel Hill, most of them just 
outside the northwest portion of the Campus. The principal 
balls are those of the Zeta Psi, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa 
Epsilon, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Xu, Beta Theta Pi, and 
Alpha Tau Omega. On the whole the fraternity men and the 
nonfraternity men have worked together amicably, but in the 
course of time jealousies arose, partly among one another but 
mainly among the "frats" and the "nonfrats," which will here- 
after be related. 

Agricultural Experiment Station Established. 

President Battle became impressed with the evidence that 
our farmers suffer immense losses in the use of fertilizers : 
first, in buying the kind of fertilizers that the crops do not 
need ; and second, in being defrauded by the manufacturer or 
the middleman, or both. He prepared a speech, which he de- 

Experiment Station at Chapel Hill. 137 

livered at fairs and many other appropriate places, also before 
the General Assembly, showing that the farming class would 
be benefited by the establishment of an Experiment Station at 
Chapel Hill. He offered, as he was authorized by the Trus- 
tees to do, to afford all proper laboratory facilities. He also 
obtained a joint meeting of the State Grange, of representa- 
tives of the University, of the several Agricultural Societies 
of the State, of the Patrons of Husbandry, and the State 
Geologist. Dr. Columbus Mills, Master of the State Grange, 
was called to the chair. The conference was addressed by 
President Battle, Professor Redd, Professor Kerr and Col. 
J. M. Heck. On motion of President Battle a committee was 
instructed to lay the matter before the General Assembly. The 
chairman appointed President Battle, Dr. W. C. Kerr. Col. 
L. L. Polk and Gen. R. F. Hoke, and on motion the chairman 
was added to the committee. President Battle wrote their 
report. The General Assembly passed an act carrying into 
effect their recommendations. They created a Board of Agri- 
culture and levied a tax on commercial fertilizers, providing 
among other things for an Experiment Station and analysis 
of all such fertilizers, the station to be located at Chapel Hill, 
the chemist in charge to be elected by the Board of Trustees 
of the University. 

The Superintendent was employed by the Board of Trustees 
with the approval of the Board of Agriculture. His duty was 
to analyze the fertilizers and products required by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and aid in the suppression of fraud, 
carry on experiments on the nutrition and growth of plants, 
to ascertain what fertilizers are best suited to the crops of the 
State. He was to ascertain whether other crops may not be 
advantageously grown on our lands, and in general make such 
investigations as the Agricultural Department should prescribe. 
His salary was paid by the Department. 

In accordance with this law Albert R. Ledoux, of New York 
City, a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) of Columbia University 
and of Goettingen, a most capable chemist and judicious man 
of business, was elected, in 1877. 

138 History of University of North Carolina. 

I give the results of two years' labor in this branch of Uni- 
versity work, in order to show its character and efficiency : 

1. Every fertilizer sold in the State analyzed and the results pub- 

2. All chemicals purchased for composting and home use analyzed. 

3. The quality and germinating power of all seeds sent to the 
station tested. 

4. Analysis of soils, marls, mineral waters, etc., made free of 
charge, when sent with the approval of the State Geologist or the 
Board of Agriculture. 

5. Sugar beets and other products analyzed when directed by the 

6. Insects injurious to vegetation identified and the means of 
exterminating them pointed out — all free of charge. 

The liberality of the Board of Agriculture and the Trus- 
tees of the University fully equipped the Station for this work. 
Besides the necessary furnaces, apparatus and reagents, there 
was secured partly through donations by Mr. Warnecke 
and partly, at a small expense, from Germany, the most com- 
plete collection of seeds in any Agricultural College in the 
United States, embracing samples of the seeds, the grains, 
grasses, and weeds, exclusive of the "Centennial Collection" 
in the University Museum, over one thousand samples. 

The publications of the Station were of great value to 
farmers and were sent free of charge on application, such as 
Directions and Formulas for Composting, Directions for 
Utilizing Bones, Formulas for different crops, Analysis and 
Valuation of Fertilizers. 

The work of the Station was entirely acceptable to the people 
of the State, no complaint being made officially or otherwise. 
The assistants in addition to Messrs. W. B. Phillips and J. C. 
Taylor being W. Warnecke, of Germany, and A. D. Mickle, 
of Chapel Hill. It occupied four rooms in Smith Hall, one 
large laboratory for general work, a balance room, an assay 
room, and a dark room for work with the polariscope, and 
also two large store rooms in a neighboring building. In 
1880 it was reported that there had been made 900 analyses, 
requiring 3,000 quantitative determinations. There had been 
written 5,000 letters on subjects bearing upon the work. In 

Albert R. Ledoux 

Chas. W. Dabxet 

The President's Elocutionary Labors. 139 

addition to the work heretofore detailed, the following was 
regularly undertaken : Search for poisons, sent by order of 
coroners and county superintendents of health ; analysis of 
mineral waters, sent by the State Geologist; directions for 
making vinegar, for growing sugar beets ; the determination 
of the value of pine straw ; of the cowpea, etc. 

In 1880 Dr. Ledoux resigned his office in order to become 
the head of a flourishing Chemical Laboratory in New York 
City. He carried with him the reputation of consummate skill 
and ability as a chemist, an able and keen-sighted organizer 
of the Experiment Station, of a lofty, generous character, 
and a most courteous gentleman. He was succeeded by 
Charles W. Dabney, Jr., a Doctor of Philosophy of Goettin- 
gen, a most able and skillful officer, of acute initiative, of 
unimpeachable uprightness of conduct, in truth a most worthy 
successor to Dr. Ledoux, who carried forward the work under 
his charge to constantly expanding usefulness. In addition 
to the Assistants in the Department already mentioned were 
afterwards Wm. F. Bruggman and Herbert B. Battle. 

By Act of Alarch 14, 1881, the Board of Agriculture was 
authorized to erect a suitable building in Raleigh wherein to 
carry on its rapidly growing work. Naturally it was desired 
to have the operations of the Experiment Station conducted 
under the same roof, and by permission of the General As- 
sembly this removal was effected in that year. 

President's Addresses. 

The address which President Battle delivered on the sub- 
ject of the Relation of the University to the Farming Inter- 
ests did not by any means exhaust his elocutionary labors. He 
spoke, by invitation, at the closing exercises of many schools, 
at Agricultural Fairs, before the Members of the General As- 
sembly, and on many other occasions in this State and South 
Carolina ; but his address showing how the farmers were bene- 
fited by a University education was most noticed by the press 
and by individuals. He was greatly flattered by a unique 
compliment paid him by a plump, gray-haired farmer at Wal- 
halla, South Carolina. He was humorously satirizing the agri- 

140 History of University of North Carolina. 

cultural class for want of discretion in the purchase of com- 
mercial fertilizers and the use of those not adapted to the 
needs of the crops. He said that they acted as unwisely as 
would a physician who would prescribe calomel or quinine, 
ipecac or strychnine without seeing the patient or inquiring 
whether the trouble was fever or rheumatism, pneumonia or 
heart disease. The old gentleman laughingly observed to his 
neighbor, "Don't he call us d — d fools nice." 

He accepted every invitation to speak within the range of 
possibility. Once he was able to address schools at Wilson, 
Newton and at Yadkin College, in Davidson County, during 
the same week. Nor did he confine himself to addressing 
schools and Agricultural Fairs at their invitation. He met 
the people of a number of counties at their courthouses, alumni 
of the University advertising the meetings. It was while wait- 
ing for his time to begin at the courthouse in Asheville that 
he chanced to hear the first prisoner testify in her own de- 
fense under a recent Act of the Assembly. It was the case of 
a woman indicted for retailing spirituous liquors without li- 
cense. She soon convicted herself. During the examination 
she had a baby in her arms, who clamored lustily for the sus- 
tenance for which he tugged vainly from her skinny breast. 
Judge Dick ordered her to get rid of the child. She handed 
him to the Judge who rejected the gift most hastily. She 
then motioned to some one in the crowd who relieved her of 
her burden. In passing sentence the Judge said: "1 am 
doubtful what to do with this woman. If I imprison her I 
must imprison the child and he has not broken the law. Let 
judgment be suspended on the payment of costs." The woman 
went on her way rejoicing and then it leaked out that the 
child was not hers. It was borrowed to play on the notable 
kindheartedness of Judge Dick. 

Besides these speeches directly connected with the Univer- 
sity, President Battle was called on to deliver others, which 
he thought might at least keep it before the public. Among 
these were "The Early History of the City of Raleigh"; "Fifty 
Years of the Episcopal Church in the United States," at the 
celebration of the fiftieth anniversarv of the ordination of 

The President's Addresses. 141 

Bishop Lyman; "Life and Services of Brigadier-General Sum- 
ner," at the Guilford Battle Ground Celebration; "Laymen of 
the Church of England in the Province of North Carolina" ; 
"Early History of the L'niversity of North Carolina," before 
the Wilmington Historical Society; "The Importance of the 
Teacher's Calling," before the State Teachers' Association ; 
"The Character of George E. Badger," before the Siler City 
Academy ; "The Constitutional History of North Carolina," at 
the Commencement of Davidson College ; "Trials and Judicial 
Proceedings of the New Testament," before the American In- 
stitute of Christian Philosophy in New York. 


Normal School of 1877. 

The General Assembly by Act ratified March 9, 1877, 
authorized the State Board of Education to establish a Normal 
School in connection with the University for the purpose of 
teaching and training young men of the white race for teach- 
ers of the common schools of the State. Two thousand dollars 
a year for two years was appropriated and a like amount was 
authorized for colored teachers at other places. 

Governor Vance called a meeting of the Board, requesting 
President Battle to be present and submit such recommenda- 
tions as the Faculty and himself chose to make as' to the con- 
stitution of the school. Two plans were suggested. One was 
to add to the Faculty a Professor of Normal Teaching. The 
other was strongly recommended by Dr. Barnas Sears, Super- 
intendent of the Peabody Fund, of worldwide fame as an edu- 
cator, once the head of the public school system of Massachu- 
setts. It was to have a free Summer School at the University, 
throwing open its halls and lecture rooms, and also its dormi- 
tories, and employing the best experts obtainable in all the 
branches taught in the schools. Such was his faith in this 
scheme that he offered to aid by giving $500 out of the Peabody 
Fund to pay the expenses of poor teachers. The Faculty 
almost unanimously endorsed it, President Battle being strongly 
in its favor. When it was recommended to the Board of Edu- 
cation Governor Vance said in substance, "Why ! with such a 
project we can electrify the State from Cherokee to Currituck." 

The organization of the school was placed by the Board 
under the charge of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
Hon. J. C. Scarborough, and President Battle, who always 
worked in entire harmony. It was resolved to open it on the 
third of July, to continue six weeks. President Battle, on 
account of' Mr. Scarborough's duties calling- him elsewhere, 

Normal School of 1877. 143 

had general control, including the employment of lecturers and 
disbursement of the fund for the expenses of poor teachers. 

An important question came up at the outset. The Act 
authorizing the school confined its benefits to male teachers 
and those desiring to be teachers. It was exceedingly impor- 
tant that females should be included. The Board of Educa- 
tion took the ground and the University concurred, that while 
the public money could not be paid to females, there could be 
no objection to their attending the sessions, and they were 
accordingly invited to take advantage of all the exercises. 
Their presence contributed much to the success of the school, 
and Dr. Sears gave them their share of the $500 appropriation 
for poor teachers. The Act by its terms only lasted two years, 
but at the end of the time it was renewed until repealed and 
the restriction as to sex was removed. 

The object of the school was to teach the latest and most 
improved methods of managing classes, arousing interest, im- 
parting knowledge, and developing the minds of the pupils, at 
the same time giving instruction in the subjects usually taught 
in the schools. Only acknowledged experts were employed, 
whether residents of North Carolina or elsewhere. 

The Superintendent employed was recommended by Dr. 
Sears, Prof. John J. Ladd, of Vermont, a graduate of Brown 
University, who had worked in the public schools of New Eng- 
land and lastly was Superintendent of the Graded Schools of 
Staunton, Virginia, a man of large experience in such work. 
He had the general management and each morning delivered 
lectures of singular point and common sense, with clear and 
appropriate illustrations. No one could listen to his instruc- 
tion without having his enthusiasm aroused and having hints 
as to how wisely to arouse enthusiasm in others. Prominent 
inhabitants of Chapel Hill, not connected with the schools, at- 
tended regularly these lectures. 

He was assisted by a staff of teachers chosen solely for. their 
skill in their special lines, no ma~tter in what locality they re- 
sided, disregarding denominational and college affiliations. The 
branches taught are Arithmetic, written and mental ; Gram- 
mar, Analysis, Geography, Reading, Orthography, Phonics. 

144 History of University of North Carolina. 

Penmanship, Vocal Music, School Discipline, Methods, Organi- 
zation, Qualifications, Legal Relations of Teacher, Parent, and 
Child. The instruction was by recitation and lectures occupy- 
ing seven hours a day. Prof. S. H. Owen, late Superintend- 
ent of the Public Schools of Petersburg, Virginia, and late 
President of Deshler Female Institute of Tuscumbia, Alabama, 
had charge of Geography. Prof. Alexander Mclver, formerly 
Superintendent of Public Instruction in North Carolina, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in Davidson College, and now Principal 
of the Graded Schools of Greensboro, was chief of the depart- 
ment of Mathematics. Prof. Julius L. Tomlinson, former Pro- 
fessor of Santa Barbara University and late Professor in Cen- 
tral Teachers' Institute, had charge of the English Language 
and Literature. Mr. Eugene H. Wilson, assisted by his 
brother, Mr. Charles L. Wilson, both accomplished musical in- 
structors, gave lessons in singing. Prof. George T. Winston, 
Professor of Latin and German in the University, organized a 
class in the Latin Language. Mr. John E. Dugger, Superin- 
tendent of the Graded Schools of Raleigh, was Secretary. 

The number of pupils enrolled was two hundred and thirty- 
five, of whom one hundred and twenty-eight were men, one 
hundred and seven women. One hundred and seventeen were 
actual teachers, the rest as a rule designing to teach. Forty- 
two counties were represented. 

In addition to the regular instruction, public lectures were 
delivered by prominent men at night before the school and all 
comers. They were very instructive and inspiring, especially 
to those students who were residents of places far from the 
centers of population. The following list will show the charac- 
ter of these addresses, which were listened to with the most 
intense interest. 

His Excellency, Governor Vance, on "America the Granary 
of the World."' Prof. W. C. Kerr, State Geologist, three lec- 
tures, on the "Formation of Coal," on the "Climatology of 
North Carolina," and on "Iron and Iron Ores." These lec- 
tures were illustrated with maps, diagrams, and stereopticon 
views. The third was at the mouth of the iron mine near 
Chapel Hill, to which the school made an excursion. Prof. A. 

Normal School of 1877. 145 

W. Mangum on "The Sufficiency of the Bible for the Religious 
Needs of the World." Prof. J. N. Moffatt, two lectures on 
"What is Education?" and on "Poets and Poetry." Hon. F. H. 
Busbee on "The Correlation of Forces." Hon. A. M. Waddell 
on "Two Americans — Morse and Maury." Dr. R. H. Lewis, 
of Raleigh, on "The Eye as Affected by School Life." Dr. 
George W. Graham, "The Ear, Its Structure and Functions." 
Judge A. S. Merrimon on "Our Public Evils and Their Rem- 
edies." Dr. Eugene Grissom on "Mental Hygiene for Pupil 
and Teacher." Judge John Kerr on "Public and Private Edu- 
cation." Major Robert Bingham on "The x\nglo-Saxon 
Race." Hon. Paul C. Cameron on "Agriculture and Its 
Changed Condition." Prof. George T. Winston on the "His- 
toric Value of Words." Prof. S. H. Owen, several lectures on 
"What is Normal Instruction?" Prof. A. Mclver, several 
lectures on "Physiology." Prof. J. S. Tomlinson, two lectures 
on "California." President Battle on "The History of the 
University and Its Relation to Agricultural Training." In 
addition to the regular instruction the male teachers were en- 
couraged to form a Debating Society. They entered into it 
with spirit. The meetings were public and largely attended. 

In order to promote mutual acquaintance and sociability a 
weekly meeting of all the school, reinforced by citizens of the 
village, was had in the University Library, which was then 
free of alcoves. Here couples, introduced to each other by the 
energetic tact of Secretary Dugger, promenaded and chatted 
until the prescribed hour for breaking up, eleven o'clock p. m. 
Singing and recitations were features of the gathering, so that 
the "Cold Water Walk Arounds," as these meetings were 
appropriately called, gave much pleasure and incidentally 
profit in the practice of easy manners. 

Another pleasant and significant feature of the school was 
the visits of prominent teachers and other intelligent persons, 
who came to inspect the novel and much-talked-of enterprise. 
They did not hand in their names to the Secretary for enroll- 
ment, but they gave to the school their approval and spread 
abroad its prestige. Many of the inhabitants of Chapel Hill 
were regular attendants upon the exercises. Among the visi- 


146 History of University of North Carolina. 

tors from abroad was the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
of South Carolina, Hon. Hugh Thompson, afterwards Gov- 
ernor, who was so pleased that he inaugurated a similar school 
in his own State. 

The following lines were found on the breakfast table of 
President Battle and were recited with great applause at the 
Normal Concert on the night of Wednesday, the 8th of Au- 
gust. The author was Airs. C. P. Spencer. 


Let us sing to the Normal School, 
Where Nature, not Art, is the rule, 
Where the teacher is brought 
Like a child, to be taught, 

What is that we call Education? 
That not all the knowledge 
He gains in a college, 
Not the problems that vex, 
Nor the laws that perplex, 
Nor the strongest reliance 
On what he calls "Science," 

Are all he needs in his vocation. 
But he learns that the teacher, 
As well as the preacher, 
Must raise his thoughts higher 
Than selfish desire 

Of wealth, or of fame, or mere worldly well-doing. 
That to hear the "Well done," 
When his race he has run, 

He must labor and "tho' faint, be pursuing." 

'Twas with very much wondering, 
And laughing and blundering, 
To the famous old Hill 
We came with a will, 
By way most informal, 
To look at the Normal, 

Not dreaming of what would befall, 
And oh! it is past telling, 
The reading and spelling, 
The grammar and the writing, 
And the lectures we delight in, 

And the kindness that we met withal. 
Time would fail should we tell 
Of the campus and well, 

Ode to the Normal School. 147 

Of the walks 

And the talks, 

And the tuneful college bell. 

What a treasure 

Is the pleasure 

That the six weeks have brought us. 
Our hearts will ever burn 
When our memories we turn 

To the thoughts of the lessons they have taught us. 
When each of us became 
As a little child again, 
And sat low at the feet of a master. 
Our pulse will beat faster 
As we think of the long summer days; 
When all the good and the great 
Who adorn our native State, 
Came to help and to cheer and to praise. 

And now ere we go, 
Let us pay the thanks we owe 
To the college and the President, 
And every Chapel Hill resident, 
For the kindness and the grace 
That have so endeared the place. 
Never was there such a Ladd. 
As this Normal School has had 
To point them to their duty, 
And show them all the beauty 
Of a self-denying labor 
For the welfare of their neighbor. 

Such instruction makes us glad, 

Every lass must love a Ladd. 
And what true and hearty gratitude 

We shall ever be Oicen 

To him who has been showin' 

Us his notions 

Of the ocean, 
Of climate, dry and wet, 
And of longitude and latitude. 

In Professor A. Mclver, 
His quotients and his fractions 
And other such distractions, 
We are, each, a firm believer, 
For though he teased us much. 
He pleased us much. 

148 History of University of North Carolina. 

And though Prof. Winston* 
Kept our noses on the grindstone, 
In a brave attempt to grind 
A bit of Latin into our mind, 
Yet our thanks must be sent, 
For we know 'twas kindly meant. 

And as for Mr. Wilson, 

We are sure that Madame Nilsson, 
Though the world is ringing 
With her singing, 

Never draws 

More applause 
Than our master's skilful rule 
Merits from his grateful school. 

Now when all is said and done, 

Here's Professor Tomlinson — f 
For such a Friend indeed 
We have verily a need, 
As many a kind glance will confer; 
Yet with every disposition 

To suggest 
That a change in his condition 

Would be best — 
Alas! is all we can express. 

And now, friends, fare ye well! 

Our pen will never tell 

Of our heart's true and lasting emotion. 

Never more, 

As heretofore, 

Shall we rove 

Through the grove — 
But in that Higher School, 
Where Christ Himself doth rule; 
And there we may believe 
The faithful teacher shall receive 
The reward of his life-long devotion. 

Of course among so many young people gathered together 
in the beautiful Campus, there was some love making, but 
never a scandal or harsh criticism. Some happy marriages 
owe their beginning to the social attraction of the University 
of North Carolina Summer Normal School. Among them for 

* Pronounce the name Wine-stone by poetical license, 
t Professor Tomlinson was a Quaker and a bachelor. 

Success of the Normal School. 149 

example the eminent Father of higher female education by the 
State, Dr. Charles D. Mclver, gained his life partner here. 

It is difficult to understand at the present day the amount of 
interest and enthusiasm created by this Normal School through- 
out this State and elsewhere in the South. It was imitated by 
the University of Virginia, South Carolina, Mississippi, and 
perhaps other States. It was the fons et origo of many graded 
schools. Dr. Sears affirmed that it was the first summer school 
in the Union connected with any university or college. On 
account of his connection with the Peabody Fund he watched 
with deepest interest all efforts tending to advance public edu- 
cation. He was greatly pleased with the success of our school, 
and wrote President Battle as follows : 

Peabody Education Fund. 

Staunton, Va., Aug. 18, 1877. 
President Battle. 

My Deae Sir: — I write a word to congratulate you on the splendid 
success of your Normal School. Many things and many men seem 
to have contributed to this result, but I know enough of such mat- 
ters to know that he who has had the marshalling of all the forces 
has been the chief agent. I feel greatly obliged to you for the wis- 
dom, energy and great labor on your part, which has made the whole 
movement so auspicious. Yours truly, B. Sears, 

General Agent. 

In another letter, dated September 10, 1877, Dr. Sears 
wrote: "I expected some measure of success, but nothing like 
what has been realized. I am happy to see this new evidence of 
what I knew before, that all grades of instruction are recipro- 
cally dependent on each other. The University men are to 
throw their light on all the lower schools, and these in turn 
are to be feeders of the higher. * * * You are now doing 
a great thing for the State. It is fortunate that we can work 
together with so much mutual confidence." 

Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, ever on the lookout for 
means to advance the success of the University, was a most 
efficient co-worker, in increasing the prestige of the Summer 
School. With the aid of her daughter Julia, now the wife of 
Professor Tames Lee Love, of Cambridge, Mass., she sent 

150 History of University of Xorth Carolina. 

full reports of the lectures to the public press. They were duly 
published and turned the attention of thousands of readers to 
the important work going on at Chapel Hill. 


During this year was organized a band of four burglars, 
whose crimes seriously threatened the prosperity of the Nor- 
mal School and alarmed the inhabitants of the neighborhood. 
Six houses in different parts of the village and in its neighbor- 
hood were entered, the miscreants aiming for rooms in which 
were sleeping young ladies. On one of them rude hands were 
laid, but her screams frightened them into a rapid retreat. At 
last it became known that a widow, Airs. Margaret Hendon, 
had received a remittance from her Southern plantation, the 
amount of course greatly exaggerated, and a little before mid- 
night two of them, leaving two on the outside, boldly forced 
her front door and then her bed chamber. She rushed to the 
window and screamed for help. A blow was aimed at her head 
with the blade of an axe which gave her a deep scalp wound. 
Other blows followed with a small club. Fortunately her 
screams were heard by Mr. John Mallett and his father, Dr. 
Wm. P. Mallett, and the son, quickly followed by the father 
and some colored boys sleeping in an outhouse, rushed to her 
help and the robbers fled without obtaining the money. Their 
victim languished for some weeks, but recovered. 

This transaction aroused the village to fever heat. Patrols 
were appointed to watch the town at night. An expert detec- 
tive from Richmond was employed. Leading citizens acted as 
voluntary detectives. Almost by accident one Albert Atwater, 
colored, was detected in a minor offense. While a prisoner he 
became frightened and confessed that he, with two white men 
and one colored had committed all the burglaries, one or more 
watching on the outside while the others entered the houses. 
They were tried in Orange Superior Court and convicted of 
burglary and three were hanged on the 16th of April, 1878 — 
all except Atwater, who, allowed to turn State's evidence, es- 
caped with a period of imprisonment, but died soon afterwards. 
The condemned admitted that thev had a fair trial and that the 

Brilliant Commencement in 1878. 151 

jury was justified in finding a verdict against them on the evi- 
dence, but asserted that some of the evidence was false. The 
Governor (Jarvis) was importuned to grant a pardon or com- 
mutation, but after thorough investigation refused. The chief 
ground pressed on the Governor was that a white man should 
not be hanged on the evidence of a negro, but it was shown 
that there were corroborating circumstances pointing to guilt. 
The Judge, the Solicitor, and lawyers assisting the Solicitor, 
including Thomas Ruffin, Jr., late a Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the State, had no doubt of guilt. 

The execution had a wonderfully good effect. There was 
not a burglary in this neighborhood for many years afterwards, 
and in the limits of Chapel Hill not one to this day. 

Commencement of 1878. 

In 1878 the Committee of Visitation, Hon. John Manning 
and ex-Judge Wm. H. Battle, and General Julian S. Carr, re- 
ported most favorably on "the character and thoroughness of 
the instruction and the good behavior and morals of the stu- 

The Commencement of 1878 was very brilliant. As an index 
to the attendance it may be mentioned that at the annual ball, 
held after the regular exercises were over, the reporter inter- 
viewed and described the dresses of seventy-eight ladies, stat- 
ing that there were others that he was not able to meet. The 
seventy-eight were from Alabama, Virginia, and from Raleigh, 
Hillsboro, Fayetteville, Wilson, Richmond County, Greensboro, 
Yadkin County, Pittsboro, Charlotte, Pitt County, Halifax, 
Wilmington, and other points. Of course gentlemen attended 
these ladies, and there were numbers who were not in their 
service. On the last day large numbers came in from the 
country within a few miles of Chapel Hill. The reporter 
counted one hundred and seventeen vehicles between Commons 
Hall and the Chapel. There was also in attendance the 
Orange County Guards, a fine company, under Captain Halcott 

The Baccalaureate sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. George 
Patterson, then of Wilmington, afterwards of Memphis, of. the 

152 History of University of North Carolina. 

Episcopal Church. He was by descent half Greek, his father 
named Papatharkes, but becoming an American missionary, 
changed his name to the equivalent, Patterson. His mother 
was of Massachusetts. He was a man of eloquence and power, 
not diminished by some harmless eccentricities. He preached 
on the "Race of Life," prefacing with a vivid description of 
the Grecian games and the regulations governing it. 

The address before the two Literary Societies on Wednes- 
day morning was by Major Joseph A. Engelhard, an honor 
man of the graduating class of 1854, then Secretary of State, 
an Adjutant-General in the Confederate Army. His subject 
was "The Duty of Young Men of the South at the Present 
Time." The discourse teemed with sound and patriotic advice, 
all the more appreciated because he had served four years in 
the Confederate Army, mainly under Lee. His peroration was 
much admired. "My young friends ! I ask you to look into 
your hearts and commence there the exalted work I have pro- 
posed for you and the youth of the country. Your hearts are 
the altars on which must burn the fires of our country's liberty 
and honor. These altars are no longer made of stone and 
brass. They are composed of immortal emotions and thoughts. 
As the- best means of preserving our country's honor watch and 
guard your own : 'it is the immediate jewel of your souls.' Let 
the life of each of you be the record of your country and 
humanity, and next to, and part of, your duty to your God ; pre- 
serve vour own characters, always remembering that honor is 
the armor of the true gentleman. Keep yours as bright as the 
diamond and the jewel that adorns your breast will be the 
shield that defends it." 

Hon. James Grant, ex-Judge of the Superior Court of Iowa, 
delivered a most interesting and instructive address before the 
Alumni Association. He graduated here in 183 1, taught 
school a year and concluded to seek his fortunes in the then far 
west. Leaving Raleigh on horseback and alone he stopped at 
Chicago, then a mere hamlet, but not liking the place he con- 
tinued his journey and settled at Davenport, Iowa. Here he 
engaged in the practice of the law, and, according to the cus- 
tom of the members of the bar of that region, in land specula- 

Commencement of 1878. 153 

tion. He was very successful, rising to the dignity of Judge 
and accumulating a handsome fortune. In the early part of 
his address he gave sketches of our old Professors, and then 
launched into a description of the wonderful progress of the 
age, especially of the United States. The address was so full 
of instruction that a copy was asked for publication. 

The original orations of the representatives of the two socie- 
ties were pronounced to be most creditable. In the choice of 
these the Faculty had no part. The speakers were as a rule 
fair specimens of the best society orators, but occasionally 
afterwards one triumphed mainly because of his being a leader 
in one of the "Factions" as they were called. Of these among 
the Di's there were three, the South Building, the West Build- 
ing, and the New West Building parties. Among the Phi's 
they were East and South Buildings. It is difficult to explain 
the difference between these parties. Probably they were not 
divided on account of any matter of principle, but by the acci- 
dent of rooming in separate dormitories. The South Building 
faction, roughly speaking, corresponded to the subsequent fra- 
ternities. Although these parties had only a loose organiza- 
tion, with no by-laws or permanent place of meeting, Univer- 
sity public opinion held the students very firmly bound and 
much rancorous feeling ensued from one claiming the privi- 
lege to renounce his faction and join another. 

The speakers of the Philanthropic Society and their subjects 
were : David Bell, Enfield, "The Voice of the People" ; James 
Smith Manning, Pittsboro, "Communism in America" ; Robert 
Watson Winston, Windsor, "Chivalry." From the Dialectic 
Society there were : Robert Strange, Wilmington, "What Shall 
be Done With the Turk?"; Edward Benson Engelhard, Wil- 
mington, "Does Defeat Make Treason ?" ; James Madison 
Leach, Jr., Lexington, "Philosophy and Effects of Popular 

The audience seemed to favor Mr. Leach,, next to him Mr. 
Strange, and then Messrs. Engelhard and Winston. The first 
named and the third died early, the second became a Bishop. 
Winston is an able lawyer and has been a Judge. 

154 History of University of North Carolina. 

Thursday, Commencement Day, was perfect as to weather 
and there was a large company and much enjoyment. There 
was a procession led by the Salem Cornet Band, at the head of 
which was the Chief Marshal, Charles B. Aycock. Behind 
them were the Orange County Guards. After them came stu- 
dents, alumni, citizens of Chapel Hill and vicinity, visitors, 
teachers, parents and guardians, clergy, Faculty, Trustees, 
State officers, and lastly Governor Vance and President Battle. 
The custom of baring the head passing the grave of President 
Caldwell was kept up. At the Chapel the procession paused, 
opened ranks and entered in reverse order. 

The exercises began with the singing of the following hymn, 
attributed to Mrs. Spencer : 

' Oh God, our father's God, whose care 
With blessings fills the circling year, 
Rememb'ring Thee in all our ways, 
We bring our annual song of praise. 

We bless Thy name, Almighty God, 
Who giv'st us here a sure abode, 
For all the favor Thou hast shown 
The State and age we call our own. 

Here Freedom spreads her banners wide, 
Here learning and religion guide, 
By heavenly Truth's unfading ray, 
Our youth in Wisdom's narrow way. 

"Eternal source of every joy"! 
Well may Thy praise our life employ, 
And all our powers unite to bless 
The Lord, our strength and righteousness. 

A prayer led by Rev. Frank L. Reid, President of the Louis- 
burg Female College, followed the hymn. Then came the 
speeches of the Seniors. Their names and subjects are given: 

William Pinckney Cline, Newton, "The Anglo-Saxon." 

James Mann Nicholson, Enfield, "The Dollar of Our 

Nathaniel Heath Street, New Bern, "Be Men, Live Men, 
Die Men !" 

Graduates of 1878. 153 

Henry Thomas Watkins, Henderson, "Utah and the Mor- 

Edward John Hill, Faison, "Other Worlds." 
John Bryan Lewis, Raleigh, "Xone but True Americans on 
Guard." • 

Arthur Arrington, Louisburg, "Choosing a Vocation." 
Charles Wilcher Gallaway, Alt. Airy, "The Real in the 

George McCorkle, Xewton, "Why Leave Xorth Carolina?" 

In the afternoon Colonel John H. Wheeler, author of Wheel- 
er's History, delivered an interesting historical address on 
Theodosia (Burr) Alston. He inclined to the opinion that the 
portrait recently discovered in the cabin of a fisherman is that 
of Aaron Burr's daughter, Theodosia, and that she was either 
lost in a shipwreck or was made to "walk the plank" by a 
pirate. After discussing this question Colonel Wheeler nar- 
rated the principal events of Burr's life, especially after the 
killing of Hamilton. 

The services were concluded by singing a Psalm to the tune 
of "Old Hundred," and the benediction by Rev. Dr. Patterson. 

The graduates of 1878 were : 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) : 

Arthur Arrington, Louisburg. 

James Hicks Faison, Faison. 

Charles Wilcher Gallaway, Mt. Airy. 

Edward John Hill, Faison. 

George McCorkle, Newton. 

James Mann Nicholson, Enfield. 

Henry Thomas Watkins, Henderson 7 

Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.) : 

William Pinckney Cline, Newton 1 

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) : 

Nathaniel Heath Street, New Bern 1 

Henry Barber Nixon, graduated in the College of Mathe- 
matics; Charles Brantley Aycock, Robert Ernest Caldwell, 
Alfred Daniel Jones, and John Bryan Lewis in the College of 
Philosophy, and Marcus Cicero Stephens Xoble in the School 
of Latin. 

156 History of University of North Carolina. 

The following medals were granted : 

Latin — Frank Battle Dancy. 
Chemistry— Ernest Haywood. 
Oratory — Arthur Arrington. 
German — James Smith. Manning. 

The following honorary degrees were conferred on the 
recommendation of the Faculty : 

Doctor of Lazvs (LL.D.): Ex-Judge James Grant, of Iowa, 
graduate of 183 1 ; ex-Chief Justice Thomas C. Manning, of 
Louisiana, alumnus of 1843. 

Doctor of Divinity (D.D.): Rev. James M. Sprunt, Duplin 
County; Rev. John J. Roberts, New York, a graduate of 1838. 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.): Hon. J. B. Killebrew, of 
Tennessee, graduate of 1856. 

Master of Arts (A.M.): Prof. W. M. Brookins, Ohio; W. 
J. B. Wesson. 

The Marshals were as usual efficient and well supported the 
dignity of the occasion. They were Charles B. Aycock, Chief, 
with John M. Manning, Joseph E. Ransom, and Frank K. Bor- 
den, of the Philanthropic Society, and John C. Angier, Thomas 
I. McNeill, and Charles C. Covington, of the Dialectic. The 
Philanthropic Society at first elected a law student, Neil A. 
McLean. The members of the opposition party protested be- 
fore President Battle that he was ineligible as the law passed 
by the Trustees confined the office to undergraduates of the 
Junior Class, and at that time law students were not subject to 
the ordinary University discipline and classification. Mr. 
McLean gracefully retired. But the party to whom the 
Society had already given the three Assistants also coveted the 
place of Chief. Their candidate was, however, defeated by 
Mr. Aycock. Mr. McLean, by his ready acquiesence in the 
adverse ruling of the Faculty, was entitled to and received 
their approbation. If he had insisted on his claim of right to 
the office it is certain that he would have been sustained by 
the majority of the Philanthropic Society, and we would have 
had a repetition of the trouble of 1852. He was excellently 
qualified for the position, having talent and goodly appear- 
ance and having learned how to manage men when Captain in 

Normal School of 1878. 157 

the Bingham School. He afterwards became a State Senator 
and a prominent lawyer. 

The. first chosen Chief Marshal of this notable Commence- 
ment was Frank Wood, a member of the Philanthropic 
Society, but he was prevented from accepting the office on 
account of a trip to Europe. 

The Ball Managers were Alva C. Springs, Chief, of the Dia- 
lectic Society ; Joseph C. Dowd and Thomas Edmundson, 
Phi's, and Charles C. Cobb and Lucien H. Walker, Di's. 

In i877-'78 Professor Redd took General and Analytical 
Chemistry ; Professor Graves, Engineering and Physics ; 
Frederick Wra, Simonds, M.S. (Cornell), succeeded Professor 
Smith, resigned — his department was Geology, Zoology, and 
Botany ; Professor Grandy became Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Botany; Professor Simonds be- 
came Librarian ; Professor Grandy, Secretary. 

Normal School of 1878. Kindergarten. 

The Normal School was opened June 18th and closed July 
26th. Before enrollment the teachers were addressed by 
President Battle, Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips, Rev. J. F. Heit- 
man, and Rev. Dr. A. W. Mangum, of the Methodist Church, 
and Rev. A. C. Dixon, of the Baptist Church. These all gave 
a hearty welcome to Chapel Hill and urged strongly the im- 
portance of a teacher's calling. They were followed by Prof. 
J. J. Ladd, who expressed his pride in being engaged in this 
glorious work. He regarded his connection with the Normal 
School of North Carolina as a crowning event of a long life 
as a teacher. 

President Battle had general charge ; Prof. John J. Ladd was 
Superintendent and Lecturer on Methods, School Manage- 
ment, Discipline, etc. ; Mr. S. H. Owen had charge of Geog- 
raphy and Reading, Phonetics, and Penmanship ; Alexander 
Mclver had charge of Mathematics, English Grammar, and 
Physiology 7 ; Major Jed Hotchkiss lectured on Geography and 
the methods of teaching it ; J. Madison Watson lectured on 
Elocution ; Walter H. Page was Professor of English Philol- 

158 History of University of North Carolina. 

ogy; George T. Winston and M. C. S. Noble were Professors 
of the Latin Language ; R. H. Graves was Professor of 
Algebra; C. D. Grandy lectured on Chemistry; Messrs. E. M. 
Wilson and C. L. Wilson were teachers of Vocal Music ; Prof. 
J. E. Dugger was Secretary. 

So much attention had been given in recent years to the train- 
ing of children it was thought best to employ an instructor in 
the Kindergarten system. An accomplished exponent of the 
system was found in Miss Emily M. Coe, of New York City, 
who regularly taught a special class of teachers, and also deliv- 
ered lectures on the subject before the whole school. Fifty- 
three children of various ages were daily drilled under her 
guidance by the members of the Kindergarten Class. This is 
thought to be the first Normal Kindergarten class in North 

In addition to the regular instruction by the Faculty of the 
school lectures on important subjects were delivered by promi- 
nent gentlemen of this State and elsewhere. A list of their 
names and subjects are given. 

President Battle: "History of the Selection of the Site of the 

Maj. Robert Bingham: "The English Bible." 

General Thomas L. Clingman: "Follies of the Positive Philoso- 

Major Seaton Gales: "The Nineteenth Century." 

Hon. S. F. Phillips, Solicitor-General U. S. A.: "Influence of the 
Normal School on Education in North Carolina." 

Prof. A. W. Mangum: "History of Church Customs." 

Hon. J. C. Scarborough: "Defects of the Public School System in 
North Carolina." 

Governor Vance: "Practical Education and Its Importance to 
North Carolina." 

Major Jed Hotchkiss: Three lectures, on "Geography" and "Stone- 
wall Jackson's Valley Campaign." 

Prof. John R. Blake: "Natural Science: Its Importance." 

Dr. Thomas W. Harris: "The Circulation of the Blood." 

Miss Coe: "Color and Form." 

Prof. J. Madison Watson: Four lectures, on Teaching Reading, 
on Spelling and Letter Sounds; two on Elocution. 

Rev. Dr. J. Henry Smith: "The Importance of Little Things." 

Normal School of 1878. 159 

Judge R. P. Dick: "The Bible as a Textbook." 

Prof. W. C. Kerr: "The Geology of North Carolina." 

Prof. C. D. Grandy: "The Spectroscope." 

Rev. Dr. C. H. Wiley: "The History of Our Public School System." 

Rev. Dr. T. H. Pritchard: "The English Language." 

Rev. Dr. N. B. Cobb: "Phonography." 

Hon. L. L. Polk, Commissioner of Agriculture: "What Are the 
Demands of Our State and How Shall We Meet Them?" 

Prof. George T. Winston: Two lectures, on "The Character of the 
Romans" and on "Latin Pronunciation." 

This was a brilliant session of the school. The total number 
in attendance was four hundred and two, of whom one hundred 
and ninety were women. The number of counties represented 
was fifty-nine. Among the new features were the novel and 
suggestive lectures of Major Hotchkiss, of Staunton, Virginia, 
particularly his illuminating story of the Valley Campaign of 
Stonewall Jackson ; the lectures of Mr. Watson, writer of popu- 
lar school books and teacher in the schools of New York; the 
teachings on English Philology by Mr. Page, illustrated by ex- 
tracts from the great authors, particularly Shakespeare; the 
best methods of teaching Algebra, Latin, and Chemistry, by 
University Professors, Messrs. Graves, Winston, and Grandy; 
the introduction into the State of kindergarten instruction, by 
the accomplished Miss E. M. Coe, of New York, while the 
vocal music was further extended by the addition of Mr. 
Charles Wilson, who formed choirs and glee clubs while his 
brother taught the school at large. The singing added liveli- 
ness and happiness to the school and enabled the teachers to 
secure the same result among their classes. 

An inspection of the list of lecturers will enable one to real- 
ize what intellectual advantages were enjoyed during this 
school. General Clingman was then in his prime and discussed 
his subject in a way to delight all orthodox hearers. Major 
Bingham handled his great subject in his usual able, thorough 
and unconventional style. Rev. Dr. J. Henry Smith and Judge 
Dick were, as always, strong and eloquent ; Professor Kerr was 
the greatest then living authority on the Geology of North 
Carolina, and Professor Grandy explained lucidly the wonders 
of the spectroscope. Dr. Wiley's history was highest author- 

160 History of University of North Carolina. 

ity, as it might be said to him, "quorum magna pars fuisti." 
Rev. Dr. Pritchard was considered one of the ablest speakers 
in his church, the Baptist. Dr. Cobb showed how easily a 
bright mind could acquire shorthand writing. Colonel Polk's 
office gave him full opportunity to know the needs of the State 
and he well illustrated his subject. Dr. Winston's lectures 
showed much thought and impressive delivery. President Bat- 
tle's History of the Selection of the Site of the University was 
listened to with great interest. Major Gales was con- 
sidered one of the best speakers in the State and his lecture was 
one of his most admirable. Solicitor-General Phillips proved 
what we claimed, that the Normal School was almost revolu- 
tionizing education in North Carolina. Rev. Dr. Mangum was 
at his best in the History of Church Customs. Mr. Scar- 
borough's long service as Superintendent of Public Instruction 
gave him full insight into the defects of the Public School 
system and he most forcibly pointed them out. Governor 
Vance showed his usual strength and forcible style in pointing 
out the advantages to individuals and to the State of practical 
education. Prof. John R. Blake, of Davidson College, gave a 
charming exposition of the importance of Natural Science, 
and Dr. Thomas W. Harris a lucid exposition on the Circula- 
tion of the Blood. And finally Miss Coe, in the graceful style 
for which women are conspicuous, lectured on Color and Form. 

The teachers in attendance organized a State Teachers' As- 
sociation, and took steps toward the formation of County Asso- 
ciations. President Battle was elected President. 

The Normal students were allowed free use of the Univer- 
sity Library, and by the courtesy of the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies, of their libraries. The University Museum 
and Laboratories were likewise open for their use. 

The Normal School Debating Society, formed the previous 
year, was continued and was of great advantage in training 
how to speak and how to write. The orations and essays on 
the closing day by Messrs. C. W. Howard, R. P. Pell, J. M. 
Bandy, C. B. Aycock, R. S. Arrowood, J. H. Small, R. E. 
Caldwell, and W. R. Slade, were much praised by the large 
audience, both for matter and manner. 

Normal School of 1878. 161 

The fund placed in President Battle's hands by Rev. Dr. 
Sears, $500, supplemented from the State appropriation, for 
the payment of the expenses of indigent teachers, was carefully 
expended and was a blessing to many. By this aid eighty- 
three indigent teachers were enabled to attend the school. 
The fund was devoted almost entirely to defraying traveling 
expenses. The railroad companies of the State and the Black- 
water line of steamboats likewise increased the attendance by 
granting reduced fares. 

Every exertion was made by giving the free use of the Uni- 
versity dormitories, and the loan or rent of bedding, etc., as 
well as by supplying facilities for cooking for those desiring to 
board themselves, to reduce expenses to a minimum. Many 
persons of small means lived at a cost of only $4 or $5 per 
month, while others, from Orange and adjoining counties, 
and even from counties as remote as Randolph, Johnston, and 
Harnett brought their supplies and lived almost as cheaply as 
at home. The business agent of the school, Mr. Andrew 
Mickle, was indefatigable in counseling and assisting those 
needing his services. 

President Battle reported to the Board of Trustees that "the 
industry and efficiency of the instructors of the school, the en- 
thusiasm, order, and devotion to duty of the students have 
achieved results of lasting benefit to the cause of education in 
the State." There were teachers in attendance who had spent 
years in their calling ; there were teachers only beginning their 
work ; there were those seeking to become qualified to take 
charge of schools. But, one and all, over four hundred of the 
best material in the State gave unanimous and earnest approval 
of the Normal School. They declared that they had their 
minds enlarged and quickened, their stores of information and 
power to acquire other stores, increased. They of their own 
accord united in a memorial to the General Assembly for the 
continuation of the school in the future, expressing the decided 
conviction that "the discontinuance would be a great misfor- 
tune to the State." The memorial was submitted to the Board 
of Education, who indorsed it and transmitted it to the General 


1 62 History of University of North Carolina. 

Assembly. The appropriation of $2,000 per annum was con- 
tinued until repealed and its benefits were extended to females. 

The closing exercises of the school were of exceptional in- 
terest. They were preceded on the day before by the kinder- 
garten class of nearly sixty children, many, quite young, ex- 
hibiting the perfection of their training under Miss Coe and 
her coadjutors. The same evening was the enjoyable concert, 
mostly vocal, but with guitar, piano, and violin music, very 
pleasurable. On the closing day Air. A. J. Jones, President of 
the Debating Society, called out the speakers. Rev. J. F. 
Heitman, of the Methodist Church, offered prayer. The 
speeches and the essays were considered to be quite up to the 
standard of those of the average college graduate. Then Prof. 
John A. Woodburn, on behalf of the students, presented Pro- 
fessor Ladd with a gold headed cane, and Miss Nettie Mar- 
shall to President Battle a beautiful mantel clock, ornamented 
with a figure of the Genius of Education, a graceful woman 
pointing a boy at her side upward to Heaven. Both the pre- 
senters made very appropriate speeches, which met with im- 
promptu replies, as the secret had been perfectly kept, — dis- 
proving the hoary gibes on woman for non-reticence. 

In the absence of the Governor, Mr. P. C. Cameron, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the University, in his usual 
forcible and happy style, closed the school. A hymn, composed 
by Mrs. C. P. Spencer especially for the occasion, was sung 
with spirit. 

Mr. John H. Mills, traveling with a Concert Class of the 
Oxford Orphanage, he being the Superintendent of the 
Asylum, met the Normalites going home as they spent the night 
at Durham. He wrote, "The Normal School is closing and 
these are the most affectionate students we ever saw. Such 
delicious promenades and tender adieus ! They have enjoyed a 
Chapel Hill Commencement six weeks long. * * * Every- 
body was as happy as an old woman at a campmeeting. Long 
live President Battle, Governor Vance, the gifted Professors, 
and Brother Dugger! * * * Farewell, happy Normalites!" 

Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, President of Wake Forest 
College, addressed the school, anel on his return home gave his 

Views of a Distinguished Educator. 163 

impressions in the Biblical Recorder. I give some quotations 
from his article : 

"It may not be inappropriate to say that Professors Grandy, 
Watson, Owen, and the Brothers Wilson are Baptists. The 
School continued six weeks wanting two days, and rarely has 
so much work been accomplished in so brief a period of time. 
There was an air of business about the whole thing that struck 
every one — everybody seemed to know everybody and to feel 
perfectly at home, and resolved to realize all the good they 
could out of the school while it lasted. 

"Did space allow I should like to describe in detail the exer- 
cises of a day, the morning worship, the lecture in Geography 
from Professor Owen ; the striking system of instructing the 
very young, known as the Kindergarten System ; the very wise 
and practical lectures of Professor Ladd on the discipline of 
school and the best methods of teaching; the classes for study- 
ing Arithmetic, Grammar, analyzing English, Latin ; the 
Shakespeare class of Professor Page, and his lectures on the 
English language ; the rare skill in singing, and the training of 
the Professors Wilson ; all was interesting and must have been 
profitable in a high degree. 

"Almost every night there was a lecture on some important 
and interesting topic by prominent men from this and other 
States. Besides Major Hotchkiss, of Virginia, and the Hon. 
Samuel F. Phillips, of Washington, D. C., Governor Vance 
and Messrs. Polk, Wiley, I. H. Smith, Gales, Dick, Bingham, 
Pritchard, etc., addressed the school. 

"It would be difficult, I think, to estimate the good that must 
result from this school. The teachers were greatly benefited. 
Not only did they learn much as to the best methods of teach- 
ing and managing schools, books, etc., but they were obliged 
to be intellectually stimulated and quickened in a high degree, 
and besides this they formed valuable friendships, they came 
to appreciate their calling more highly; there was necessarily 
and naturally awakened in them an esprit de corps, which has 
already manifested itself in the formation of a State Teachers' 
Association. Then they, as well as the hundreds who visited 
the school, will take to their homes a quickened interest in the 

164 History of University of North Carolina. 

cause of education, to be felt, I trust, throughout the State, 
and exert an influence upon the coming Legislature by which 
our system of common schools will be greatly improved. 

"Of course, the Normal School is a splendid advertisement 
to the University. Dr. Battle and everybody else at Chapel 
Hill were so pleasant to all these strangers, and all the associa- 
tions of the place were so delightful that very many of these 
teachers will feel very much like saying a good word for the 
University when they see a boy who wishes to go to college." 

Scores of eminent men of the State visited the school and 
their testimony coincided with that of Dr. Pritchard. Major 
Bingham said in a public address, "The establishment of the 
Normal School was the greatest event in the history of North 
Carolina of the past one hundred years. Its successes are more 
direct and affect the future of the State more than any event 
which has occurred or is likely to occur. 

"Again, this State is the first to connect the Normal School 
with her University, and put it under the control of the same. 
In this the State has done wisely. President Battle has done 
more for North Carolina in his efforts for education than any 
man in the State. This is the first time in the annals of the 
State that females have enjoyed the benefits of the public 
money." He eulogized the Normal School and stated that had 
he attended a Normal School many of his own defects would 
have been remedied. "* * * It will be a sad day in the 
State when the sun of the Normal School shines for the last 
time on the University Campus." 

These views from one of the most distinguished educators 
the State has, or ever had, are entitled to the utmost respect. 

Governor Vance made several addresses before the school. 
He congratulated in tones that gave depth and earnestness to 
his emotions the teachers present, and their teachers, and their 
friends, and the Faculty of the University, and the residents of 
Chapel Hill on the wonderful and most gratifying results of 
this experiment. And his messages to the General Assembly 
reiterated this view. 

Rev. Dr. A. D. Hepburn, the scholarly President of Davidson 
College, was as emphatic in his laudations. He congratulated 

University Day, 1878. 165 

President Battle "on being called by God's good providence to 
inaugurate this new movement in education ; this effort to pop- 
ularize culture, to show that the University was for all the cit- 
izens of the State." 

The commendations of scores of our best people, especially 
teachers, were equally strong. It can not be affirmed that the 
press of the State was unanimous in the same direction, but it 
is true that no contrary comment was ever heard of, and the 
leading newspapers endorsed the movement in strong terms. 
For example, the Raleigh Observer said, "The opening of the 
Normal School at the University inaugurated a movement the 
beneficial results of which will continue to be felt for all time 
to come, in fact we regard it as the actual dawn of a new, 
brighter, and better era in North Carolina." 

Solicitor-General S. F. Phillips said, "This Normal School 
is giving to the future of North Carolina a light possessed by 
no other movement since the war." 

University Day was in this year held for convenience sake 
on October nth. The rostrum was beautifully decorated by 
ladies, above it the legend "Sicut patribus, 1776-1878." The 
Glee Club sang "The Old North State." President Battle then 
continued his History of the University, by giving an account 
of the several buildings, beginning with the Old East. The 
University Ode was sung and President Battle then introduced 
Hon. John W. Norwood, of Hillsboro, of the Class of 1824, 
who proceeded to give a most interesting history of his class. 
Out of eighty Freshmen only thirty-six took their degrees. 
After a lapse of twenty years only five were left in the State. 
Some great men belonged to the class, among them Win. A. 
Graham, John Bragg, Matthias E. Manly, Edward D. Simms, 
Daniel B. Baker, James W. Bryan, A. J. DeRosset, Thomas 
Dews, Augustus Moore, David Outlaw, Blomfield L. Ridley. 
Only Judge M. E. Manly and Dr. A. J. DeRosset and the 
speaker were then surviving. 

The exercises were closed by a hymn sung by the Glee Club, 
and the benediction by Rev. Dr. Roe, of New Jersey, a relative 
of Dr. Charles Phillips. 

1 66 History of University of North Carolina. 

It was remarked that Judge William H. Battle, who had been 
a Trustee since 1835, except for the interval from 1868 to 
1874, and who had attended almost every public exercise of the 
University during that period, was present on this occasion, 
his last attendance on a public exercise. Fifty-eight years ago 
he had at his graduation delivered the valedictory oration from 
the rostrum in Person Hall. His interested face was seen at 
almost even- Normal School exercise. 

[Medical Department. 

On February 12, 1879, the Medical School was established 
by the Executive Committee in accordance with a scheme con- 
sidered after consultation with Dr. Thomas W. Harris, late 
of Chatham County, a first honor graduate of 1859, an M.D. 
of Paris, a Captain in the Confederate Army, a physician of 
recognized skill and ability. Dr. Harris was elected Professor 
of Anatomy and Dean of the School. Prof. A. Fletcher Redd 
had charge of General and Analytical Chemistry, Frederick 
W. Simonds was Professor of Botany and Physiology. The 
design of the school was modest — to prepare students for at- 
tendance on the lectures of the leading medical colleges. For 
the first year's course instruction was given in the above named 
studies. For the second year instruction was by Dr. Harris 
in Anatomy, Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and the Practice 
of Medicine. Anatomy was taught by dissection of human 
subjects and by models, of which the Professor had a large 
collection of the make of the celebrated Auzoux. Then fol- 
lowed a short course in the operation of Surgery, in which Dr. 
Harris was well skilled. Free clinics were given once or twice 
a week and opportunity afforded to the students of seeing dis- 
eases at the clinic and at other times, and, under the direction 
of the Professor, of treating them. The Professor of Anatomy 
was not subject to University regulations and received no 

Dr. Harris had exceptional advantages as Dean of the Medi- 
cal School. He graduated at this University in 1858, being 
one of the first honor men in a class of ninety-three. He ob- 
tained his medical diploma at the University of New York. 

[Medical Department of 1879-1885. 167 

He then spent two years in hospital work in the famous Ecole 
de Medecine of Paris, France, devoting himself especially to 
Anatomy. He was medical attendant for nine months under 
the distinguished Velpeau. He studied diligently the latest 
French and other works and was abreast with the newest dis- 
coveries of his profession. He was very active and indus- 
trious, with a decided genius for his science. 

Dr. Harris was an able man and a good teacher, but the 
necessity of engaging in general practice resulted in such fre- 
quent absence from his classes that they continued very small. 
This caused his resignation and removal to Durham in 1885. 
The School of Medicine was then suspended for five years. 

While he was at the head of the department the body of a 
woman disappeared from a country graveyard. Shortly be- 
fore bedtime an aged colored woman, once Judge Battle's 
cook, called on President Battle. She said, "Mars Kemp! 
them people are mighty mad about that body being stolen. 
They have got the right from the Mayor and are going to 
search the University and I thought you ought to know it." 
I suitably thanked her and went in the rain nearly a mile to 
the residence of Dr. Harris. He said simply, "They will not 
find anything," and they did not. It was never known who 
robbed the grave. 

There was much indignation and anxiety in the neighbor- 
hood. One man had the graves of his two daughters guarded 
by an armed watch for the nights of three weeks. It led to 
the passage by the General Assembly of an act making grave 
robbery a misdemeanor. The Professors gave their assurance 
to the people that no such act should be perpetrated by their 
students. For nearly thirty years the promise has been faith- 
fully kept and the fears and anxieties of those whose relatives 
and friends lie in the ground have completely passed away. 

Judge Battle. 

Judge William Horn Battle, on account of increasing in- 
firmities, resigned his professorship in January, 1879, and died 
March 19th of the same year. He had been an enthusiastic 
and efficient Trustee for thirty-eight years, beginning with 

168 History of University of North Carolina. 

1833, and much of that time a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee. He had been Professor of Law for twenty-three years. 
While he was not charged with enforcing the discipline of the 
University, after his removal to Chapel Hill in 1843 until the 
death of President Swain, in 1868, it was the constant habit of 
the President to consult him on all matters of difficulty con- 
nected with the government of the institution, and by invita- 
tion he attended Faculty meetings when not attending his 

Judge Battle was born October 17, 1802, graduated at this 
University in 1820, among the highest honor men. He studied 
law with Chief Justice Henderson in Granville County, where 
he met the lady who afterwards became his wife, Lucy Martin 
Plummer, daughter of Kemp Plummer, a leader of the bar 
of Warrenton, N. C. He settled at Louisburg as a lawyer, 
was a Member of the Legislature ; was joint Reporter with T. 
P. Devereux of the decisions of the Supreme Court ; largely 
aiding in the extensive necessary copying. He was then sole 
Reporter until appointed in 1840 Superior Court Judge. In 
1848 he was appointed by Governor Graham a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, but was not elected by the General Assembly, 
because there were already so many high officers from Orange 
County, and because he refused to solicit votes from Members 
of the Legislature. He was reinstated in his position as Supe- 
rior Court Judge. In 1852 he was elected by the General As- 
sembly to the Supreme Court and so continued until 1868, 
when he was not reelected because he was opposed to the party 
dominant under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. He then 
practiced law in Raleigh until 1876, for one year being presi- 
dent of the Raleigh National r>ank. The next year he removed 
to Chapel Hill and was elected Professor of Law. 

In addition to his labors as lawyer, Reporter, Professor and 
Judge, he edited and annotated some of the early North Caro- 
lina Reports, republishing two volumes with copious notes. 
He also published four volumes of Digests. In 1836, with 
Chief Justice Nash and ex-Governor Iredell, he prepared and 
published the Revised Statutes, residing in Boston some months 
in order to read proof. He also prepared at his own charge 

Eulogies on Judge Battle. 169 

Battle's Revisal, which was accepted by the General Assembly. 
Judge Battle, though without prejudice against the other 
denominations, was a faithful member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. He attended as a Delegate all of the Diocesan 
Conventions and was a Delegate to all the General Conven- 
tions, in the United States and in the Confederate States, from 
shortly before the War of Secession to his death. In 1865 
he assisted Bishop Atkinson in reuniting the Episcopal Church. 

The Faculty attested that Judge Battle was "eminent for 
all the virtues and endowments that ennoble one's nature." 
"His career is an admirable instance of well poised intellectual 
and moral powers, under the influence of right principles, 
steadily applied to the accomplishment of high purpose and 
noble ends." These words were penned by Prof. J. DeBerniere 
Hooper, who had been an intimate friend for a third of a 

Chief Justice Merrimon of the Supreme Court Bench said: 
"I shall not say that Judge Battle was a great man in any single 
respect, but he was great in the unity, symmetry, goodness and 
beauty of his character. His whole record is stainless." 

A writer in the University monthly says : "The period of his 
death is a memorable one and will ever be vivid to the students 
of 1879. O n Sunday morning as the sun was rising the old 
College bell rang out for the students to do the last honor to 
the old man, the Judge, who had gone to his well earned rest. 
They escorted the remains to the edge of the village, and their 
committee went on to Raleigh to lay the body in state in the 
Capitol. Three days later, in the darkness of the night, the bell 
rang out again. At the dreary summons the students once more 
gathered. This time it was to perform the same service to 
one of their comrades, one who a short time before had been 
as happy and as thoughtless as any one. In double file they 
followed the corpse slowly and sorrowfully to the edge of the 
town. They thought as they separated of the strangeness of 
death — of the old man taken in the fullness of years, of the 
young man taken in his prime." 

Judge Battle's teaching in the University was. from 1845 t0 
1868, and from 1877 to 1879. He was a Trustee from 1833 

i/O History of University of North Carolina. 

to 1868 and from 1874 to 1879. While a resident of Raleigh, 
1840 to 1843, ne was an active member of the Executive Com- 
mittee. He was an ardent lover of the University and infused 
that love into his wife and children. I give an incident of his 
early manhood, as indicating his temperate habits and as a 
lesson to young men to avoid spirituous liquors. Being in 
poor health his physician prescribed the old fashioned remedy, 
a toddy before breakfast. One morning while dressing he 
said, "Old Woman!" (a playful name he gave his wife), "Old 
Woman ! I will not take another toddy!" "Why?" said she, 
"I think it is doing you good." "Well, I think so, too, but I 
found myself dressing fast in order to get to it. Don't make 
me another." And so he lived with mens sana in cor pore sano. 
He was buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh, by his 
wife of forty-nine years, near children, parents, and other 
relatives. The young man above mentioned, Maurice H. Wil- 
cox, found a resting place among his kindred in the cemetery 
of Warrenton. 

Action of Trustees on Cameron and Swain Debts. 

The Visiting Committee for 1879 were Rev. Dr. C. H. 
Wiley, Messrs. J. D. Cameron, J. S. Carr, John Manning, and 
Will H. Battle. Their report was very favorable. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee were Governor Vance, B. F. Moore, Wm. 
H. Battle, Paul C. Cameron, William L. Saunders, and George 
V. Strong. 

Mr. P. C. Cameron brought before the Board the claims of 
his sister and President Swain. They were of high dignity, 
for money lent to the University for finishing the New East 
and New West Buildings. The principal of the former was 
$10,000, and accrued interest brought it probably to $15,000. 
The latter was at first $3,000 but increased to about $5,000. 
After discussion of the claims, the matter was referred to the 
Governor, K. P. Battle, and D. M. Carter. The committee 
after investigation found themselves unable to pay the debt 
for the reason that everything owned by the University, and 
whatever was given by the General Assembly or by private 
donors, were for the special purpose of carrying forward the 

The Cameron and Swain Debts. 171 

work of the University and could be used for no other purpose. 
The Swain debt was left unpaid. Mr. P. C. Cameron deter- 
mined to save his sister's claim by buying all the land sold 
under the decree of the court. This embraced some two hun- 
dred and fifty acres at Chapel Hill, decided by the court not 
to be necessary to the life of the University, and a large tract, 
whose extent was unknown, of escheated lands of David Alli- 
son, in the counties of Buncombe, Henderson and Transyl- 
vania. This tract after survey was found to be much larger 
than was expected and Mr. Cameron by a fortunate resale 
more than paid his sister's debt. The Trustees of the Uni- 
versity took no step towards ascertaining the value of this 
land for in no event was it deemed possible to pay out of the 
proceeds the debts due the banks and all others. It was not 
deemed wise to expend out of the small amount in the treasury 
sums merely to increase the dividend on liabilities totally be- 
yond their power to meet. 

The lands about Chapel Hill bought by Mr. Cameron have 
been mostly resold by him or by his executors. Part of this 
land is about seventy acres reaching to and comprising about 
one-half of Piney Prospect. It is to be hoped that means may 
be found to save this for the University. To lose Piney Pros- 
pect with its extensive vistas, described by Davie and resorted 
to by students and visitors for over a hundred years, would 
be a disaster. From it can be seen hundreds of square miles 
of the old Triassic Sea, with the spires* and factory chimneys 
of Durham, the Main Building of Trinity College conspicuous 
above the trees. It gives the University the advantage of 
semi-mountainous scenery. 

Commencement of 1879. 

The Seniors of the reconstructed University dearly coveted 
the privileges of their predecessors of the old regime, con- 
stantly petitioning for the same, never daunted by yearly re- 
fusals by the Faculty, until their stubborn denials were found 
to be final. 

They had heard of the Senior vacation of old times, giving 
the Seniors a month's holidav before Commencement. The 

172 History of University of North Carolina. 

reason assigned was that time was necessary to enable the 
speakers to prepare their orations. As these constituted only 
about one-third of the class there must have been another rea- 
son. It was in accordance with the policy of President 
Swain to aggrandize this class. It was a favorite maxim of 
his, "As is the Senior Class so is the University." Hence was 
granted this coveted holiday, and hence the "grave and rev- 
erend Seniors," besides this vacation, were required to attend 
only two-thirds of the hours of lectures, being exempted from 
the recitation before breakfast, a boon dear to the somnolent 
youth, and of real value to those of the diligent who devoted 
themselves to general reading. 

Such was the meagreness of entertainment of visitors at 
Commencement that the Secretary and Treasurer took the 
responsibility of expending $91.36 for purchasing bedding and 
other furniture for the accommodation of the Trustees. His 
action was ratified and the articles purchased were afterwards 
sold to students. 

The Chief Marshal was James M. Leach, Jr. His assist- 
ants were J. C. Dowd, J. H. Hill, E. P. Maynard, Philan- 
thropies ; R. D. Reid, C. A. McNeill, and C. D. Mclver, Dia- 
lectics, the Chief belonging to the same society. 

Rev. Dr. Moses D. Hoge was on his way to the University 
to preach, by invitation, the sermon to the graduating class, 
the Baccalaureate sermon. At Durham he met President Bat- 
tle, who informed him that Senator Thurman, who had agreed 
to deliver the annual address, was unable to carry out his 
promise. The Philanthropic Society, whose turn it was to 
choose the orator, requested Dr. Hoge, instead of a sermon, to 
take the Ohio Senator's place. He kindly consented and deliv- 
ered without notes an address of great power and appropriate- 
ness on the "Nobility and Beauty of an Unselfish Life." He 
was introduced to the audience by Henry E. Faison, of the 
Philanthropic Society. 

At the meeting of the alumni, which took place after Dr. 
Hoge's address. Major J. W, Graham announced the death 
of ex-Judge Wm. H. Battle, president of the Association, and 
nominated Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, as president pro tern., 

Commencement of 1879. 1 73 

in his place. Being unanimously elected he took the chair, 
and Mr. Fabius H. Busbee introduced Hon. Samuel Field Phil- 
lips, Solicitor-General of the United States, the meeting being 
public. His address was of great excellence. Graduating in 
1841 at the University, one of the first honor men, he soon was 
regarded as one of our ablest lawyers and ultimately attained 
the eminent dignity of Solicitor-General of the United States. 
Among other topics he eulogized in glowing terms three of our 
graduates, who had recently died, B. F. Moore, William H. 
Battle, and David M. Carter, whose lives shed lustre on the 
University. He also eulogized Lewis Bond, of Tennessee, 
and Hugh Waddell, of the Class of 1818, once Speaker of the 
Senate, both of whom had died during the year. He gave 
many reminiscences of the past of the University and wise sug- 
gestions as to its future and that of the society. General Phil- 
lips' tongue, pen, and purse were always at the command of his 
Alma Alater. 

On Wednesday night the society representatives delivered 
original orations. In introducing them President Battle al- 
luded to the colors of the two societies. "A man who wears 
a white ribbon never says Die, and no one cay say Fie to one 
who wears a blue." 

The Dialectics were Roderick Belton John, his subject being 
"Three Necessary Elements of Xational Prosperity"; James 
Wiley Forbis on "The South Shall Yet be Free" ; and Robert 
Paine Pell on "The Present Demand for a Southern Litera- 

The Philanthropies were Marcus Cicero Stephens Noble on 
"National Unity"; Locke Craig on "The Philosophy of the 
Strength and Progress of Islamism" ; and Charles Randolph 
Thomas on "The French Revolution." 

On Commencement Day, after the usual procession, well 
conducted by James M. Leach, Jr., Chief Marshal, a very large 
company assembled in the Chapel. The exercises were begun 
by a prayer by Rev. Dr. Theodore B. Whitfield, of the Class 
of 1854. Then followed a hymn led by the Salem Band. 

The first speaker was John Moore Manning on "Capital 
and Labor as Affected bv Government." The next was Robert 

i/4 History of University of North Carolina. 

Watson Winston on the "Effect of Modern Inventions on 
Politics and Morality." Xext came a strong speech by Robert 
Strange on ''Compulsory Education." The fourth speaker was 
Richard Bullock Henderson and his subject was "Call Things 
by Their Right Names." This oration was peculiar in having 
much humor. Francis Donnell Winston followed on "Na- 
tional Character as influenced by Agriculture." The audience 
pronounced this speech as "replete with brilliant ideas, and 
abundance of old fashioned hard horse sense." James Smith 
Manning received the praise of having "an excellent speech" 
on "Influence of Individual Character." "Some beautiful and 
valuable gems of thought" were attributed to Willliam Joseph 
Peele, his theme being "Philosophy of Reform." William 
Lanier Hill in a forcible speech on "The Chinese in America" 
advocated bringing them to America for the purpose of build- 
ing our railroads and other works. 

The Mangum Medal was won by R. W. Winston. It was 
presented by Gen. James Madison Leach. 

The annual report was then read by Prof. C. D. Grandy. 
The following Degrees were conferred : 

Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) : 

Kemp Plummer Battle, Jr. 

Richard B. Henderson. 

William Lanier Hill. 

James Smith Manning. 

John Moore Manning. 

William Joseph Peele. 

Alva Connell Springs. 

Robert Strange. 

Francis Donnell Winston. 

Robert Watson Winston 10 

Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.) : 

Isaac Montrose Taylor 1 

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) : 

Gaston Ahi Robbins 1 

Total 12 

Battle, Springs, Robbins, and Taylor were allowed to pre- 
sent theses instead of speaking. 

Commencement of 1879. 175 

The Honorary degrees were as follows : 

Doctor of Lazvs (LL.D.): Thomas Samuel Ashe, 1832, and 
John Henry Dillard, 1839, then Judges of the Supreme Court, 
and Samuel Field Phillips, 1841, then Solicitor-General of the 
United States. 

Doctor of Divinity (D.DS) : Rev. F. H. Kerfoot, of Balti- 
more; J. F. Pickett, of Mississippi, 1859; Daniel S. Hender- 
son, of Alabama, and Aristides S. Smith, of North Carolina. 

Master of Arts (A.M.): Fabius H. Busbee, 1868, of North 
Carolina, and John M. Webb, 1868, of Tennessee. 

The winners of Medals and Prizes were : 

Greek Medals — Charles Duncan Mclver, John Alton Mclver. 

Chemistry Medal — Robert Ransom. 

Latin Medal — Louis Morehead Patterson. 

Bingham Medal (Entrance) — Albert Sidney Grandy. 

German Prize — Alexander Lacy Phillips. 

Mangum Medal — Robert Watson Winston. 

After the graduates had been called up to receive their 
diplomas at the hands of the Governor, as President of the 
Board of Trustees, he gave them sound advice and fairest 
wishes for success and happiness in life. He reminded them 
that "Success in arms in the acquisition of territory gives tem- 
porary renown, but after the lapse of a few centuries every- 
thing but the great thoughts of a people perishes." The re- 
porter adds, "How true ! We speak of the age of Dante, care- 
less of what Julius or Nicholas or Gregory might occupy the 
Papal chair." 

Judge Ashe gave an amusing account of the reception of 
his doctorate by Judge Dillard. The Supreme Court was puz- 
zling over the question whether an old lady, Mibra Gulley, was 
a necessary party in an action. Judge Ashe walked into Judge 
Dillard's room before breakfast and found him poring over his 
books. "Good morning, Dr. Dillard!" "What do you mean?" 
said Dillard, looking up from his work. "I mean what I say. 
The University has made us Doctors of Laws." "The Dick- 
ens you say. A mighty sorry Doctor of Laws am I, when for 
the life of me I can't decide whether under the Code of Civil 

176 History of University of North Carolina. 

Procedure old Mibra Gulley should be joined as a plaintiff in 
this action." 

The graduates of 1879 have, as a rule, done well in life. 
Battle an eye, ear, and throat specialist ; Henderson and Man- 
ning, J. M., prominent physicians ; Manning, J. S., ex-Supreme 
Court Judge, State Senator, and Representative ; Peele, lawyer 
and author; Strange, Bishop of East Carolina; Winston, F. D., 
Judge, Lieutenant-Governor, and State Senator; Winston, R. 
W.j Judge and very prominent lawyer; Taylor, long assistant 
physician of the Western Hospital for the Insane, and now 
Principal of the Broadoaks Sanitarium, at Morganton ; Rob- 
bins, a Representative in Congress, now dead ; Hill, a pros- 
perous lawyer, and Springs, a bank president. 

On Thursday night an effort was made by means of a lawn 
party to provide amusement for the large number of nondancers 
present, engineered by a most worthy man, Eugene L. Harris, 
whose useful career in a few years was cut short by pulmo- 
nary consumption. Chinese lanterns were hung on the trees in 
the Campus, light refreshments were provided and seats distrib- 
uted where "sweet nothings" could be whispered. The experi- 
ment was not successful. The absence of the gay dancers was 
severely felt and it was found that those who did not partici- 
pate in the mazy whirl preferred the brilliant lights of the 
ballroom, where they could gaze on the flashing diamonds, the 
radiant costumes, the graceful figures of the evolutions. A 
Methodist, writing for the Christian Advocate, gave his im- 
pressions as follows : "The ball, as usual, was, as I am told, 
largely attended, and continued all night until morning light. 
Many members of the different churches visited the enchanting 
scene, some going just to meet their friends, some to accom- 
panv their visiting friends, some to hear the music, some to 
see the ladies' dresses, and some to hear the woman play on the 
fiddle, but I have heard of none who went to see the dancing! 
Perhaps they ought not to be blamed too much for going, for 
the thing is equal to a circus to draw the curious and the im- 

It may be well here to explain the attitude of the University 
towards dancing. On one hand there are people of excellent 

Reunion Class of 1854. 177 

piety and good intentions who think it wrong, as inciting to 
licentiousness. They also think that the tenets of their 
churches, as expounded by their clerical leaders, are against 
it. On the other hand there are people of equal piety and good 
intentions who think it a harmless amusement. They point to 
the undenied fact that young men and women of the highest 
character and conduct participate in it and are encouraged to 
do so by godly parents. Moreover, the preachers and leaders 
of other denominations of Christians countenance it, at any 
rate they do not object. Under these circumstances the Uni- 
versity takes sides with neither. It is a social question about 
which there is difference of opinion. The authorities can not 
think it a crime or leads to crime for experience shows that the 
ball managers and other student participants are and have been 
among our most hightoned and free from vice, and the wildest 
malignity dares not to cast suspicions on the conduct and 
purity of their partners. 

The allowing the use of a room on the Campus, not needed 
for instruction at the time, was not considered a violation of 
neutrality. But even this was forbidden when the increase of 
the library required that its floor should be taken up with 

The Chief Ball Manager was B. C. Sharpe, the assistants 
C. D. Hill, J. P. MacRae, W. E. Philips, and R. W. Winborne. 

One of the most agreeable features of Commencement was 
the Reunion of the Class of 1854. Death by disease and battle 
had made sad inroads in its ranks. The members present were 
Hon. Richard H. Battle, Rev. Dr. Needham B. Cobb, Captain 
Elnathan Hayne Davis, Colonel Ivey Foreman Lewis, Captain 
Richard B. Saunders, and Rev. Dr. Theodore B. Whitfield. 
They had their social meeting and in the Chapel had reserved 
seats together. The class contained sixty members and many 
of them have been distinguished in Church and State. 

A novel incident of the Commencement was the bringing of 
the members of the Masonic Order, then in session in Durham, 
by Messrs. W. T. Blackwell and J. S. Carr, to Chapel Hill to 
witness the Commencement exercises. There were seven four- 


178 History of University of North Carolina. 

horse and five two-horse vehicles, all gaily caparisoned. Each 
Mason was purring away at a long reed and clay pipe. A 
bounteous picnic dinner was had on the lawn. 

Solicitor-General Phillips, Hon. John Manning, and Prof. 
W. C. Kerr were appointed by the Alumni Association to pro- 
cure funds for erecting on Mount Mitchell and at Chapel Hill 
monuments to Dr. Elisha Mitchell. That on Mt. Mitchell was 
provided for by the will of Mrs. Eliza Grant, his daughter. It 
was in due time placed in position after much difficulty and 
labor by the energy of Dr. Wm. B. Phillips. A marble slab 
in a conspicuous place in Memorial Hall, by order of the 
Trustees, and a similar slab in the Presbyterian Church, keep 
alive the memory of the learned doctor. 

There were only a few changes in the Faculty of i878-'79. 
Professor Grandy was given the Chair of Natural Philosophy. 
The Chair of Law, vacant by Judge Battle's death, was tem- 
porarily filled by President Battle. Thomas W. Harris, M.D., 
became Professor of Anatomy and Materia Medica. W. C. 
Kerr, Ph.D.. State Geologist, was Lecturer on Geology of 
North Carolina. Isaac E. Emerson was Instructor in Chem- 
istry. He has since used his chemical education to such ad- 
vantage that he has become one of the most prosperous drug- 
gists in the LTnited States. He is numbered among the million- 
aires of the land, now of Baltimore. 

Religious Exercises. 

It was in this year that Professor Redd, a strong Baptist, 
authorized by his church to be a lay preacher, and often exer- 
cising this liberty, took the ground that it was against principle 
to require students to attend Prayers. He contended that en- 
forced religious practice was especially against the tenets of 
his church. The Faculty concluded to yield to his arguments 
and to try the experiment. It resulted as some predicted. 
For a short while there was a respectable attendance and 
then the numbers present dwindled almost to the vanishing- 
point. It was determined to resume the marking of absentees. 
For some time the roll was called and the absent thus noted. 
When bv the generositv of Mr. David G. Worth, of Wilming- 

Baptist Church 

Methodist Church 

Presbyterian Church 

Religious Exercises. 179 

ton, the interior of Gerrard Hall was remodeled and chairs re- 
placed the uncomfortable benches, numbers were attached to 
the chairs, each student having his own number. Two students, 
one for each aisle, are employed to report the numbers of the 
vacant chairs. The penalty for nonattendance is, first, the loss 
of character as an orderly student, and second, being reported 
to superiors at home. The result is good, especially as public 
prayers are not held on Saturday and Sunday mornings, 
nor at any time during the examination period. As for at- 
tending divine worship on Sundays, there is no obligation as a 
University duty. Experience shows that the removal of com- . 
pulsion promotes the cause of religion. The number of pro- 
fessing Christians has largely increased. While a considerable 
number shirk the Sunday services, if they should be forced to 
go, by inattention and positive misbehavior they would not 
only derive no benefit to themselves, but be of injury to others. 

For years the meeting for Prayers was held a half hour 
after the breakfast hour, but now (i9ii-'i2) it is after the first 
morning lecture. To give greater inducements to attend, after 
Prayers are over a five minutes' talk on an interesting subject 
is given by some selected person. The seats placed in the Hall 
by the donation of Mr. D. Worth, were found to occupy so 
much space that only one-half of the students could be accom- 
modated and the gallery benches were too uncomfortable for 
use. Both these troubles were afterward remedied, so that the 
Seniors and Juniors can join the Sophomores and Freshmen 
in the worship of their Maker. 

For one year, in accordance with a vote of the Faculty, the 
giving of Bibles to graduates was dispensed with. One of the 
Trustees, Rev. A. D. Betts, D.D., of the Methodist Church, 
was so hurt at this omission that the practice was resumed. 
As this is a literary institution having no theological depart- 
ment, and as Bibles are commonly owned throughout the land, 
the Faculty surrendered their judgment only in deference to 
religious sentiment, as voiced by Dr. Betts. 

The University has never made a continuous effort to intro- 
duce the study and the practice of instrumental or vocal music. 
In 1877 Mr. Eugene Wilson, a very competent man, was em- 

180 History of University of North Carolina. 

ployed for one year to teach singing to those desiring to learn. 
In 1879 a member of the Senior Class, Rev. Wm. A. Betts, 
although entitled as the son of a preacher to free tuition, pre- 
ferred to pay it by giving similar instruction with consent of 
the Faculty to a class in singing, and to lead a choir at Prayers. 
And President Battle, who believed in the efficacy of singing as 
a mode of recreation and culture, as well as aiding in disci- 
pline, procured song books of »Yale University, in the hope that 
some of the stirring odes of that institution, slightly altered, 
would be popular here. He had a temporary success. A Glee 
Club was formed, led by Mr. Betts and Air. James M. Leach, 
which showed considerable enthusiasm, but it soon died away. 
Since then Glee Clubs have been formed from time to time. 
They have even given concerts here and elsewhere. And at 
match games of football and baseball we hear rollicking songs 
to cheer the players, or at other times a carol from an untaught 
group on the Campus. But there is a deplorable absence of sys- 
tematic practice among the students generally. The Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of Connecticut stated to me that 
the Superintendent of the high schools in Berlin informed him 
that the 6,000 pupils under him all sang. Said he: "Any one 
who can talk can sing." I saw two German students once at a 
private house requested to give specimens of their University 
songs. Each pulled from his pocket a well worn note book, 
one took his seat at the piano and they proceeded to comply 
with the request of the hostess. I can not conceive of two 
Chapel Hill students always prepared for singing by note as 
those Germans were. We have generally had in recent years 
one or two sufficiently skilled to lead a choir by playing the 
tune on the piano, but as a rule he has been insufficiently sup- 

The foregoing criticism does not apply to the various Glee 
Clubs, who, after proper instruction, here and elsewhere sus- 
tained the honor of the University. 

Besides the Glee Club, at various times companies of stu- 
dents have acted in dramas with as large a measure of success 
as could be expected of novices. Some of them had never seen 
a theatre. 

Prohibition at Chapel Hill. 181 

The Faculty asked that Person Hall should not be rebuilt 
and the money thus saved should be spent on equipment, but 
the Trustees resolved otherwise. They were, however, as lib- 
eral in this regard as the state of the treasury justified. 

The Faculty kept a vigilant eye to prevent people of bad 
character from pandering to the vices or evil habits of stu- 
dents. Boarding with such at tables prepared by them was 
broken up and all except visitors were forbidden to frequent 
the Campus unless licensed by the President or Faculty. 

The habits of the students were much influenced by the con- 
dition of old times, when the forest stretched for miles from 
the buildings towards the South. The question of how to in- 
troduce the decencies of modern life was often discussed and 
proved to be insoluble until the General Assembly gave funds 
for the construction of water works. At one time water 
closets of planks, having every appearance of being of a tem- 
porary nature, were constructed near the old dormitories, Old 
East, Old West, and South, but it was not long before the 
larger was burned as a public nuisance by students who roomed 
near it, and the Faculty had the others torn down. The prim- 
itive status of things is indicated by the grave law of the 
Faculty that no dead animal should be deposited within a half 
mile of the Campus or on the premises of any citizens. As the 
University had no control over any other than a Professor the 
enactment could not protect the Faculty from the odors of the 
unsavory prey of those useful birds, whose comeliness and 
graceful flight can only be appreciated when "distance lends 
enchantment to the view." 
• Cognate to this provision of law was the prohibition at or 
near Chapel Hill of lager beer saloons. Whatever argument t- 
was used for them, by those who declaimed about the small 
percentage of alcohol in this popular beverage, was rendered 
futile by the potent fact that the beer could be, and would be, 
adulterated with additional measures of alcohol, even as harm- 
less cider often becomes an intoxicating mixture. But even 
without this liability to become stronger the license would have 
been refused. 

1 82 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Secretaries of the Faculty from the reopening to 1886 
are here given: Prof. George Tayloe Winston, i875-'78; Prof. 
Carey D. Grandy, 1878-79; Prof. Frederick W. Simonds, 
1879- '80 ; Prof - Carey D. Grandy, 1880- '81 ; Asst. Prof. Robert 
P. Pell, i88i-'82j Bursar William T. Patterson, i882-'84; Prof, 
and Registrar J. W. Gore, i884-'86; Asst. Prof, and Librarian 
James Lee Love, 1886. 

Mountain Climbing. 

Four of the graduates of 1879, Robert Strange, Kemp P. 
Battle, Jr., Alva Springs, and James S. Manning, determined 
to take a pedestrian tour over our mountains. For the infor- 
mation of those inclined to follow their robust example I give 
their itinerary. They journeyed to Icard's Station, now Con- 
nelly's, in Catawba County, by rail, then began their walking, 
first to Lenoir, visiting Hibriten peak ; thence to the top of the 
Blue Ridge, Blowing Rock, and Raven's Rock. Crossing the 
Ridge they visited Yalle Crucis and Dutch Creek Falls, then 
climbed Grandfather Mountain, camping on top to see the sun 
rise. They next visited Linville River to the Falls, then Table 
Rock, Hawk's Bill, and the neighboring cave. Again crossing 
the Blue Ridge they went down Plum Tree Creek to Toe River, 
thence up the river to the Yellow Mountain, where they spent 
the night in a deserted cabin. They then followed the ridges 
to the Roan and its points of interest ; thence to Bakersville. 
Their itinerary then led to Sink Hole mica mines, Black Moun- 
tain, Swannanoa Gap, Hickory Nut Gap and Falls, and Csesar's 
Head, then around the headwaters of the French Broad to Mt. 
Pisgah, then to Whiteside Mountain, then to the Macon High- 
lands, to Tallulah and Toccoa Falls in Georgia, thence by rail 
home. Their entire outfit consisted of a few articles of cloth- 
ing carried an knapsacks. 

The Bakersville Republican, from whose columns the fore- 
going points are gathered, adds, "Their gentlemanly deport- 
ment and social manners won the admiration of our citizens, 
and they left with many heartfelt good wishes for their safety 
on their trip. If these young gentlemen are a fair sample of 

A Pedestrian Tour. 183 

the students at Chapel Hill, North Carolina may well be proud 
of her State University." The editor then goes into poetry, 
probably the refrain of a mountain song, 

"They strapped their knapsacks on their backs 
And started off for Georgia." 

They carried no fishing tackle on their journey, nor firearms 
of any sort, but occasionally borrowed instruments for fishing 
or hunting. They met with kindness everywhere, enjoyed the 
mountain food, as a rule, gloried in the scenery, and grew 
stronger every day. There was only one mishap, a sprained 
ankle, but this did not detain them long. There came near 
being a serious trouble. Borrowing a gun Battle went grouse 
hunting. Stepping on a log in a place where the laurel was 
extremely thick he felt something writhing under his feet. 
Looking down he saw a huge rattler. The rapidity with which 
he leaped back and shot the snake was a credit to the first base- 
man of his team at Chapel Hill. This was the only rattlesnake 
seen on the whole trip. 

Some particulars of the experience of these walkers may be 
of interest to those contemplating a similar vacation tour. They 
walked in all about 530 miles. They made no effort to 
cover much distance in a day, except once towards the close 
when they made thirty-four miles. They crossed the Blue 
Ridge eleven times during their journey. They met with great 
hospitality except when, in one instance, they asked for lodg- 
ing after bedtime and were requested to try the next house. 
Let us hope that the occupants had good reason for this excep- 
tional treatment. Sometimes there was no charge for enter- 
tainment. Once it was ten cents for supper, lodging, and 
breakfast. Afore often it was twenty-five cents. The whole 
trip cost about $75 each. They were never required to pay for 
the use of guns or fishing tackle. The fishing luck was some- 
times good and sometimes bad ; one of the party caught about 
thirty small trout one day on the Grandfather reaches of the 
Linville. Mr. Galloway, the guide of the Grandfather, who 
lived on the dividing line between the Watauga and the Lin- 
ville, instructed them in the art of twins: flies for trout ; thev 

184 History of University of North Carolina. 

did not fish for bass or other fish. One incident of their trip 
is memorable. On the flanks of the Big Yellow they experi- 
enced the hospitality of a couple who lived in a log cabin of 
one room about twelve feet square. The children were ten in 
number, some sleeping on trundle beds and some on the floor. 
The four travelers spread themselves on the floor in front of 
the fire, "And all lived happily together," as children's 
stories go. 

Our trampers returned rich in health and strength, with 
pleasant memories to last a lifetime, and ready to begin with 
stout hearts the business of life. 

It was in this year that a short physical struggle took place 
between two Professors, which created much amusement. The 
poverty of the University was such that Chemistry and Physics 
had been placed in charge of the same Professor. As this 
did not have good results, the Professor of Pure Mathematics 
was induced to add Physics to his charge. The two Pro- 
fessors proceeded to divide the apparatus. All went on ami- 
cably until they reached the air pump, which was mounted on 
a temporary tripod for convenience of lecturing. A vigorous 
dispute ensued over the possession of this article. Finally 
temper was lost. Mathematics forcibly pushed Chemistry 
against the wall, seized the bone of contention and darted for 
the door. Recovering from his surprise Chemistry made a 
lunge for the retreating air pump, caught the tripod and held 
it triumphantly, while Mathematics carried to his lecture room 
the spolia opima, the air pump. 

Of course this little ebullition of temper, which was wit- 
nessed by three students who chanced along, was seized on 
by all the satirists and wits in the University. Next morning 
at Prayers, on the wall behind the pulpit appeared two broad- 
sides — two locomotives about to crash into one another. One 
was colored red and the other gray. The engine drivers were 
frantically objurgating one another and demanding in oppro- 
brious terms the right of way. The other caricature showed 
two game cocks, one red and the other gray, valiantly fighting 
for the honors of the ring. Dr. Charles Phillips conducted 

Dr. Phillips Made Professor Emeritus. 185 

Prayers that morning and by promptly tearing down the of- 
fending papers put a stop to the fun. 

These were the best caricatures I have seen of University 
happenings, said to have been the work of a very orderly and 
successful student, Frank B. Dancy. It was nearly equalled 
by a series of pictures on the belfry about 1852, done in black 
on the white wall, pleasantly ridiculing the names and other 
peculiarities of the old Faculty. President Swain, by promis- 
ing the merchant who furnished the paint that he would not 
prosecute the offender, ascertained that he was Frederick 
Henry Cobb, of Alabama, a fine manly fellow and a fair stu- 
dent, who had acquired skill in drawing and penmanship. 

After the ill health of Dr. Charles Phillips prevented his 
attention to the duties of his chair, which was evidenced by 
the report of a committee of which Air. P. C. Cameron was 
chairman, the Trustees liberally allowed the employment of a 
mathematical substitute at $800 annually and Dr. Phillips to 
receive the residue of the salary. Afterwards his physician. 
Dr. Wm. P. Mallett, gave it as his opinion that his patient 
should resign permanently his professorship in order to obtain 
freedom from responsibility, and avoid the nervous wear and 
tear consequent on holding an office the duties of which he 
could not perform. This advice was taken and Dr. Phillips 
ceased to be a working teacher of the institution he loved so 
well. The Trustees voted him to be Professor Emeritus, a 
position without pay and without work. The Executive Com- 
mittee adopted unanimously resolutions of regret for the resig- 
nation and its cause, and their sense of the great value he 
had been to the University. He lived for ten years longer, 
never recovering his health but keeping to the last his deep 
interest in the affairs of the University and rejoicing in its 
upward march. He said to me one day. "Kemp ! it is a sore 
dispensation to me to witness the efforts made by you and 
others to advance the University while I am chained by sick- 
ness, so that I can not work for its advancement, but God's 
will be done !" He made no complaint, but left his case in 
the hands of his Maker. 

186 History of University of Xorth Carolina. 

Prof. Ralph H. Graves married Julia, third daughter of 
Prof. John DeBerniere Hooper. When their eldest child was 
born Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips published the following in a 
local newspaper (The Ledger.) It shows a remarkable asso- 
ciation of one family with the University. 


He arrived Thursday morning. His ancestors to the fifth genera- 
tion have heen officers in the University of North Carolina. His 
father- is now a Professor. His paternal grandfather 3 was a Pro- 
fessor. His maternal grandfather^ is now a Professor. His mother's 
maternal grandfather,-^ his own great-grandfather, was a Professor. 
His father's maternal grandfather/ 5 his own great-grandfather, was 
Steward. His maternal grandmother's paternal grandfather 7 (by 
marriage), was the first President of the University. He has been 
represented in the Faculty by his father, his two grandfathers, two 
great-grandfathers, and one great-great-grandfather. His great- 
great-great-grandfather signed the Declaration of Independence in 
1776, and his great-grandfather was present at the Centennial in 
Philadelphia in 1876. At present he is in the department of Litera- 
ture, his specialty being Elementary Sounds. Weight, ten pounds. 

Explanation of the above: 

i Ralph Henry Graves, Junior. 

- Ralph H. Graves, his father. 

s Ralph H. Graves, father of (- 1 ). 

* John DeBerniere Hooper, Professor of Greek and French. 

5 Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

6 John Taylor, the first Steward. 

T Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, who married the mother of Dr. 
Wm. Hooper. 

Normal School of 1879. 

The Normal School of 1879 was opened June 17th and 
closed Julv 24th. Some of the officers were the same. Presi- 
dent Battle retained the general authority with the cooperation 
of Superintendent Scarborough. Prof. John J. Ladd was 
Superintendent and Lecturer on Methods, School Manage- 
ment, etc. ; Alexander Mclver was Professor of Mathematics, 
English Grammar, and Physiology ; Julius L. Tomlinson took 
charge of English Grammar and Geography ; J. Allen Holt 
was Professor of Drawing and Penmanship ; Dr. Wm. B. 

Xormal School of 1879. 187 

Phillips of Chemistry, M. C. S. Xoble of Latin and Algebra, 
John E. Dugger of Reading and Phonetics, Wm. G. Gaither 
of Grammar and Geography, Benjamin W. Hatcher of Arith- 
metic and Reading, Wilbur F. Tillett of English Philology, 
X. C. English of Grammar and Geography, Franklin S. Blair 
of Arithmetic and Grammar, Wm. A. Bridges of Geography 
and Reading, John W. Thaxton of Arithmetic and Grammar, 
Miss Emily M. Coe of the Kindergarten System, Misses Mar- 
shall, Lawrence, and Wilkinson of Calisthenics ; Messrs. 
Eugene H. Wilson and Chas. L. Wilson of Vocal Music. Cap- 
tain John E. Dugger was Secretary. Inspection of the fore- 
going list will show that some of the pupils were employed to 
drill the classes and thus were classed with the Faculty. The 
Secretary in addition to his teaching and secretarial duties was 
of inestimable value in cultivating harmonious relations be- 
tween the students, thus making them feel at home. 

Lectures and addresses were delivered by prominent men 
and were of great value : 

Prof. Jed Hotchkiss gave eight matchless lectures on Geography, 
one on Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign, and one on Arithmetic. 

Rev. A. W. Mangum, on "The Best Lights are Those that Shine 
From Above," and one on Elocution. 

Rev. N. B. Cobb, on "How Shall We Develop North Carolina?" 

Hon. J. C. Scarborough, "Public School System of North Carolina." 

Prof. J. H. Horner, "Language as the Instrument of Thought." 

Prof. W. H. Pegram, "Nostrorum, 'Nostrarum, Nostro?-um." 

Prof. W. C. Doub, "Some Essentials to Success in Elementary In- 

Miss E. M. Coe, "The Teacher's Work; Its Rewards." 

Dr. S. S. Satchwell, "School Hygiene." 

Maj. Robert Bingham, "A Method of Teaching English Composi- 

President K. P. Battle, address, "Education for Farmers," and four 
lectures on Palestine and Jewish History. 

Dr. F. W. Simonds, five lectures on Natural History. 

Prof. Walter H. Page, "How Shall We Get to be a Reading People?" 

Prof. J. A. Tomlinson, "California." 

Dr. Thomas W. Harris, "The Vocal Organs." 

Gen. Wm. R. Gox, "The Duty of Teachers to the State." 

Rev. A. C. Dixon, "Mental Gunnery." 

Capt. John E. Dugger, "Graded Schools." 

i88 History of University of North Carolina. 

Prof. W. G. Gaither, "Relations of Teachers to Church and State." 
Prof. Allen Mclver, "Aims and Methods of Instruction." 
Prof. A. P. Redd, "Poisons and Their Detection." 
Prof. W. B. Phillips, "Water." 

These addresses and lectures were generally at night and 
were in addition to the regular instruction. 

The whole number of pupils enrolled was 290. The average 
daily attendance 207. There were fifty-four counties repre- 
sented. There was much enthusiasm among teachers and 
pupils. Miss Coe may be considered the introducer into North 
Carolina of Kindergarten instruction. She was not only ex- 
tremely skillful with her class of children but formed an ad- 
vanced class of teachers and imparted the system to them. To 
those of us who remembered how odious the monotony and 
confinement of school were to us in our boyhood it was a 
marvel to see children of all ages eager for Miss Coe's school 
to begin and regretful of its ending. 

The lectures of Professor Hotchkiss were novel and illum- 
ining. His explanation of the causes of deserts, rainfalls, and 
other phenomena were not only entertaining but of lasting 
value. His lectures on Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign 
gave a vivid idea of the wonderful strategy and tactics of that 
great soldier. And so the learned instruction of Ladd, Mclver, 
Tillett, Phillips. Holt, Noble, and the others have borne excel- 
lent fruit in the schools in which their pupils were teachers. 

A most valuable feature was the instruction and practice of 
vocal music by the Messrs. Wilson. Thev had not time to 
enter on the niceties and refinements of the art, but aimed suc- 
cessfully to enable their pupils to introduce singing as a part 
of school exercises. 

A writer in the Raleigh Observer gives a truthful account 
of the general worth of the Normal School. "The teachers 
attend lectures and recitations all day, except at proper inter- 
vals for meals, listen eagerly to two lectures at night, return 
home to compare notes, indulge in criticisms, etc., and appear 
next morning fresh and ready to undergo the same arduous 
routine. Such indeed is the daily program of the Normalites. 
Every one looks cheerful and happy. Dr. Mangum says it is a 

Normal School of 1879. ^9 

marked feature of the school that it obeys the Apostolic injunc- 
tion to 'rejoice always.' Air. President is cheerful, the Pro- 
fessors are all cheerful, the ladies are all cheerful, the gentle- 
men are all cheerful, and the sun shines cheerfully upon them 

The exercises at the close were very interesting, and a short 
description is given. They began with a chorus by the Music 
Class, followed by a prayer by Rev. A. C. Dixon. Mr. Edwin 
Anderson Alderman made an address on the subject 
"Thoughts on our Professors." Mr. Henry Horace Williams 
read an essay on "Select Teaching." The query was debated 
by Cyril T. Wyche and Adolphus G. Faucette in the affirma- 
tive and James P. McNeill and Benjamin F. McMillan in the 
negative, "Ought the Ability to Read and Write be Estab- 
lished as a Qualification of Voters?" Mr. Alexander L. Phil- 
lips read an essay on the "Responsibility of Educated Men to 
Society." Mr. Henry Elias Faison then delivered an oration 
on "A Normal Department in connection with the University." 
The speeches and essays were followed by music. 

Governor Jarvis was unable to be present and Professor 
Ladd formally closed the school, which he did in chaste lan- 
guage. After him came a hymn and benediction. At night 
there was a concert by members of the school admitted to be 
notably harmonious and in excellent taste. The leaders were 
Misses Faison and Clinton, Mrs. Tankersley and Miss Milli- 
ken. There were solos by Miss Bessie Whitfield and Miss 
Merry, which were received with enthusiasm. 

The ladies of the school, through the Secretary, Captain 
Dugger, caused to be read the following graceful resolutions 
adopted by them. 

"We, the ladies of the Normal School of North Carolina, desiring 
to express our appreciation of the benefits accruing to us therefrom, 

"Resolve, first. To the honorable body, the Legislature of North 
Carolina, we tender our sincere thanks for giving us such an oppor- 
tunity of elevating and improving our standard of scholarship. 

"Second. To President Battle, and the professors and teachers of 
the school generally, our grateful appreciation of a wisdom, kindness 
and courtesy which 'like the sun has shone on all alike.' 

190 History of University of North Carolina. 

"Third. To the distinguished lecturers who have honored us since 
the commencement of the school, our thanks are due for a feast of 
reason rarely vouchsafed to us before. 

"Fourth. To the citizens of Chapel Hill an acknowledgment of a 
kindness which has made us feel that we were indeed at home. 

"Finally, to the Giver of every good and perfect gift, the homage 
of our praise and prayer that this school and every effort to promote 
the good of our State, 'may be so ordered on the best and surest 
foundations that peace and happiness, truth and justice, religion 
and piety may be established among us for all generations.' " 

The school was marked by polishing influences of calisthen- 
ics, drawing, and music, by severe drilling in the usual 
branches taught at schools, by the best experiences of disci- 
pline and methods, by instruction in the elements of chemistry 
and other sciences, in public speaking, in higher literary cul- 
ture by Professor Tillett's lectures on Shakespeare, and in the 
inestimable advantages of the association of old and young, 
from different grades of society and far removed localities, all 
intent on self-improvement in one of the most useful and im- 
portant professions of life. 

The proceedings of the school and abstracts of the lectures 
and addresses were fully and lucidly reported by "R. P. P.", 
known to be the initials of Rev. Dr. Robert Paine Pell, now the 
able president of Converse College in South Carolina. 

University Day of 1879. 

University Day was celebrated in 1879 on October 13th, the 
12th, the eighty-sixth anniversary of the foundation of the 
University, falling on Sunday. President Battle gave another 
chapter of the history of the University. He described the ex- 
cellent men who assisted in the ceremony of laying the corner 
stone, beginning with the illustrious Davie. He also commem- 
orated the first President of the Board of Trustees, William 
Lenoir, who was also the last survivor, dying fifty years after 
his appointment, and expressed gratification that two of his 
descendants, Louis Morehead Patterson and Thomas Ballard 
Lenoir, were then among the students. 

Short ex tempore addresses of a most interesting nature 
were made by Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, afterwards bishop, 

The Deems Fund. 191 

one of whose ancestors was Lawrence Toole, who changed his 
Christian name to Henry Irwin, in honor of the gallant officer 
who was killed in the battle of Germantown; by Rev. James 
Pleasant Mason, a Baptist minister ; Rev. Air. Heitman, the 
Methodist minister at Chapel Hill, and by Professors Winston, 
Simonds, and Redd. The University Glee Club of students, 
assisted by ladies of the village, sang two odes composed for 
the occasion by Mrs. Spencer, one of them being the University 
Ode, given elsewhere, the first verse being, 

Dear University, 

Thy sons right loyally 

Thy praises sing. 
For thee, our Mother dear, 
May every coming year 
Fresh crowned with joy appear, 

Fresh honors bring. 

Deems Fund. 

December 20, 1879, Rev. Dr. Charles F. Deems, former 
Aujunct Professor of Rhetoric and Logic in this University, 
and then Pastor of the Church of the Strangers in New York 
City, sent to the Lniversity $300 as the beginning of a fund 
to be lent to the students on good security with interest. He 
wrote, "I wish the sons of the members of the North Carolina 
Conference to be preferred. I was once a member of that 
body and many of my most cherished friendships have been 
with good men, some living, some dead, who were my co- 
laborers therein. After this class, let the money be lent to 
the sons of any ministers of the Gospel. If there be none of 
them who desire it, let it be at the discretion of the President 
of the University." He requested that Professor Mangum be 
associated with the President as long as both are members of 
the Faculty. The fund is a memorial to his first-born, Theo- 
dore Disosway Deems, who was born in Chapel Hill and fell 
at Gettysburg. Dr. Deems adds, "The Lord bless you and 
the University." He closes his letter by a characteristic evi- 
dence of feeling. 

"With great respect, I am affectionately your old pre- 
ceptor, Charles F. Deems.'* 


192 History of University of North Carolina. 

President Battle wrote compositions and studied Horace 
under Dr. Deems in 1848. 

This gift is unique, in that it provides that the principal as 
well as interest shall be loaned to students on their giving 
security. A Trustee on hearing this said that they could get 
money at home on giving security, but the result proves that 
he was wrong. The Faculty decided that not exceeding $200 
should be lent to any one during the year of his membership. 

Subsequently Dr. Deems increased the loan fund by $400, 
making his donation $700, and then Mr. William H. Vander- 
bilt added $10,000 through him. He then made several 
changes in the machinery of administration : First, putting 
the loan into the hands of the Faculty ; second, allowing loans 
to nonresident students ; third, removing preferences of sons 
of ministers of the Gospel. 

The fund has been of conspicuous benefit to indigent youths 
and to the University. Very little has been lost. The worthy 
find no difficulty in getting friends to become their sureties. 
There is a constant stream of outflow to borrowers and of in- 
flow of repayments. From $10,700 the fund has grown to^ 
nearly $30,000. The plan prescribed by the donor of lending 
the principal, instead of the interest on an investment, secures 
more firmly the perpetuation of the memorial intended by the 
giver. Single investments are often lost by panics, misfortune 
or fraud. The annihilation of the values of all the numerous 
secured notes given by rising young men of all parts of the 
country seems practically impossible. 

The No-fence Law. 

A great grievance not only to the University but to the vil- 
lage was the running at large of cattle, including hogs and 
goats. On the streets, often, daintily dressed ladies were forced 
to the option of taking to the middle of the street in order to 
avoid the ponderous beasts sprawling on the sidewalk or to 
wait until by repeated urging they rose from their lair and 
opened the way. About the University buildings there was a 
constant noise, accompanied by a pungent odor, especially in 
fruit and watermelon time. A favorite joke in ancient days 

The Commencement of 1880. 193 

was to throw a slip knot around a half-grown pig and draw 
him up amid loud porcine lamentations to the third story. 

Of course gates were erected to keep the Campus sacred 
from intruders, but with so many careless young people pass- 
ing and repassing the effort was practically fruitless. The an- 
noyance continued, with an occasional worry of a bovine 
pulled and pushed up three flights of stairs and fastened to the 
bell rope. This would not have been thought of if the afore- 
said bovines had not been running around the buildings and 
disturbing the inmates with unacademic lowing. 

Another evil of the cattle running at large was the practical 
diminution of the Campus. The Trustees had passed a law 
making that extend from the line of Dr. Battle's fence to that 
of Prof. A. H. Patterson, late Professor Gore's, and of the 
same extent north and south. As it was impracticable to close 
the Raleigh Road, the stone wall was built west of this road, 
cutting off temporarily from the Campus a very beautiful ter- 

The experiment was tried of having a small space of the 
Campus enclosed and called a pound, in which the cattle tres- 
passing on the Campus could be confined. This succeeded to< 
a limited extent, but with the ill will of the owners. After 
some years the General Assembly passed a law allowing a ma- 
jority of the voters of Chapel Hill Township to decide by 
ballot whether cattle should be kept confined. A majority was 
against the proposal. Then a law was procured requiring the 
County Commissioners, on the affirmative petition of one-third 
of the landowners of the township to place it under what was 
called the "No-fence Law." This method secured the con- 
finement of cattle, and no complaint is ever heard of its opera- 

Commencement of 1880. 

On Tuesday of Commencement Week, at eleven o'clock, 
was the address before the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion by Rev. F. C. Woodward, of Elizabeth City. He showed 
more than ordinary gifts of oratory and made very successful 
this the first participation of the Association in the exercises 
of Commencement. 

194 History of University of North Carolina. 

On Wednesday at eleven o'clock an address was made before 
the two literary societies by Judge Augustus S. Merrimon. 
His subject was "Some of the Duties of a Young Man to the 
State." He spoke from a heart in sympathy with the rising 
generation and from deepest love for his native State. 

At four o'clock came the Baccalaureate sermon, which was 
preached by Rev. Dr. H. H. Tucker, of Georgia, author of 
works on religious liberty and other subjects. His sermon was 
strong and peculiarly appropriate to young men. 

On Wednesday night the representatives spoke. The 
chronicler noted that "The sweet music served the double 
purpose of welcome and of strengthening the nerve of the young 
men, upon whom the success of the occasion depended." The 
first speaker was Allen T. Davidson on "The Present Demand 
for Political Culture." He showed a high appreciation of the 
duties of a true statesman. Next came James D.. Murphy on 
"Centralization, the General Tendency of the Age." In elo- 
quent style he made plain how the ideals of the fathers of our 
government have been thrown aside and a stronger govern- 
ment substituted. "The Importance of a Congress of Na- 
tions" was then discussed by Lycurgus E. Mauney. His argu- 
ment for peace was so strong that a 'member of the Society of 
Friends, who was in the audience, presented him with a Bible. 
Then came William J. Adams on "The Present Duty of North 
Carolina in Regard to Education." Education causes material 
advancement and our State would be made richer and more 
happy by fostering higher culture. He was succeeded by Don- 
nell Gilliam on the "Progress of Society." Mr. Gilliam was 
an accomplished orator. He gave the causes that have changed 
the manners of a barbarous age into the refined society of the 
present day. Robert B. Albertson spoke on "The Negro and 
the South." As he was known to be a Republican his views 
commanded all the more attention. He contended that the 
South needed the Negro's labor, and harmony between the two 
should be the rule. 

The next day at ten o'clock, after a hymn and a prayer by 
Rev. Dr. Joseph M. Atkinson, Senior speaking began. As 

The Commencement of 1880. 195 

usual at this time the number of speeches was not limited, as 
the classes were small and it was desired to interest the parents 
and friends of the speakers in their efforts. 

Robert Ransom began with "Republicanism in France." He 
spoke with force and developed his interesting subject well. 
He was followed by Thomas C. Brooks on "Agriculture as a 
Vocation." He pleaded for agricultural education and the 
beautification of country homes and in general making life in 
rural districts more agreeable. Then came Locke Craig on 
"Catholicism in the United States." His subject was treated 
in an exhaustive and tolerant style and the speaker showed the 
traits of a true orator. Both he and the Faculty were censured 
in a public print because he criticised the Roman Catholic 
Church. The Faculty could not think that the speech could 
injure this powerful organization and it was felt to be impor- 
tant that the students should discuss subjects in which they 
were interested. 

He was followed by Thomas H. Battle in a strong and rather 
pessimistic discussion of the question. "Y\ "ill Russia be Danger- 
ous to Europe?" He predicted that it will be — has he 
changed his opinion since the Japanese War? Alexander L. 
Phillips came next, his subject being "Protection Necessitates 
Protection." His arguments were cogent in proving that high 
rates press heavily on other business. "The Late Commercial 
Depression of the World" was discussed by Charles C. Cobb 
in a thoughtful way. "Why have we no Southern Literature?" 
was a question which Roderick B. John essayed to answer. He 
showed an extensive knowledge of general literature as well as 
that of our Southland. "The Irish Question" was the theme 
of Ernest Haywood. He handled it with his usual thorough- 
ness and with a sympathetic spirit. Xext came William B. 
Slade on "Empire Against Republic." His address was worthy 
of this great question. Then Charles B. Aycock delivered a 
discourse on "The Philosophy of Xew England Morals." The 
audience predicted for him the reputation as an orator which 
he has since attained. Then came Albert L. Coble on the 
great theme. "The Unification of Germany." Latimer C. 
Yauofhan followed with a discussion of a profession which he 

196 History of University of North Carolina. 

embraced for several years in the distant State of Florida, 
"Journalism in North Carolina." Henry E. Faison closed with 
a thoughtful speech on "Science, the Benefactor of Mankind." 

The judges thought that Ay cock was best, and the audience 
generally concurred. He was awarded the Wiley P. Mangum 
medal for oratory. 

The diplomas were delivered to the graduates by Governor 
Jarvis, who addressed to them very appropriate counsels as to 
their duties in life. 

There were Bachelors of Arts (A.B.), eleven; there were 
Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.), four; a total of fifteen. 

The members of the class, as a rule, have been successful. 
Battle is president of a bank and manager of a large cotton 
mill ; Craig a State Senator and able lawyer ; Coble has been 
a Judge ; Haywood a successful lawyer ; John a Presiding 
Elder in the Methodist Church ; Phillips, a Presbyterian Doc- 
tor of Divinity ; Slade, president of a bank ; Aycock, Governor 
of North Carolina ; Betts, late president of Mansfield Female 
College in Louisiana ; Cobb, a thriving lawyer in Texas. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was conferred on 
Wm. N. H. Smith, Chief Justice of North Carolina, and on 
David Schenck, Judge of the Superior Court and an author. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred on 
Rev. David McGilvary, missionary in Siam ; Rev. Thomas G. 
Starr, of Richmond, Virginia ; Rev. Joseph M. Atkinson, of 
Raleigh, and Rev. Edward Rondthaler, of Salem. 

The Medals and Prizes were awarded as follows : 

Greek Medal — Frederick Nash Skinner, Henry Horace 

Chemistry Medal. — John Morehead Avery. 
Latin Medal. — Charles Watts Smedes. 
German Prize. — Rohert Paine Pell. 
McCaulay Prize. — Donnell Gilliam. 
Bingham Entrance Prize. — Hugh Paris Markham. 
Bingham English Medal. — Charles Brantley Aycock. 
Mangum Medal. — Charles Brantley Aycock. 

The Marshals of 1880 were Frank Battle Dancy, Chief; 
Charles E. McLean, Edward E. Richardson, Thomas T. Cov- 

The Commencement of 1880. 197 

ington, Dialectics, and Frank H. Stedman, James P. Jovner, 
and Noah J. Rouse, Philanthropies. 

In i879-'8o there were no changes in the Faculty except that 
Rev. Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., having resigned the Chair 
of Mathematics, was made Professor Emeritus. His resigna- 
tion was on account of ill health. 

The Ball Managers were John M. Walker, Chief, and 
Thomas D. Stokes, Frank G. Hines, L. B. Eaton, A. W. 
McAlister, assistants. The reporter becomes enthusiastic : 
"The decorations were exceedingly tasteful and beautiful. 
Every part of the handsome hall seemed fairly ablaze with 
light. The striking contrast between the sombre black of the 
dress suits and the brilliant hues of the ladies' costumes 
afforded exquisite grouping of colors, while the merry chatter 
of the gay couples made a very contagion of merriment. 
Every section of the State had sent forth its fairest to grace 
the scene." 

The reporter then gives the dresses of thirty-nine ladies and 
states that the ball broke up at four-thirty o'clock "amid a per- 
fect pandemonium of those peculiar unearthly yells in which 
the college boy delights and excels." 

Tree Planting, 1880. 

In the spring of this year the Senior Class originated the 
custom of planting a class tree. This and the Class Day exer- . 
cises were held together and the affair was at first successful. A 
large audience of students, Faculty, and villagers was gath- 
ered in amphitheater shape in the open space in front of the 
College well. The class then marched out from the front door 
of the South Building, led by its President, Thomas H. Battle, 
carrying the class tree, a fine sugar maple, on his shoulders. 

After forming in line in front of the audience they sang their 
class song, written for them by Mrs. C. P. Spencer. A class 
history, a class prophecy, etc., were then delivered. Charles B. 
Aycock, whose fame as an orator and great educational Gov- 
ernor is now so well known, was one of the chief speakers. 
Others were Robert Ransom, of Northampton County, Secre- 

198 History of University of North Carolina. 

tary of the Class and now a large planter; Alexander L. Phil- 
lips, now in charge of the Sunday School work of the Presby- 
terian Church in the South ; William B. Slade, now a banker 
of Columbus, Georgia, and Locke Craig, now a well known 
lawyer of Asheville. The tree was then planted on the edge 
of the "Forbidden Ground," where it now remains — a harbin- 
ger of the ever increasing value of the good Class of 1850 to 
its Alma Mater. 

By the way, this "Forbidden Ground" was a curious relic of 
North Carolina conservatism and respect for ante-bellum tra- 
ditions. It was originally planned to preserve the great quad- 
rangle between the East and West Buildings and Main Street 
as a section for foliage, etc. The two societies were enlisted 
in the attempt to make the students "keep off the grass," and 
imposed a fine of fifty cents for each transgression. Offenders 
were reported by the society monitors and fined without 
mercy. This was carried on effectively for several years. 
During the spring in question, 1880, a rabbit was once started 
up and pursued by a crowd of students across the "Forbidden 
Ground" and every soul that a monitor could locate was fined 
fifty cents. The restraint that the societies then exercised in 
this and other matters was really unique. At times it almost 
amounted to Blue Law persecution. For instance, a prominent 
member of the Class of '80 was actually fined two dollars for 
"reading matter in a church not connected with the service," 
the matter being a note just received from his best girl. This 
member is now a well known clergyman. 

Normal School of 1880. 

The Summer Normal School of 1880 extended from June 
24th to July 29th, President Battle having general charge. 
Major Jed Hotchkiss, of Staunton, Virginia, was Superintend- 
ent until Jul}- 6th, when he had engagements elsewhere. He 
was likewise Lecturer in Geography. He was succeeded in 
the office of Superintendent by Prof. Henry E. Shepherd. 
LL.D., of Baltimore, Maryland, Superintendent of the City 

Normal School of 1880. 199 

Schools, who was also Lecturer on the English Language. 
The other members of the Faculty were as follows : 

Alexander Mclver, once Professor of Mathematics in Davidson 
College, afterwards Superintendent of Public Instruction: Teacher 
of Mathematics, English Grammar, and History. 

Prof. J. L. Tomlinson, of Baltimore, Md., late Teacher in Graded 
Schools of California: Teacher of English Grammar and Geography. 

Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Kinston, once Doctor of Medicine, late 
Principal of Kinston College: Physiology and Hygiene. 

Prof. Robert O. Holt, Oak Ridge, N. C, Teacher in Academy of 
Oak Ridge: Teacher of Drawing and Penmanship. 

Prof. Win. B. Phillips, Chapel Hill, N. C: Teacher of Chemistry 
and Natural Philosophy. 

Albert L. Coble, Graham, N. C, since Judge of the Superior Court: 
Teacher of Algebra. 

Alexander W. McAlister, Asheboro, N. C: Teacher of Latin. 

Prof. Robert T. Bryan, now President of Baptist University at 
Shanghai, China: Teacher of Latin. 

N. C. English, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Greens- 
boro: Teacher of Grammar and Geography. 

Capt. John E. Dugger, Superintendent of Graded Schools of Ral- 
eigh: Reading and Phonics. 

Prof. Benjamin W. Hatcher, Principal of High School of Selma: 
Arithmetic and Analytical Geometry. 

Prof. Robert P. Pell, Instructor in English, University of North 
Carolina: English Philology and Shakespeare. 

J. M. Weatherly, Principal of High School: Teacher of Reading 
and Mental Arithmetic. 

Mrs. Louise Pollock, head of a Kindergarten School, Washington, 
D. C.: Teacher of the Kindergarten system. 

Miss Susie Pollock, Washington, D. C: Teacher of Kindergarten 

Miss Jane F. Long, a teacher of the Public Schools of New York: 
Teacher of the Model Class. 

These teachers were as a rule at the head of their profession 
and indoctrinated their pupils with the latest and best modes 
of instruction and of the conduct of schools. Prominent men 
delivered lectures and addresses before the whole school in 
Gerrard Hall : 

Prof. Jed Hotchkiss, thirteen lectures, including two on Palestine 
and one on Africa. 

Prof. W. C. Kerr, six lectures on North Carolina. 

200 History of University of North Carolina. 

Prof. Sylvester Hassell, one on Astronomy. 

Major Robert Bingham, "The English Speaking People." 

Prof. F. W. Simonds, two on Zoology and one on Curious Flowers. 

Bishop Theodore B. Lyman, "Egypt and the Nile." 

Rev. Dr. Edward Rondthaler, "German Schools." 

Rev. Dr. T. H. Pritchard, "Education in North Carolina." 

Supt. J. C. Scarborough, "School System in North Carolina." 

Rev. Win. B. Royall, D.D., "The Happy Teacher." 

President Battle, "The History of the University"; also a lecture 

on Sacred History. 

Robert T. Gray, Esq., "Progressive Education." 

Eugene Grissom, M.D., L.L.D., "Evolution and Science." 

Prof. W. B. Phillips, nine lectures on Natural Philosophy, with 


The whole number of pupils enrolled was 241, representing 
fifty-five counties. The average daily attendance was 167. 

President Battle in the course of one of his lectures made 
some interesting statements showing lineal descent of friend- 
ship for the University. One of the Committeemen, who re- 
ported the first scheme of instruction in the University, was 
Samuel Ashe, one of the three first Judges of the Supreme 
Court under the Constitution of 1776, afterwards Governor. 
One of his grandsons, Thomas Samuel Ashe, a high honor 
graduate and a Trustee, was one of the first three Judges of 
the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1876. 

Two great-grandsons of David Stone, afterwards Governor, 
another Committeeman, were lately students in the University, 
David Stone Cowan and John L. Phillips (now, 1912, a Sur- 
geon in the United States Army, with the rank of Major). 

The first President of the Board of Trustees, Charles John- 
son being only chairman of a called meeting, was William Le- 
noir, a hero of Kings Mountain. One of his descendants was 
Rufus Lenoir Patterson, Chief Marshal of 1850, and a leading 
spirit in the revival of the Lmiversity in 1875, and a son of his, 
Lenoir Morehead Patterson, and his cousin, Thomas Ballard 
Lenoir, were descendants of the noble man who called the Trus- 
tees to order on the morning of November 15, 1790. 

Again, the county of Mecklenburg, indignant because those 
of the Presbyterian faith were excluded from teaching in 

Pupils' Recitation Standing. 201 

Queen's College, demanded a public institution bound by no 
such trammels. Waightstill Avery, one. of the delegates, was 
on the committee which reported the Constitution. He was 
author of the clause commanding the establishment of the Uni- 
versity. The line of Averys was represented by John More- 
head Avery, a first honor man, son of the lamented Colonel 
William Waightstill Avery, who lost his life in the Civil War. 
Another coincidence was noted. The delegates from Edge- 
combe to the Constitutional Convention of 1776 were William 
Haywood, Elisha Battle, Jonas Johnston, Isaac Sessoms, and 
William Horn. Each of them had lineal descendants in college 
at that time. From Col. William Haywood came Ernest Hay- 
wood ; Frank G. Hines represented Col. Jonas Johnston ; Frank 
Battle Dancy represented Isaac Sessoms and Elisha Battle ; 
Alexander L. Phillips and Kemp P., Junior, Thomas H., Her- 
bert B., and Henry L. Battle were descendants of Elisha Battle 
and William Horn. This old patriot, Elisha Battle, State Sena- 
tor throughout the Revolutionary War, in addition to being the 
ancestor of the six students named, and of President Battle and 
of two Trustees, had also the good fortune of being the pro- 
genitor of five generations, students of the University he indi- 
rectly aided in founding. 

Marking and Curriculum. 

In 1880 the Executive Committee was unexpectedly aroused 
to interference in a matter generally thought to be peculiarly 
within the province of the Faculty. It was enacted that Pro- 
fessors should mark each recitation and make a weekly report. 
In the final marking of the pupil these recitation marks must 
have a controlling weight. The Faculty afterwards decided 
that they should have a two-thirds weight. It is obvious that 
this might be practicable in Mathematics but in History and 
other like subjects, this close attention to recitation is incom- 
patible with arousing enthusiasm by the Professor. It seems 
that final examinations create and test a broad acquaintance 
with the subject taught during the session and should be the 
controlling: influence. 

202 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Scientific Course was revised and printed in the cata- 
logue. The studies relating especially to the practical pursuits 
of life, e. g.j the "branches relating to Agriculture and the Me- 
chanic Arts," being emphasized. An inspection of this course 
will show that there was an honest attempt to earn the $7,500 
a year granted on account of the Act of Congress of 1862, 
often called by the name of its author, the Morrill Act. As it 
is very desirable to show the good faith of the University in 
this regard I give a list of studies of the Scientific Course in 

First Year. — Algebra and Geometry, English, Natural History 
Laboratory, Bookkeeping, and any one of the following: Latin, 
Greek, French, German. 

Second Year/ — Trigonometry and Analytical Geometry, Chemistry, 
French or German, Rhetoric, History, Physiology, Zoology, and 

Third Yeajr. — Physics, Industrial and Agricultural Chemistry, 
Qualitative Analysis, Agricultural Botany, Business Law, Logic and 
Rhetoric, Surveying and Engineering, or Calculus. 

Fourth Year. — Mechanics and Astronomy, Geology and Mineralogy, 
Political Economy, Constitutional Law, International Law, English 
Literature, and two electives, one out of each of the following 
groups: (a) Calculus or Surveying and Engineering or Quantita- 
tive Analysis; (b) English Literature, or Psychology, Moral Phi- 
losophy, Essays and Orations. 

The Teachers' Course was : 

First Year. — English, Reading and Elocution, Arithmetic, Algebra, 
Geography (Physical and Descriptive), Physiology and School Hy- 
giene, Drawing and Writing, Latin or Greek, Theory of Teaching. 

Second Year. — Rhetoric, History, Reading and Elocution, Book- 
keeping, Surveying, Algebra, Geometry, Natural Philosophy, Busi- 
ness Law, Composition, Theory of Teaching. 

This Teacher's Course was for those preparing to be teach- 
ers, either in public or private schools. It embraced the studies 
required by law and some others indispensable to excellence. 
Students in this course could take free of charge studies em- 
braced in the other courses. 

With the consent of the Facultv in each case students might 
pursue any studies they pleased, provided they had fifteen 

College of Pharmacy Established. 203 

hours of class exercise a week. By this means a purely agri- 
cultural education was possible. 

A beginning" was made in the collection of best models of 
plows and other agricultural implements. Handsome dona- 
tions were made by E. H. Plummer, Belcher & Taylor, B. F. 
Avery & Sons, South Bend Iron Works, A. B. Farquhar. 


On the 23d of September, 1880, the College of Pharmacy 
was added to the University, with the following professors: 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., President. 

Thomas W. Harris, A.M., M.D., Professor of Materia Medica 

and Pharmacy. 
Frederick W. Simonds, M.S., Professor of Botany. 
Francis P. Venable, Professor of General, Analytical and 

Applied Chemistry. 

During the spring term three lectures a week were given 
on Structural and Physiological Botany. Special attention was 
required for analysis of plants and the making of herbaria. In 
Chemistry there were three lectures per week for nine months, 
written examinations in December and May, oral quizzes often, 
and six hours required in the laboratory each week. The well 
appointed laboratories of the University gave every facility for 
work, which included the reactions of drugs, tests for their im- 
purities and the detection of poison. 

Dr. Harris in Materia Medica and Pharmacy gave instruc- 
tion in the description of the articles of Materia Medica, their 
physical properties, their impurities and tests for the same, the 
action of poisons and their antidotes. 

The pharmacy and medical students had free access to libra- 
ries and museums, including cabinets of minerals, plants, and 

Honor System. 

From the beginning in 1875 the honor system in examina- 
tions was adopted. Each student signed a pledge that he 
neither gave nor received aid during the examination. Short 
absences from the classroom, not over a quarter of an hour. 

204 History of University of North Carolina. 

were allowed, the examination paper not to be removed. At 
one time the Faculty proposed that there should be no retiring, 
but finding that there was a general objection to this, it was 
dropped. On the whole the honor plan has worked wonder- 
fully well. For some time accusations of cheating, which 
have been very rare, were tried before the members of the 
class as judges, but of late years before the Student's Council. 
Before 1868 cheating on examinations was not frowned upon 
by the student body; indeed, unless the perpetrator was "run- 
ning for an honor," was pleasantly condoned. The reason for 
this was explained in Volume I of the History, briefly that 
there was a well founded belief that President Swain desired 
a large graduating class and that the diploma was no evidence 
of scholarship. There was no punishment for cheating, but 
now, on conviction, the offender must leave the University. 
The very few trials have been conducted fairly and wisely. 
According to the agreement of the students in mass meetings, 
any student detecting the offender is in honor bound to report 
him to the Student Council. The jurisdiction of the Council 
has been extended and now (1912) includes all accusations of 
serious breaches of discipline. Recently eight students have 
been reported to the Prsident as worthy of dismissal for hazing 
and they were dismissed accordingly. 


The games of this period consisted of baseball and football. 
The first was much like the present but not altogether. Pitch- 
ing by the pitcher was abandoned and throwing substituted. 
No gloves were worn and the hands of the first baseman were 
generally blue in spots from bruises. The ball was usually 
taken on a bound far behind the batter. There were no 
catcher's masks nor mitts ; "taking them off the bat" by the 
catcher was resorted to only seldom, for example, when there 
was a man on base. 

Football was played pretty much as is described in "Tom 
Brown at Rugby," i. e., by as many as were willing to engage 
in it, the players being chosen by captains on both sides. The 
eleven on a side came afterwards. As played at this time the 

Agricultural Experiment Station. 205 

game was very animated, and gave exercise to a much larger 
number than at present. The "rooters" instead of sitting on 
benches and occasionally giving their college yells were active 
participants in the running, dodging, and kicking. 

In 1880 the Agricultural Experiment Station was very active 
and did good work. Among the employees was a skilled 
analyst from Prussia. After doing efficient service for some 
months his work became irregular and his actions abnormal. 
He devoted himself to a Fayetteville lady at the Normal 
School, followed her home and manifested his love by extrava- 
gant attentions. Then we heard of his resignation, probably 
at the request of his chief, Dr. Ledoux. He transmitted a few 
dollars to the doctor, saying it was to pay for alcohol which 
he had used as an intoxicant out of the Department stores. 
He then determined to return to the old country to visit his 
father. While in mid-Atlantic on his return trip, he suddenly 
leaped overboard and was swallowed up in the mighty ocean — 
a victim to the drug which poisons mind and body. He was 
a man of uncommon force, had the thorough training of a 
German University, bore on his face the scar of a student's 
sword duel. In manner he was courteous and agreeable. It 
is unnecessary to give his name. 

Alumni Association in 1881. 

A meeting of the Alumni Association was held in the even- 
ing of January 26, 1881, in Raleigh, in pursuance of a resolu- 
tion of the Association in June preceding, at the instance of 
President Battle. A number of alumni paid the annual fee 
of one dollar and became members. Mr. Paul C. Cameron 
was elected President, W. L. Saunders Secretary, E. B. Engel- 
hard Assistant Secretary, F. J. Busbee, J. S. Carr, and J. R. 
Hutchins Executive Committee. The Association assembled 
in the Hall of the House of Representatives. A very large 
and intelligent audience showed by earnest attention their ap- 
preciation of the proceedings. President Cameron delivered 
a most interesting address. He began by praising the ladies 

2o6 History of University of North Carolina. 

for the value of their presence to the University exercises. It 
had been an inspiring sight to see such men as Wm. H. Battle, 
Wm. A. Graham, B. F. Moore, and David M. Carter engaged 
in resuscitating the institution. He called over some of the 
older surviving alumni: Mark Alexander, of 1808; Matthew 
R. Moore, of Alabama, 1815 ; Rev. Dr. Robert Hall Morrison, 
Bishop W. M. Green, General Edward J. Mallett, of New 
York, of the Class of 1818, and Wm. H. Hardin, of 1819. We 
should keep in mind James K. Polk, 181 5, Willie P. Mangum, 
1815, Wm. A. Graham, 1824, and John Y. Mason, 1816, as hav- 
ing a national reputation. 

Mr. Cameron then paid a glowing tribute to Governor John 
M. Morehead, 18 17. Commencing life as a Tutor in the Uni- 
versity, he ended it with the highest honors of the State and the 
richest rewards of a practical utilitarian and man of all work. 
Then there was Judge Archibald Murphey, 1799, who went 
into life from a Professor's chair, able lawyer and master of 
English, very kind to young men. He wrote once to the 
speaker a letter giving fatherly advice and closing with an en- 
treaty never to wear a ring, walk with a gold headed cane, or 
ride a pony. Then we should remember R. M. Pearson, 1823, 
Thomas C. Manning, 1843, an d Walker Anderson, 1819, Chief 
Justices of North Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida respectively. 
There were mentioned the astute lawyer, B. F. Moore, 1820, 
and the orators W. P. Mangum and Zebulon B. Vance, 1852. 
And there were the great pulpit orators, Francis L. Hawks, 
1815, and William Hooper, 1809. Two of the most prominent 
graduates, J. J. Pettigrew and M. W. Ransom, were competi- 
tors for honors in the same class, 1847, while Wm. R. Holt, 
181 7, was a pioneer in improved agriculture and cattle breed- 

For nearly seventy years the fortunes of the University 
were in the hands of President Caldwell and David L. Swain, 
1822, who managed its affairs with good judgment and success. 
On the reorganization in 1875 ex-Governor Graham was urged 
to become the chief officer of the University, but he shook his 
head and said "it can not be." He was in the grasp of a fatal 

Alumni Association in 1881. 207 

malady. He gave his earnest sanction to the election of Mr. 
Battle a year afterwards. 

Mr. Cameron gave his endorsement to the Summer Xormal 
School "the wisest provision, the best blow struck in Xorth 
Carolina for general education — to teach the teachers how to 
teach." Lastly he praised the establishment at the University 
of the Agricultural Experiment Station as full of untold bless- 
ings to the farmer. He then introduced to the audience Presi- 
dent Battle, who delivered the annual address as the substitute 
of Rev. Dr. Thos. E. Skinner, who had been chosen but was 
called off to the bedside of a sick son. As President Battle's 
address was on the early history of the University, and as that 
is given in detail in the first volume of his History, it will not 
be repeated now. After mentioning the benefactors of the 
University in the past he closed, "Every one of these good men 
and women of the old time have gone to their silent homes, 
their bodies resting in the bosom of the green earth, not one of 
all that noble band looking forth with benignant eyes on their 
beloved North Carolina and the many changes flashing over 
its surface. But not dead. They live in their worthy descend- 
ants, whose character they aided by transmitted influence to 
mould, the true transmigration of souls, in the beneficent in- 
stitutions which they inaugurated, in the capacious structures. 
whose corner stones thev laid, in the children of the land they 
assisted to educate. The University buildings and noble 
grounds, its libraries and apparatus for instruction, long lines 
of useful and honorable citizens in all the walks of life, in all 
the States from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, their mental 
panoply supplied from her armory, these are alike their work 
and ever enduring monument." 

"The thanks of the Association were tendered to Messrs. 
Cameron and Battle for their very able, instructive and inter- 
esting addresses." 

Adjournment was then had subject to the call of the Presi- 
dent or Executive Committee. Messrs. Paul B. Means. F. 
H. Busbee, and J. S. Carr were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare an address to the alumni. It does not appear that the 
committee ever reported. 

208 History of University of North Carolina. 

After the conclusion of the meeting in the Hall of the House 
of Representatives the Association and its guests partook of 
an elegant banquet at the Yarborough House, care being 
taken to have no wine nor strong drink. Rev. Dr. Neill 
McKay asked the Divine blessing. Mr. Cameron was presi- 
dent of the feast. There were sundry toasts called and re- 
sponses made, short abstracts of which are given. 

I. North Carolina and the Federal Union. Governor 
Thomas J. Jarvis said, "Great as North Carolina is, dear to 
our hearts as she is, dear to us as the blood which so many of 
us have shed, and which so many more are willing to shed in 
her defense, she is but an integral part of this mighty Union, 
with which heaven and our forefathers have blessed us. North 
Carolina and the Federal Union : Long may they go on pros- 
pering and to prosper, one and inseparable, now and forever." 

The second toast was The General Assembly of North Caro- 
lina. Responded to by the President of the Senate, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Robinson, and the Speaker of the House, Charles 
M. Cooke. We have only the speech of Mr. Cooke. "The 
groundwork of every system of government is the voice of 
the legislative power as expressed in its laws. The idea of 
this age in our State is in higher mental and moral culture. 
In this General Assembly are found representatives of that 
idea. To the members of the Alumni Association I would say 
in behalf of the General Assembly, we have the kindest feel- 
ings for your Alma Mater. We appreciate her for what she 
has done. We value her for what she is still to do, and we 
shall help her to extend her usefulness." 

To the third toast. The Judiciary of North Carolina and the 
Bar, Col. John N. Staples, Senator from Guilford County, 
responded: "Who of us, the most humble of the legal pro- 
fession, that is not stirred to the very depths when we read 
of those great judges and eminent advocates, whose fame and 
glory fill the earth, and whose names like great stars in the 
world's firmament, shine through the gloom of centuries with 
a brilliancy and a splendor which time can not efface nor the 
ages obscure. * * * The pages of history do not disclose 
the time when the lawyers and the judges, as a class, were not 

Alumni Association in 1881. 209 

the truest friends of good government, wholesome laws and 
popular rights." Colonel Staples continued for some minutes 
in eloquent style and closed as follows : 

"'The skies are painted with unnumbered sparks; 
They all are fire and every one doth shine, 
But there's but one in all doth hold his place, 
Unchanged of motion, immovable.' 

"So let it be with the State. Let the hills and the valleys and 
eastern plains be studded with colleges and schools and semi- 
naries of learning, and let each send forth a bright and beauti- 
ful light, but among them all let there be but one unchangeable 
and immovable, always resplendent with a never failing bright- 
ness, and let that one be our State University." 

The next toast was The University and the Board of Trus- 
tees. Responded to by Hon. John Manning, Representative 
from Chatham, and Dr. Eugene Grissom, Superintendent of 
the Central Asylum for the Insane. 

Mr. Manning said, "From the walls of the University has 
issued annually for more than three-quarters of a century a 
steady stream of generous, intelligent, well bred gentlemen, 
who have done much to formulate a healthy public opinion, 
and to elevate the standard of morals and politics. In 1875 
the College curriculum was expanded and now the University 
stands abreast with the modern coMeges or universities." The 
speaker gave details of the work of the University, awarding 
especial commendation to the Summer Normal School. He 
stated that the friends of the University have always been 
champions of the public schools. The Trustees have endeav- 
ored to carry out in good faith the provisions of the Land 
Grant Act. If anyone thinks otherwise they will be grateful 
for friendly criticism. 

Dr. Grissom said, "The influence of this institution of learn- 
ing has extended throughout every portion of our Common- 
wealth, and its usefulness has pervaded every interest of our 
people. Its mission has not been hemmed in by State lines nor 
its blessings 'circumscribed within the same narrow limits.' 
Let it grow and flourish and bear fruit to feed the hungry 


210 History of University of North Carolina. 

thoughts of the rising generation, soon to fill our ranks. Its 
past history is secure, its career has been covered with re- 
nown, its present and future is as bright and full of praise. 
The Athenian pointed to the splendid Acropolis with exulting 
pride, because he believed that there in the matchless Par- 
thenon was enshrined the palladium of his country — the sym- 
bol of heavenly knowledge. But were I asked to declare the 
preserving charm of our beloved country and its glorious lib- 
erties, I would direct the inquirer, * * * to our public 
schools, academies, colleges and universities. Here the minds 
that rule our land are fashioned. Here, under God, the des- 
tinies of the nation are determined." 

The next toast was The Clergy, responded to by Rev. Thos. 
E. Skinner, D.D. "True education is under the guidance and 
control of the Great Teacher sent from God. Its two great 
factors are Nature and Christ, and the design of both schools 
is the training, growth and salvation of the human family. 
In all the colleges of the State let a friendly emulation stimu- 
late to the highest success. Let not the University underrate 
the denominational colleges as sectarian nor should the latter 
antagonize the University, the mother of high education in 
North Carolina." 

The sixth toast was Our. Sister Institutions — Davidson, 
Wake Forest, and Trinity. Major J. G. Morrison, Repre- 
sentative from Lincoln, spoke for Davidson. He said that his 
father, Rev. Dr. Robert Hall Morrison, eighty-two years old, 
is one of the three oldest living graduates of the University. 
"No one will cherish more esteem, or who will be more ready 
to extend to it a helping hand than myself." 

Senator H. R. Scott, of Rockingham, for Wake Forest, said, 
"There is really no conflict of interests between the University 
and the colleges of the State. The liberal patronage extended 
to the University, and the increased matriculation of the col- 
leges since its revival confirm this belief. Alike the advocates 
and inculcators of the great principles of moral and intellectual 
development, the colleges, with the University at their head, 
should march shoulder to shoulder against the twin gorgons, 
illiteracv and vice." 

Alumni Association in 1881. 211 

Representative D. B. Nicholson, of Duplin, for Trinity Col- 
lege, said, "Our University and her 'Sister Colleges' are the 
fountains from which flow, and from which must continue to 
flow, the crystal streams of knowledge and culture from which 
the manhood of our grand old Commonwealth may quaff the 
waters of refinement, of honor and distinction. Long live and 
flourish our grand old University ! Long live and flourish her 
'Sister Colleges.' " 

The seventh toast was The Common Schools of North Caro- 
lina. Senator A. Haywood Merritt, of Chatham, responded. 
"We are bound to extend a support to the University and the 
Common Schools, not only by the Constitution, but by the 
stronger ties of patriotic affection. The Common Schools and 
the University, two but inseparable, the handmaids of virtue 
and intelligence, which bear their welcome blessings alike to the 
cottage and the palace, and bring up the poor to the level of the 
peer. Alay they live forever !" 

Representative J. R. Webster, of Rockingham, responded to 
the same toast, "There is nothing I so much desire as the pros- 
perity and happiness of the whole people of the State. The 
education of the masses is the only enduring basis upon which 
permanent prosperity and happiness can rest. The Univer- 
sity's history constitutes the most brilliant and useful chapter in 
the splendid history of our grand old Commonwealth. I 
assuredly wish the University long life and abundant pros- 

Representative J. S. Bradshaw, of Randolph, responded to 
The Press, "Of all oppressed, depressed, and hard pressed, 
overworked, overtaxed, and unappreciated mortals between 
heaven and the new county of Durham, the Press stands fore- 
most. I am not too envious not to exult with you over the 
resuscitation of your Alma Mater, nor can I be too selfish or 
too narrow souled not to rejoice with you over the greater and 
more glorious future that yet awaits her. The Press claims a 
share in her redemption and the honor of her success. While 
the Press has built up the University I could point you to other 
monuments on every hand that will perpetuate its honor and 
tell its power in the years to come. In the Press you will have 

212 History of University of North Carolina. 

always the strongest ally, the warmest advocate and the truest 
friend of your own beloved Alma Mater, the gem and the 
pride of North Carolina." 

The ninth toast was The Agricultural, Commercial, Manu- 
facturing and Mining Interests of the State. Responded to by 
Hon. Montford McGehee, 1841, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Major Rufus S. Tucker, Gen. Julian S. Carr, and Prof. W. 
C. Kerr. Mr. McGehee said, "The medical and law brethren, 
who have preceded me, seem to claim that the supreme good 
of society is dependent on the proper exercise of their pro- 
fessional functions. But let us not forget that the leaders of 
these professions have often in one generation reversed the 
opinions and practices of their predecessors. But if deprived 
of their breakfasts and other meals furnished by agriculture, 
what would become of the learning of our Executives, Legis- 
lators, and Judiciary ? Our dear mother, ever fair and ever 
young, looks from her far famed hill with as much complacency 
upon those of her children who excel in agricultural as upon 
those who excel in professional pursuits. We hold in peculiar 
honor the men who established our University and those who 
maintained and supported her. Agriculture is reverenced as 
the calling of the good and wise of every age. It is revered 
as the true theater of peace, virtue, and independence." 

The speaker regretted the absence of the other sex "who, 
in the language of the great Cicero, 'Delectant domi, non im- 
pediunt foris, peregrinautur, rusticautur, pernoctant nobiscum.' 
Does the field of literature furnish a finer climax than that 
embraced in the above passage ?" 

Major Tucker, taking Commerce as his subject, gave a rapid 
history of trade from the Jews, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, 
Romans: "In our day the volume of exchanges has enor- 
mously increased, aided by ocean steamers, railroads, the tele- 
graph." The dates of the charters of the various railroads in 
North Carolina were given. He then adverted to the delight- 
ful days spent at Chapel Hill in the old days. He paid a warm 
tribute to the ladies of Chapel Hill. He then gave a glowing 
description of the mineral and other resources of the State 

Alumni Association in 1881. 213 

and exhorted the young men to prepare to develop them. He 
then reversed the advice of Greeley and urged them to "stay 
at home, young men." 

General Carr spoke on Manufactures. He urged the Gen- 
eral Assembly to encourage manufacturing in every way pos- 
sible. He asked pardon for stating that the mills, with which 
he was connected, since the first of January of the present 
year (1881), made sales to or had bona fide inquiries from, 
every State and Territory, perhaps, in the Union and besides 
from South America, West Indies, England, Germany, Nor- 
way, Australia, Japan, and China, and the "far-off isles of the 
sea." Though 

"The heathen in his blindness 
Bows down to wood and stone," 

in their lucid moments they cry, "Give us Blackwell's Durham 
tobacco and cigarettes, none genuine unless they have the 
trademark of the Durham Bull stamped on each package." 

Professor Kerr then responded, his subject being Geology. 
"The University has included in the scope of her plans and 
work, with a true University spirit, the whole circle of scien- 
tific culture and development. She built the first astronomical 
observatory on the continent, and not only recommended the 
establishment of, but actually conducted through a series of 
years, the first State Geological Survey in America. And the 
President of the University, Caldwell, sketched out a ground 
plan of internal improvements which the present generation 
is just beginning to comprehend and soon to realize." 

Col. Duncan K. MacRae coming in was called on and re- 
sponded in a very witty and sensible speech, which was not 

The last speech was not made until after midnight. The 
alumni and their invited guests went to rest, the former more 
enthusiastic than ever over their intellectual mother and the 
latter with more friendly feelings towards the institution which 
had become better known to them. 

214 History of University of North Carolina. 

Movement for First Annual Appropriation. 

In January, 1879, the Treasurer reported that the collec- 
tions from contributions were exhausted and that the receipts 
from tuition were insufficient to pay expenses. The numbers 
had increased to an extent greater than the most sanguine had 
anticipated. During the session 1 877^78 there were one hun- 
dred and ninety-eight in attendance. It had been the calcu- 
lation, as has been stated, that the tuition receipts and contribu- 
tions not needed for repairs, with the $7,500 by the State, would 
suffice to pay all bills until the tuition receipts should increase 
to the needed amount. Unfortunately this was not the case. 
If all the 198 students had paid their $60 tuition and $10 room 
rent the receipts would have been $13,180. The actual receipts 
were $6,987, very little over one-half. The prediction as to 
the increase of numbers was correct ; the prediction as to the 
tuition receipts was incorrect. 

What was the cause of the increase of nonpaying students? 
Mainly the county student feature. By some it was consid- 
ered a mark of distinction to be chosen by the Commissioners 
to represent their county. A few received the county appoint- 
ment who were not strictly entitled to it. 

The evil to the University treasury did not stop here. Other 
youths, their parents naturally assenting, compared themselves 
to the county students and thought that they were entitled 
to the same privileges, claiming that financially they were in 
no better condition. Also the sons of clergymen -were entitled 
to free tuition and those intending to become clergymen. And 
all who were indigent were allowed to give their notes for 
their University dues. These considerations diminished 
largely the number of paying students. And probably Trus- 
tees and Faculty, partly from pure charity and partly to in- 
crease the prestige of the institution, naturally leaned to lib- 
erality in granting free admission. 

The University, while willing to aid the bona fide indigent 
in all cases, would have been glad to abandon the county stu- 
dent feature, but was unable to do so, because the obligation 
had been imposed by the General Assembly as one of the con- 

Movement for First Annual Appropriation. 215 

ditions on which the grant of the land scrip had been made 
in 1867. It added very few students. Most of those who 
availed themselves of it would have entered the University 
without it. 

It may be asked why the Faculty did not refuse those county 
students whom they considered able to pay. Simply because 
the law gave the decision of the question to the County Com- 
missioners, who were supposed to know the pecuniary condi- 
tion of their people. The applicant was a resident of their 
county, the Faculty could know nothing about him except 
from hearsay and hearsay was often wrong or only half right. 
For instance, there was a county student whose father owned 
four hundred acres of good land, but the land was under a 
heavy mortgage. This, of course, the Commissioners knew, 
but the Faculty had no means of knowing. They had no au- 
thority to overrule the Commissioners. If they had done so 
bitter enmities would have resulted. 

The charge that rich boys were appointed county students, 
true or untrue, aroused sharp hostility in certain quarters. It 
was charged that this free tuition was intentionally used to 
gain students designing to go to other colleges. Rev. Colum- 
bus Durham insisted on getting and publishing copies of the 
University accounts and sharply criticised President Battle for 
the large amount of free tuition. His attack had little weight 
as the sympathies of the people were with indigent young 
men struggling for a higher life. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees the situ- 
ation was Carefully discussed. Rev. D. A. Long moved ,that 
all salaries should be reduced twenty per cent, and tuition fees 
increased by ten dollars. This was voted down and the Trus- 
tees settled upon ten per cent decrease of salaries as long as 
it should be necessary. It is to the credit of the members of 
the Faculty that they accepted this unpalatable action without 
a protest or a murmur. They did not even ask that scrip 
should be given for the amount so cut off, to be paid when 
more prosperous times should arrive. 

President Battle then proposed that he should appeal to the 
alumni and other friends of higher education for aid, and, if 

216 History of University of North Carolina. 

this sliouM not meet with success, application should be made 
to the General Assembly for an annual appropriation. The 
whole matter devolved on him. Fortified by a strong let- 
ter from Governor Jarvis he accordingly proceeded to seek 
interviews with leading alumni in the chief cities and towns 
of the State and asked their counsel and their gifts. The 
unanimous answer was that it was not wise to rely on volun- 
tary donations, but that the University, like all other State in- 
stitutions, should be regularly supported out of the public 
treasury. As his opinion concurred with theirs, he turned his 
energies to procuring an appropriation. 

Strange to say no annual appropriation had ever been asked 
for and of course had not been granted. In 1790 a loan of 
ten thousand dollars for building the Old East was voted and 
afterwards it was converted into a gift. About seventy-five 
years afterwards, in 1867, President Swain procured seven 
thousand dollars for one year to pay part of the unpaid salaries 
of the Faculty. Large sums were obtained from time to time 
from escheats, including soldiers' land warrants located in West 
Tennessee, which that State claimed as her property, but there 
was no money from the State Treasury. The seven thousand 
and five hundred dollars annually from the Land Grant is no 
exception to this statement because that was paid to fulfill a 
contract with the United States, specified in the Act of Con- 
gress of July, 1862, in lieu of the investments made under the 
Pool administration. 

After consulting with Governor Jarvis, Colonel Saunders, 
and other wise friends it was concluded that, as we had $7,500 
per annum coupled with the obligation to receive one free stu- 
dent from each county, that the proposed bill would be more 
acceptable if, coupled with an additional $7,500, there should 
be another free student from each county. 

This provision was bitterly fought by friends of other in- 
stitutions, who alleged that the county student feature was 
used to take away their students. This allegation was prob- 
ably true in one or two cases. Some County Commissioners 
possibly reasoned that a young man, while his father lived, had 

$5,ooo Appropriated, 1881. 217 

no property of his own. There was, however, only one case 
known where a student was induced to desert his college for 
tlie University, but it was charged that there were many. 

In order to get the bill in any shape through the Legisla- 
ture we h'ad the help of Governor Jarvis, Secretary of State 
Wra. L. Saunders, and other enlightened statesmen, includ- 
ing alumni of the University in the General Assembly. 

Colonel Saunders, graduate of the University of 1854, in 
a very strong paper, published in the Sentinel newspaper as 
an editorial, pointed out that the memorial of the opponents 
to the General Assembly opposing the appropriation was an 
attempt by the churches to control the State, contrary to the 
genius of our institutions. 

Rev. Dr. J. D. Hufham, a sincere and influential Baptist, 
a friend of Wake Forest College and also of the University, 
of which his father was an alumnus, journeyed to Raleigh 
from his distant home and sought an interview with President 
Battle. He stated that he was not opposed to the University 
but that he was unalterably an enemy to doubling the county 
student feature. He proposed that if the friends of the Uni- 
versity would ask for $5,000 annually only and strike out the 
additional county student feature, he would cease his own op- 
position and would advise his friends to support the bill. Be- 
lieving it to be the best policy for the University, with the ap- 
proval of Governor Jarvis, Colonel Saunders and other Trus- 
tees, the proposal was accepted. 

The bill then passed without serious trouble. 

When passage of the bill was reported to Colonel Saunders 
he was much pleased, saying, "That settles the principle — more 
will follow." 

What caused the change in public sentiment which led to 
this beginning of annual appropriations to the University? It 
was partly from the judicious conduct of the President and 
Professors in working hard and often making educational ad- 
dresses throughout the State, partly to the admirable behavior 
of our students, and the high stand in their communities of 

2i8 History of University of North Carolina. 

our alumni, but chiefly to our Summer Normal School. Teach- 
ers from two-thirds of the counties returned to their homes 
full of love for the University and demonstrating its useful*' 
ness to the public schools. Friends of education everywhere 
had their attention turned hitherward. 

Connected with this success of the University was an inci- 
dent which was so distorted in the telling as to be offensive 
to some who had opposed us. The students, on Washington's 
birthday, through Mr. A. W. McAlister, a Junior, presented 
President Battle with a gold headed cane. The secret was so 
well kept that the President knew not what was coming until 
the orator was half through his speech of presentation. He 
replied in a conciliatory tone, giving credit to all who sup- 
ported our bill, expressing gratification at the withdrawal of 
opposition, and explaining that the opposition was chiefly di- 
rected against doubling the number of county students. There 
was nothing said in a boastful way but probably the public 
presentation of the cane was regarded in that light. Over 
that President Battle had no control whatever. His uniform 
practice was to say nothing which could leave a sting. Doubt- 
less, too, some thin skinned opponent of the University was 
guilty of misunderstanding or distorting the speeches and en- 
deavored to make mischief. 

In order to satisfy the public that the county student law 
of 1867 would be honestly administered, it was materially 
strengthened by the Act of 1881. The applicant was required 
to prove that neither he, nor guardian, nor parent, had the 
requisite means to pay his tuition and room rent at the Uni- 
versity, that he was a citizen of the State, a resident of the 
county, of good moral character and capacity for usefulness. 
The appointment was revocable if the alleged facts were found 
to be untrue, or the applicant, his parent or guardian, should 
become able to pay. The Faculty were allowed to bring the 
question of ability before the Board of Commissioners. And 
if any student should obtain the appointment, he should still 
be liable for tuition and room rent, if he should afterwards 
be able to pay. It was made the duty of the Trustees to re- 

President's Report for 1881. 219 

quire that students receiving- free tuition should promise in 
writing to teach in the State for a period of time half as long 
as they should be at the University under such tuition. 

This law continued until 1887, when the Land Scrip was 
taken from the University and the county student feature 
was abolished. This abolition, however, does not prevent the 
aiding of the indigent to obtain a University education. 

Of course, although not altogether satisfactory in its work- 
ings, the law did much good. Many valuable youths were 
brought from their obscure surroundings and trained for an 
honorable life. President Battle was careful to send printed 
copies of the law to the counties and thus poor young men 
were informed how to obtain a University education, which 
would not have otherwise been made known to them. 

The report of President Battle for 1881 was placed before 
the General Assembly. Some statements in the report should 
be recorded. 

The President bears testimony to the high standard of 
honor, sobriety, economy, and deportment of the students. He 
acknowledges the great indebtedness of the Faculty to them 
for their invaluable cooperation through the Literary Societies 
in preserving so elevated a standard of decorum, and morality. 

The Faculty are studious and ambitious. They have per- 
formed their work with cheerfulness, harmony, energy and 

The income does not meet expenses. It is impossible to cur- 
tail our expense without serious injury to the institution. For 
example, curtailment of salaries would drive off some of our 
best Professors, while diminution of our teaching force will 
cause to be untaught subjects of vital importance. 

The Act of Congress does not allow buildings to be put up 
out of the fund, or cattle or machinery bought. It requires 
the teaching of Latin and Greek and also the "branches of 
learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts," not 
"Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts." The farmer's son 
should have a general training, so that he can hold his own 
in all circles. It is the intent of the Act to elevate the business 

220 History of University of North Carolina. 

of the farmers and mechanics to take rank with the profes- 
sional men of law, medicine, theology and the like. 

We were assailed for not having stables and barns and 
blooded cattle, for not having workshops and costly machinery, 
and the like plants necessary to the efficiency of a complete in- 
stitute of technology. The answer is plain. In the first place, 
how is it possible to provide these expenditures, running into 
many thousands of dollars, out of $7,500 a year? Could the 
ablest financier provide for the demands on his budget to this 
extent out of an empty treasury — in truth out of a deficient 
treasury ? 

In the second place, the diversion of the Land Scrip Fund 
to permanent structures is against the Act of Congress. The 
second paragraph of section five of said act is explicit. "No 
portion of said fund nor interest thereon shall be applied, 
directly or indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the pur- 
chase, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or 

It is confidently submitted that no fair man can accuse the 
University of not carrying out its obligation. It established 
not only two but several more professorships designed to teach 
the branches of learning relating to agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts. It was impossible to do more with only $7,500 a 

It is possible that if the Trustees had cut off from its past 
and turned the University into an Agricultural and Mechanical 
College, the General Assembly would have shown greater liber- 
ality. But they wisely determined to develop it along the an- 
cient lines, embracing, however, a much greater scope of scien- 
tific teaching. Surely it was right to have our institution of 
the type of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, University 
of Virginia, a character that this University has always had, 
with a reputation wide and enduring. 

Memorial of Colleges. 

A memorial in behalf of the denominational colleges of the 
State was submitted to the General Assembly and published 
in the newspapers, against the passage of the bill. While the 

Memorial of Denominational Colleges. 221 

memorialists especially attacked the county student feature on 
the ground that it would take students from the colleges and 
was not fairly administered, the paper contains arguments 
against any State appropriation to the University. They say 
"we oppose the measure because such a large sum as $7,500 
should not be given to collegiate education, when common 
school education is especially needed. Xow only one-third of 
the children are at school, the State is so. poor that it can 
only open the schools ten and one-fourth weeks in the year, 
and the appropriation for each child is only eighty-one cents, 
it seems unreasonable for the State to pay eighty dollars a 
year for each student sent to Chapel Hill." 

Again, they said, the number of really poor who will be 
aided will not be materially increased as the colleges are aid- 
ing, in whole or in part, one hundred and sixty-five needy 
young men. The tendency of the State student system is to 
have all University students free, as is the case in Virginia 
(and many other States), thus forcing by involuntary tax- 
ation the education of well to do and even the richest families. 

It was charged that the University was doing no better 
teaching than the colleges. "In fact even the high schools 
were injured because the University 'receives students of al- 
most any degree of preparation.' In truth the development 
of the past few years shows that the colleges possess a value 
and vitality as factors in the great work of education, which 
do not belong to 'the State School at Chapel Hill.' Chapel 
Hill, with its illustrious alumni, its buildings and its endow- 
ment of $125,000, is unable to sustain itself, while the colleges 
are in a prosperous condition." 

Finally, deeming the measure violative of their most sacred 
rights as citizens, the memorialists entered their solemn pro- 
test against it as inexpedient, unfair, and unjust, and they 
would resist its passage by every legitimate measure. 

The memorial was signed by Rev. Drs. T. H. Pritchard, B. 
Craven, and L. M. McKinnon, presidents respectively of Wake 
Forest, Trinity, and Davidson Colleges, Rev. J. D. Hufham 
and Mr. L. L. Polk, of the Baptist, Mr. John L. Brown of the 
Presbvterian, and Rev. F. L. Reid of the Methodist Churches. 

222 History of University of North Carolina. 

Many members of these denominations made known that 
they had no sympathy with the movement. 

The temper of the paper is indicated in several ways. First, 
the institution under discussion is belittled by calling it "the 
State School at Chapel Hill," and "Chapel Hill." Nowhere is 
it called "the University." 

Second, in throwing up to the University its paucity of 
numbers in recent years, when it was struggling under much 
opposition by the petitioners and others to regain the pros- 
perity lost by the disasters of war and unfortunate legislation. 

Third, that it had no standard of admission. The only 
ground for this accusation is that the Land Grant Act re- 
quired the University not to require Latin and Greek for ap- 
plicants desiring to study the branches of learning relating to 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. The possession of $7,500 
a year made it imperative to obey the act, but very few stu- 
dents availed themselves of the offer. 

Fourth, that the colleges without an endowment were flour- 
ishing. On the contrary their numbers were small, and they 
were seeking and ultimatelv obtained endowments. Their 
prosperity then increased. The rise of the University has 
helped them all notably. 

Fifth, while some of the arguments are only against free 
State students the spirit of the paper is against having any 
State University at all — a question settled in 1776 by constitu- 
tional enactment, and with few exceptions cherished through- 
out all civilized countries. The argument was that members of 
denominations which support their own colleges ought not to 
be called on to help public institutions, an argument which 
does not satisfy their own members, as is shown by the large 
attendance of their sons at the University. 

Sixth, the reflections on the work of the Lniversity come 
with a bad grace from men who never visited it and know not 
whereof they affirm. The Visiting Committees, able men, who 
annually inspect the institution, certify to faithful and sound 
work. The standards were as high as most of the best insti- 
tutions in the land, as high as the standard of the preparatory 
schools allowed. 

Brief for the University. 22$ 

Seventh, the statement that $7,500 a year is a large appro- 
priation, with the necessary inference that it is burdensome on 
the taxpayer, shows a lamentable ignorance or forgetfulness 
on the part of the memorialists. Institutions in many States 
get ten, twenty, thirty times as much. Those with even 
$1,000,000 to $2,000,000 annually complain of lack of means 
to provide for instruction in important branches of learning. 

Eighth, the authorities of the University preferred not to 
be burdened with this second obligation of county students. 
But they thought that the General Assembly would require it 
as a condition of a second appropriation of the same amount. 
They welcomed gladly the compromise to eliminate this fea- 
ture, and reduce the appropriation to $5,000. It did not occur 
to them, however, that such respectable bodies as the County 
Commissioners, very fair representatives of the integrity and 
good sense of the people, would violate their duty by breaking 
a plain law and appointing students not entitled under its pro- 

Brief for the University of Xorth Carolina. 

The following brief for the grant of additional aid to the 
University was prepared by President Battle and Professor 
Winston, and submitted to the Members of the General As- 
sembly, in 1 88 1. It is said that it had a good effect in concil- 
iating opposition. 

The University: Its Origix, Its History. Its Work. Its Needs, and 
Reasoxs for Its Existence. 

Constitution of 1776 — "All useful learning shall be duly encour- 
aged and promoted in one or more universities." Section 41. 

Charter granted in 1789, one month after the State entered the 
Union. The Legislature declared that "in all well regulated gov- 
ernments it is the indispensable duty of every Legislature to consult 
the happiness of a rising generation and endeavor to fit them for an 
honorable discharge of the social duties of life, by paying the strict- 
est attention to their education, and whereas an university, sup- 
ported by permanent funds and well endowed would have the most 
direct tendency to answer the above purpose," etc. etc. 

The Convention of 1835 left the requirement of the University in 
the Constitution. 

224 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Convention of 1861 did the same. 

The Convention of 1865 reenacted the provision. 

The Convention of 1868 did the same. 

The people, by an immense majority, ratified the University by 
separate vote in 1873, and gave the management to the General 

The Convention of 1875 reenacted the University provisions, and 
the people ratified their action in 1876. 

So that the people have imposed it on the General Assembly, at 
seven different epochs, to support and maintain the University. 
Art. IX, sec. 6, of Const. 

The General Assembly are sworn to carry out the provisions 
"wherever practicable": 

1. To give free tuition to the poor. 

2. To establish College of Agriculture. 

3. To establish College of Mechanics. 

4. To establish College of Mining. 

5. To establish College of Normal Instruction. 

All the Legislature has done is — 

I. To pay interest on the Land Scrip Fund, §7,500 per annum. 
This they agreed with the United States to do or pay back the whole 
amount to the United States. 

(a) In return for this $7,500 the University grants 94 free 
scholarships, one from each county. 

(b) The University agrees to establish at least two professor- 
ships, whose professors shall "teach the branches of learning 
relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts." 

As a matter of fact the University has organized all its depart- 
ments with special reference to carrying out the Land Grant Act. 

The present work of the University: 

I. Instruction to beneficiaries and county students. Over 270 
since 1S75. 

(a) These free students have all the advantages given to 
the richest. 

(b) They are taught not only branches relating to Agricul- 
ture and Mechanic Arts, but also all the studies usually taught 
in universities. They have really — 

1. The instruction demanded by Congress. 

2. The best university education. 

3. Both free of charge. 

(c) These students are among the best students in all re- 
spects; many of them represent their Societies at Commence- 

Brief for the University. 225 

(d) Thus the University is educating the poorer classes and 
furnishing teachers for public and private schools, educated 
citizens for the civil offices and duties of the State. 

(e) These poor students are not required to study Latin and 
Greek, but they can do so if they desire. 

(f) They are not excluded on account of poor preparation; 
the Professors, by extra labor, provide for them. 

II. Economy is the order of the day at the University. 

(a) About half the students board at $7 to $8 per month, less 
than ten cents a meal. 

(b) The Faculty interdict expensive boarding houses. 

(c) Extravagance in all shapes and forms is banished. 

III. The standard of graduation is higher than ever before. 

(a) The range of studies is wider. 

(b) "Various courses of study are arranged to suit the tastes 
and necessities of individuals. 

(c) The several studies are pursued further than ever before. 

(d) The most improved methods of instruction are used. 

(e) Idlers and poor scholars are sifted out of each class by 
searching final examinations. 

(f) The scientific instruction is given not only by lectures 
and recitations, but also and especially by actual practice and 
experiment in the field and in the laboratory. 

(g) The highest testimony has been given in flattering terms 
to the character of the institution: e. g., by Major Bingham, 
Rev. Dr. McKay, Hon. John Manning, Rev. C. H. Wiley, Major 
A. M. Lewis, Rev. Dr. Huske, and others, icho have visited the 
class rooms. 

IV. The instruction is largely practical. 

(a) Land Surveying and Plotting. 

(b) Bookkeeping and Commercial Arithmetic. 

(c) Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry. 

(d) Mechanics. 

(e) Geology and Mineralogy. 

(f) Botany. 

(g) Zoology and Physiology. 

(h) Constitutions of United States and of North Carolina, 
(i) Rights and Duties of Citizenship, 
(j) Laws of Business, Notes, Bills, etc. 

(k) The University needs money to extend its usefulness in 
this direction. 

V. The University is educating a great many teachers. 

(a) Manning at Pittsboro, Noble with Bingham, Phillips with 
Lynch, Coble at Graham, Bryan at Cary, Craig at Chapel Hill, 
etc., etc., etc. 


226 History of University of North Carolina. 

(b) Many students study during the session and then remain 
during the Normal School, to learn the theory of teaching. 

(c) The University needs money to secure a regular Professor 
of the Theory and Art of Teaching the Common School Branches. 

VI. The number of the students shows the University's merits. 

(a) The number has risen to 200 since 1875. "" 

(b) This is more than the University ever had up to 1850. 

(c) We have 50 per cent more from North Carolina than the 
University had up to 1850. 

(d) The students from other States were diverted elsewhere 
when the University closed. They are returning. 

(e) Many native students went abroad when the University 

VII. Shall the University live, or shall it die? 

(a) The Constitution commands the University to exist. 

(b) The State owns a great deal of University property; e. g:: 

1. Eight buildings, five spacious, all brick. 

2. Laboratories. 

3. Museums. 

4. Libraries. 

5. Scientific apparatus. 

6. Four professors' houses and lots. 

7. Six hundred acres of land. 

(c) This belongs to the University forever by decision of the 
Circuit Court of the United States and Supreme Court of North 

(d) Shall the deaf, dumb, and blind be educated and not the 
seeing and hearing sons? Shall the insane be cared for and 
not the sane? 

(e) The University is essential to the Common School Sys- 
tem — the fountain of education. 

(f) It saves annually from $75,000 to $100,000 to the State by 
educating our boys at home: e. <j., Princeton, once the resort 
of students from North Carolina, now has only one. Hampden- 
Sidney has now none. University of Virginia, once the favorite, 
with forty or fifty or more, now has only twelve, counting the 
professional students in the Law and Medical Schools, etc., etc. 
Before the war the University had 185 from other States, who 
brought into North Carolina at least $100,000 every year. It 
had besides 272 from our own State, most of whom would have 
left it for education. The University therefore gained and saved 
together, to the State, about $200,000 per annum. Prom 1850 
to 1860, there were 3.626 matriculates. At an average of $400 
each, this netted the State $1,450,400 in ten years. Strengthen 
its hands and it will bring back the ancient numbers. Suppos- 

Brief for the University. 227 

ing that of the present numbers, only half would leave the State 
for education, say 100, they would spend out of North Carolina 
$50,000 at least per year. 

(g) The University alone can do its work. Trinity College 
claims to do as good work as the best institutions, and it is 
not denied; Wake Forest makes the same claim, and so does 
Davidson. For this reason it is said by some that the Univer- 
sity, which was started fifty years before either of these, must 
desert its old work and get out of their way. Where shall it 
go? Must it go above Harvard, above Yale, above the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, above Cornell, above Vanderbilt, above the 
University of Georgia, above Johns Hopkins? Such demands 
can not be complied with, for the simple reason that to do so 
would cut the University off from its connection with the great 
mass of poor young men in the State struggling to acquire lib- 
eral education. The University is not intended alone for the 
benefit of graduates of other institutions and the rich, but for 
the poor and needy as well, whose narrow fortunes will not 
permit them to go elsewhere. It is, and ought to be, emphati- 
cally a State institution, doing the State's work, and the real 
question at issue is not whether young men shall go to Chapel 
Hill or to other institutions, but whether they shall go to Chapel 
Hill and there acquire a liberal education, or remain at home 
without one. No institution in North Carolina, other than a 
State institution, can do the beneficiary work that the Univer- 
sity has done, and desires to do. But let us not quarrel about 
this, for Heaven knows that in the field of education there is 
work enough for us all; that there are, and will always be, boys 
enough in North Carolina seeking higher education to fill all 
of our institutions of learning. So far as the University is 
concerned, it knows full well that the poor are always with us, 
and it desires always to open its doors to those who, for lack of 
fortune, can not go elsewhere. 

VIII. With a little more money the University can vastly increase 
its usefulness. 

(a) It could give more and better instruction as to— 

1. The theory and art of teaching. 

2. House building. 

3. Mining. 

4. Machinery, tools, etc. 

5. Surveying, drainage, and irrigation. 

6. Road making and bridge building. 

7. Carpentry. 

8. Draughting and drawing. 

9. Agriculture. 

228 History of University of North Carolina. 

IX. The University is doing more for the $1,500 than any similar 
institution in the United States that has as little money. 

(a) It is teaching all the sciences relating to Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts. 

(b) Its instruction in these sciences is as extensive as the 
funds allow. 

(c) It has gone in debt to support the Professorship of Natu- 
ral History, relating solely to Agriculture. 

(d) But for said professorship it would now be out of debt 
and self-supporting. 

(e) It has fitted up three large and valuable chemical labora- 
tories for agricultural students. 

(f) It has purchased valuable and costly apparatus for stu- 
dents of Chemistry and Mechanics. 

(g) It teaches the analysis of soils, marls, manures, foods, etc., 
the principles of Agriculture and Mechanics, etc., etc. 

(h) Its work needs extending in these branches. 

X. What appropriations do other States make? 

The list of appropriations by other States may be found in 
President Winston's report in 1892. 

XI. Money contributed by individuals to revive the University and 
intended to pay Professors' salaries, has been applied to improving 
the property of the State. 

(a) Individuals contributed over twenty thousand dollars. 

(b) Of this sum nearly fifteen thousand dollars was spent in — 

1. Repairing the buildings. 

2. Constructing scientific laboratories. 

3. Buying scientific apparatus. 

(c) But for these expenses the University would be out of 

(d) The State ought to refund this money by making an an- 
nual appropriation. 

XII. The past history and tvorlc of the University entitle her to 
the patriotic support of the State. 

(a) Over five thousand students educated. 

(b) Public men and business men. 

1. Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Senators, etc., etc. 

2. R. S. Tucker, J. S. Carr, T. M. Holt, J. T. Morehead, 
R. R. Bridgers, W. S. Battle, and hundreds of other busi- 
ness men. 

(c) Work of Caldwell, Swain, Olmstead, Mitchell and others 
of the Faculty. 

Brief for the University. 


Objections to the University and answers: 

I. It takes so many beneficiaries. 
Answer. Guilty and proud of it. 

(a) The Constitution (Art. IX, sec. 7) demands it. 

(b) If the present law is faulty, whereby those able to pay get 
in free, amend the law. The principle is all right. 

(c) But certainly very few, if any, county students are able 
to pay. 

(d) Ninety-nine out of one hundred are certainly needy. 

(e) These ninety-nine would certainly not have been educated, 
except as beneficiaries somewhere. Their education is due to 
the University. 

(f) Some of them will be strong and valuable men. 

II. By taking beneficiaries it hurts denominational colleges. 

Answer. Not true. The opening of the University has helped 

(a) It has aroused a deep interest everywhere in education. 

(b) Wake Forest had 91 before the University opened; it has 
now double that number. The others have increased also. 

(c) Of the 2,500 to 3,000 boys in the State that ought to be 
at college, only 600 to 700 are there. 

(d) The other colleges want paying students. 

(e) The Constitution (Art. IX, sec. 7) requires the Univer- 
sity to receive poor boys. It is the duty of the State to educate 
them, and the University is the proper medium. 

III. The University should raise its standard of scholarship so 
high as to be out of the way of the colleges. 

Ansioer. How can this be done? What institution in America 
does it? 

(a) The colleges publish that they teach Latin, Greek, Math- 
ematics, Chemistry and everything which our people want to 
learn, as icell as any institution; they claim that their gradu- 
ates are equal to those of Yale, Princeton, Cornell, etc. 

(b) What is left for the University to do? Shall it go up 
into the skies? 

(c) Suppose the University received only graduates of the 
colleges; it would not have ten students. 

(d) It is hard to induce students to stay at the colleges to 
graduate. It is chimerical to expect many of them to go higher. 

(e) The standard of admission at Chapel Hill is as high as at 
Princeton, the University of Virginia and other colleges of the 
same rank. (See paper annexed. "Requisites for Admission 
Into the University of Virginia.") 

230 History of University of North Carolina. 

(f) The University of Virginia has a high reputation for her 
degrees by granting them only to the best scholars. The best 
scholars at Chapel Hill are equal substantially to those of the 
University of Virginia. 

(g) Graves, Jacob Battle and others, among the best at Chapel 
Hill, went to the University of Virginia, and were equal to the 
best there. Gildersleeve told President Battle that Jacob Battle 
was one of the best Greek scholars he ever had. Graves' repu- 
tation was equally high, as Professor Davis and others say. 

(h) True, we receive county students not possessing the qual- 
ifications to enter on the regular classical curriculum, but we 
are required by law so to do, and we ought to do so. We should 
be applauded for it. 

IV. The University does not meet the requirements of the Land 
Grant Act. 

Answer. This has been explained by President Battle in his re- 
port sent to the Legislature by the Governor. 


(Catalogue of 1879-'80.) 

All students are required to pass entrance examinations in English 
and arithmetic. The examination in English includes spelling, pars- 
ing and writing. The examination in arithmetic includes addition, 
subtraction, multiplication and division, vulgar and decimal frac- 
tions, proportion and denominate numbers. 

After passing these two examinations, Virginia students may re- 
ceive instruction in any school of the University, except four. If 
they wish to study Latin, Greek, Mathematics, or History and Liter- 
ature, they must be examined on these studies respectively. 

In Latin the examination covers two books of Caesar's Gallic War 
and Cicero's Four Orations against Catiline. 

In Greek the examination covers two books of Xenophon's 

In Mathematics, Algebra (through Quadratics) and three books of 
Plane Geometry. 

In History and Literature, Modern Geography and an elementary 
knowledge of the history of Greece, Rome, England, or the United 

It will be noticed that the University of North Carolina has as 
high a standard of admission as the University of Virginia. 

Reports of President and Visiting Committee. 231 

Reports for 1881. 

President Battle in substance described the work of the Uni- 
versity as follows : 

The University after being closed for a few years previously 
was reopened in 1875. Its progress since then, considering the 
financial disturbance and the shattered fortunes of the people 
of the South, has been rapid. It has more students than it 
ever had prior to 1850, from all the States. It has many more 
from North Carolina than it ever had prior to 1850. It was 
inevitable that when its doors were closed, the patronage from 
other States should be diverted to other channels. New uni- 
versities have been opened in the States south of us which have 
the confidence of their home people. Most grant free tuition. 
But there is full scope in North Carolina. If all those who are 
able will send their sons to the universities or to the colleges, 
we would have five hundred and the colleges double or treble 
their numbers. There are large counties that have very few if 
any students at any college. The revival of the University has 
not decreased the number attending other institutions — some 
have increased. The University has also called back students 
from distant States. Princeton, once frequented by North 
Carolina youths, has only one, and few can be found in any 
institution outside our limits. 

Besides the Academic Department the University has spe- 
cial schools. 

I. — Law, fitting students to obtain license to practice in this 
II. — Medicine, in which they are fitted to attend the great 
medical colleges. 
III. — Pharmacy, fitting them to be practical druggists. 

The Faculty are ready to furnish postgraduate instruction. 
Hereafter the degree of Master of Arts (A.M.) and Doctor 
of Philosophy (Ph.D.) will not be conferred except upon rigid 
examination on prescribed courses. 

The Normal School, giving instruction for five weeks during 
summer vacation under eminent experts in Normal methods, is 

22)2 History of University of North Carolina. 

continued. Thus far seven or eight hundred teachers have 
reaped this educational harvest, and their testimony is unani- 
mous as to the benefits realized. 

The Fertilizer Control Station, established by the General 
Assembly in a building of the University, is greatly helping 
the farmers and others by analyses of fertilizers, drinking- 
waters, ores, minerals, soils, etc., and publishing the results. 

Rev. Calvin H. Wiley, D.D., the former able Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, was Chairman of the Committee of 
Visitation. He wrote and signed their report which certifies 
to "the existence of certain primary conditions necessary to 
the success of such institutions, namely, sober and quiet living, 
unity in counsel, and hearty cooperation among the Faculty, 
and kindness and sympathy between the teachers and pupils. 

"The range of studies is very broad, and has necessarily been 
extended beyond the usual University course by a proper com- 
pliance with the conditions imposed by the Land Scrip Grant 
of the Federal Government. The method of instruction is 
simple, careful, and thorough, evidently designed for the im- 
provement of the pupils and not for display. * * * The 
recitations exhibited the teachers as full of their subjects rather 
than of themselves. While there is an air of neatness and self- 
respect among the students there is little extravagance * * * 
and none of the odious characteristics of caste." 

Dr. Wiley then, as specimens of the character of the teach- 
ing, gives a syllabus of a lecture by Dr. F. P. Yenable, Profes- 
sor of Chemistry, on "The Natural Gums," and one by Presi- 
dent Battle, which brought in review important facts and 
precedents in the experience of the Federal Government, ex- 
hibiting in an impressive way its genius and tendencies. 

Dr. Wiley gave as an appendix to his report a tabulated 
statement of the work of the University in 1881, showing con- 
cretely that the meagre resources of the University at that time 
were fully realized. 

After the grant of $5,000 per annum, in 1881, in addition to 
the amount already had, the Trustees requested the opinion of 

Oration by General M. W. Ransom. 233 

the Faculty as to the best mode of expending it. The Faculty 
strongly opposed the creation of new professorships, urging 
the purchase of books, journals, and apparatus in aid of the 
existing departments. Of course they properly asked as a mat- 
ter of justice that their salaries should be restored to the 
amounts originally promised. Their advice was substantially 
complied with. 

Commencement of 1881. 

The Commencement of 1881 was largely attended by repre- 
sentative men of the State. On Wednesday, when the speak- 
ing in public began, there were on the rostrum Senators Ran- 
som and Vance, Rev. Drs. Patterson and W. P. Harrison, 
Governor Jarvis, Gen. E. J. Mallett, President Battle, of 
course, and the ''Introductory Orator," J. M. Walker. The 
quadrangle, or "bull pen," contained, among many others, 
Judge Albertson, Gen. W. R. Cox, Hon. John Manning, and 
Hon. J. J. Davis, soon to be Supreme Court Judge. 

A prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Geo. Patterson. Mr. F. G. 
Hines introduced the orator, Gen. M. W. Ransom, who al- 
ways attracted admiration by his striking presence, his son- 
orous voice, the gracefulness of his gesticulation, the elo- 
quence of his language. His theme was "The Duties of the 
Young Men of the State to the State." He exhorted his 
hearers to cultivate patriotism, education, and justice. Many 
were delighted that he counseled them to stand by the religion 
of their fathers and not listen to the siren wooing them with 
the song of science. The speech was enthusiastically received, 
all the more because the General stated that he had left his 
manuscript in Durham and made his address "without rest." 

Although it interrupts the narrative I must state that some 
time after this, on the occasion of a visit to Chapel Hill, he 
called on President Battle and for two hours they talked over 
University incidents of 1843-47. The General showed that he 
had forgotten no material points of his college career and pre- 
served brightly in his heart its memories. Five of his sons 
were of our boys and most of them were distinguished for 

234 History of University of North Carolina. 

After General Ransom's address the Historical Society had 
a meeting. President Battle was elected President and Rev. 
J. F. Heitman Secretary and the usual business transacted. 

The Baccalaureate sermon was preached in the afternoon 
by Rev. Dr. W. P. Harrison, of Washington, D. C. It was a 
discourse of marked ability. He described the seven great re- 
ligions of the world— that of the Egyptians, Buddhism, Confu- 
cianism, Parseeism, Mohammedanism, the Polytheism of 
Greece and Rome, Christianity — and showed the perfection of 
the latter. He sharply criticised evolution and closed with a 
glowing tribute to moral courage. 

At night the representatives of the two societies delivered 
their addresses. The first speaker was Thomas Malvern 
Vance, on the theme, "Has the Time Come for Universal Suf- 
frage?" Of course he decided against the claims of negroes 
and women. 

It is interesting that the speaker, son of Governor Vance, 
was born not long after the disastrous fight at Malvern Hill 
in 1862 and was named after the battle, the Governor, then 
Colonel of a regiment stationed in sound of the cannon, but 
not near enough to participate in the fight. 

The next speaker was Albert Sidney Grandy, whose Chris- 
tian name recalls a hero of the Civil War. He discussed "The 
Present Demand for Political Reform." He compared the 
political problems of the leading nations of Europe with our 
own, and advocated trenchant changes. 

Mr. Edward Thomas Greenlee came next and advocated 
national education as the solution of "Our National Problem." 

Mr. John Randolph Uzzell spoke on "Literature as a Pro- 
fession." The company welcomed this subject and its inter- 
esting discussion as a relief from politics. 

Thomas William Mayhew then discussed "The Discontent 
of the Age." He attributed it to the misdirection of educa- 
tional influence. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman followed with a glowing trib- 
ute to Ireland and fierce denunciation of her treatment by 
the English. His subject was "Ireland and Her Woes." Of 

The Commencement of 1881. 235 

the above Vance, Greene, and Alderman were Dialectics, the 

others Philanthropies. Alderman was considered best speaker. 
On Commencement Day the speakers, chosen by request 

of the Faculty by the Senior Class out of their number, were : 
William J. Adams, "The Character of Lee." 
Robert B. Albertson, "The Philosophy of the Decline of 


John M. Avery, "Nihilism." 

James Y. Joyner, "Self-Government." 

James M. Leach, Jr., "The Passing Century." 

James D. Murphy, "The Laboring Classes of America." 

Robert P. Pell, "The Influence of the Scientific Movement 

L'pon Literature." 

Charles R. Thomas, Jr., "The Philosophy and Retribution 

of History." 

Lucian H. Walker, "The Chosen Race." 

William B. Stewart, "The Records of Human Influence." 

Robert W, Winborne, "The Influence of Free Thought on 

American Society." 

Noah J. Rouse, "The Reform Needed." 

The judges of the debate awarded the Mangum Medal to 

James M. Leach, Jr. It was presented in an eloquent address 

by Gen. Robert B. Vance. 

The candidates for the Degrees in Course were then pre- 
sented by President Battle to Governor Jarvis, who handed 
to each a diploma and Bible, and then gave wise words of 
counsel to all. For their names see Appendix. 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 18 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B) 10 

Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 3 

Total 31 

Those of this class who had conspicuous success in life are 
Adams, lawyer and State Senator ; Avery, eminent lawyer in 
Texas; Brady, Professor of Greek in Smith College, Massa- 
chusetts ; Dancy, general agent of the Royster Fertilizing 

27.6 History of University of North Carolina. 


Company; Charles D. Mclver, D.D., President and Founder 
of the State Normal College for Women ; Pell, President of 
Converse College, South Carolina ; Thomas, Representative in 
Congress ; Albertson, Judge in State of Washington ; Joyner, 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction ; Ruffin, who ac- 
cumulated a large fortune as manager of cotton mills ; Battle, 
Director of State Experiment Station and State Chemist; 
Nixon, Sheriff and Superior Court Clerk of Lincoln and 
writer of historical monographs ; Winborne, lawyer and Mem- 
ber of Virginia Legislature; Murphy, a strong lawyer and 
Judge ; Rouse, a good lawyer and president of a bank. 

Two of the class of high promise whose names are together 
on the list lost their lives by drowning, one in a North Caro- 
lina river and the other in the ocean, Harris and Hines. 

At this Commencement there appeared a visitor of more 
than usual interest. General Edward J. Mallett. He was a 
native of Fayetteville but had made his residence in the city 
of New York. He had been Consul-General to Italy and 
during the Civil War Paymaster in the United States Army, 
which fact did not in the least diminish the warmth of his 
reception. President Battle introduced him to the audience 
as a classmate of President Polk, a graduate of 1818, who 
had never once in sixty-three years partaken of ardent spirits 
and therefore appeared before us with mens sana in corpore 
sano, and with the still higher attribute mens sibi conscia recti. 
When this utterance was made Gen. Robert B. Vance, of 
whom his brother the ex-Governor said, "I am a Calvinist 
and do not believe in falling from grace, yet am always fall- 
ing, while Bob, a Methodist, believes in falling from grace, 
yet never falls," an ardent prohibitionist, rose and proposed 
three cheers for General Mallett, which were given with great 
enthusiasm. The General then delivered a short address, 
which was a gem of its kind, showing that long absence had 
not diminished his love for Alma Mater, nor his extreme age 
his interest in young men. I quote some sentences : 

"The most miserable and useless position a man can be 
placed in is when he has nothing to do. An idle man is a 
sponge on his fellowman and a blight on society. * * * 

The Commencement of 1881. 237 

Every man who is idle, or gets a living without work, is adding 
so much to the misery of the world and is really injuring the 
morals and the happiness of the human family, and he should 
be held responsible for it. :;: * * There are now living hun- 
dreds, yea thousands, who are physically, mentally, morally, 
and financially bankrupt, and who can trace their first step 
of error to an idle hour. * * * Humanity requires a life- 
time for its development, and a long tale of years for its bloom, 
its fruitage and its death. Sometimes the harvests are sud- 
den, sometimes (as in my case) they linger. * * * Sooner 
or later there will be an eternal uprising, when the bloom will 
know no harvest, when it will be perennial spring, when bright- 
est stars will glisten on the mantle of night, and a more efful- 
gent sun will sparkle on the dewdrops of morning. * * * 
Let me suggest four cardinal points, and believe me, if you 
adhere to them you will float over the ocean of time with never 
a ripple or a wave. Be sober, be honest, always speak the 
truth, and fear nothing but God." 

Our old friend two years after ended life's journey. His 
classmate, William Mercer Green, Bishop of Mississippi, lived 
four years longer. 

The recipients of the prizes were as follows : 

Greek Medals. — James Everett Brady, Nunia Fletcher 
Heitman, Henry Erwin Thompson. 

Chemistry Medal — Alexander Worth McAlister. 

Representative (Oratory) Medal. — Edwin Anderson Al- 

Bingham Essay Medal. — James Madison Leach, Jr. 

Maxgum (Oratory) Medal. — James Madison Leach, Jr. 

Bingham Entrance Medal. — Marion Charles Millender. 

Prize in Materia Medica. — Jesse Bynum Triplett. 

The Chemistry Medals were presented by Mr. Paul C. 
Cameron. The Bingham Entrance Medal by Gen. J. M. Leach 
and the Medical Prize by Hon. W. L. Steele. Others by Hon. 
John Manning, E. R. Stamps, Esq., Major John W. Graham. 
While all the speeches of presentation were appropriate the 
audience gave the palm to Mr. Cameron as being peculiarly 
happy in such deliverances, short, strong, to the point and full 

238 History of University of North Carolina. 

of sense. If nature had given him a good voice he would 
have been a conspicuous orator. 

Honorary Degrees were awarded as follows : 

Doctors of Laws (L.L.D.), Right Reverend William Mercer 
Green, Bishop of Mississippi, Chancellor of the University of 
the South, a former Professor of the University. 

Thomas Ruffin, Judge of the Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina, whose father of the same name was Chief Justice, a 
graduate of 1843. 

Reverend Andrew D. Hepburn, D.D.. President of David- 
son College and once Professor of Logic and Rhetoric in the 

Matthew Whitaker Ransom, Senator of the United States, 
a first honor graduate of the Class of 1847; Brigadier-General 
C. S. A.; appointed Major-General just prior to Lee's sur- 

Doctor of Divinity (D.D.), Reverend Calvin H. Wiley, 
once State Superintendent of Public Instruction, who put in 
operation the system of public schools ; an author ; graduate 
of 1840. 

Reverend Joseph H. Foy, eloquent preacher, of St. Louis, 
Missouri, once of North Carolina, belonging to the Camp- 
bellite or Christian Church. 

Master of Arts (M.A.), Reverend Robert W. Boyd. 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Frank M. Deems, M.D., 
New York. 

Changes in the Faculty in i88o-'8i were that Francis Pres- 
ton Yenable, Ph.D. (Bonn"), was made Professor of General 
and Analytical Chemistry. Charles W. Dabney, Junior, suc- 
ceeded Dr. A. R. Ledoux as State Chemist and Director of the 
Agricultural Experiment and Fertilizer Control Station. Rev. 
A. W. Mangum was made a Doctor of Divinity by his Alma 
Mater, Randolph-Macon College. 

Changes in i88i-'S2: Professor Graves' department was 
confined to Mathematics. Professor Grandy was charged with 
Natural Philosophy and Engineering. Joseph Austin Holmes, 
of South Carolina, B.Agr. (Cornell), took charge of Geology 
and Natural Historv. Hon. Tohn Manninc; filled the Chair of 

J. W. Gore 

Thomas Hume 

F. P. Vexable 

J. A. Holmes 

\V. B. PhIleips 

J. L. Love 

Geo. F. Atkinson 

Courses in the Law Department. 239 

Law. Robert Paine Pell was Assistant Professor of English, 
Latin, and Mathematics. Angus R. Shaw, Assistant in the 
Chemical Laboratory. Numa F. Heitman, Instructor in 
Greek. Henry Horace Williams, Librarian. R. P. Pell, Sec- 

Law Department in 1881. 

In this year Hon. John Manning, of Pittsboro, by unani- 
mous election became Professor of Law. He had the advan- 
tages of a high degree of learning, of extensive practice in the 
State and Federal Courts, and service in the Convention of 
1861 and in the General Assembly. He was during the Civil 
War for some months an Adjutant of a regiment and then 
Sequestrator of confiscated property under the Confederacy. 
When elected he was one of the Commissioners to codify the 
Public Laws of the State. He was a thorough and sympa- 
thetic teacher and the Law School flourished under his 

He prescribed two courses. (A ) that laid down by the Su- 
preme Court for license to practice law, and (B) leading to 
the degree of Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) The textbooks in 
course A prescribed by the Supreme Court were, Blackstone's 
Commentaries, four books, Stephen on Pleading, Smith on 
Contracts, Bigelow on Torts, Washburn or Williams on Real 
Property, Greenleaf on Evidence, first volume ; Schouler on 
Executors, Adams' Equity, the Constitutions of the United 
States and of North Carolina, the Code of North Carolina, 
particularly the Code of Civil Procedure. For course B in 
addition to the foregoing were Angel and Ames on Corpora- 
tions, Pierce on American Railroad Law, May on Insurance, 
Darlington's Williams on Personal Property, Starkie on Evi- 
dence, Pollock on Contracts, and Russell on Crimes. 

In addition to the regular session of forty weeks. Dr. Man- 
ning inaugurated a Summer Session in vacation lasting about 
twelve weeks. In this he was assisted by one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court of the State, James E. Shepherd. One 
class studied all the books in A and B. Another those in A 

240 History of University of North Carolina. 

The fees in the Law School were not the same as those in 
the undergraduate courses, nor did free scholarship exempt 
from payment. 

For regular session, Course A $90 

For regular session, Course B 90 

For summer session, both classes 60 

Matriculation fee for regular session 10 

Medical fee 5 

While all the books in the two courses were required to be 
read, lectures were regularly delivered to the classes and Dr. 
Manning published a book, entitled Commentaries on First 
Blackstone, all changes in First Blackstone by judicial de- 
cisions and legislation being clearly explained. 

In 1881 the two societies entered into a joint agreement to 
put a stop to hazing. Under a heavy penalty it was forbidden 
to enter the room of another against his will, to lay hands on 
him, to touch him with any object, to throw at him, or commit 
any act of indignity or annoyance. This prohibition by the 
societies succeeded in its object for several years, but a new 
set of students came in, who either were ignorant of the law 
or had no sympathy with it, and so the unmanly practice was 
resumed, often, however, with effort, by masks and otherwise, 
to conceal the identity of the perpetrators. But the inter- 
society agreement remained on the statute books. 

Normal School of 1881. 

The Normal School of 1881 began on June 16 and closed 
July 21. President Battle, as heretofore, had general charge, 
having the cooperation of Superintendent Scarborough. Prof. 
J. L. Tomlinson, then of Baltimore, was superintendent until 
July 4th, when pressing engagements called him elsewhere ; 
Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, Superintendent of the Baltimore City 
Schools, succeeded. Dr. Shepherd was likewise Lecturer on 
the English Language. 

Prof. A. Mclver, as heretofore, had charge of Mathematics, Geog- 
raphy, and History. 

Prof. N. Y. Gulley, of Smithfield, late of Wake Forest College, was 
Teacher of English Grammar and Arithmetic. 

Normal School of 1881. 241 

Rev. Wm. S. Long, of Graham: English Grammar. 

Mr. Eugene L. Harris: Writing and Penmanship. 

Dr. Thomas W. Harris: Physiology and Hygiene. 

Dr. James J. Vance, of Wisconsin, was Lecturer on Elocution and 
Vocal Culture. 

Prof. Wm. B. Phillips: Chemistry and Natural Philosophy. 

Rev. Wm. R. Atkinson, of Charlotte: Algebra and Geometry. 

Prof. Frederick N. Skinner: Latin. 

Prof. Robt. T. Bryan: Latin. 

Prof. Robert P. Pell: English Philology. 

Prof. Charles L. Wilson: Vocal Music. 

Prof. Wm. I. Marshall, of Massachusetts: Lecturer on Geography 
and Arithmetic. 

Miss Jane F. Long, of Greensboro: Teacher of "Model Class." 

Miss Mary T. Pescud, of Raleigh: Calisthenics. 

Capt. John E. Dugger, of Raleigh: Phonics and Calisthenics. 

Capt. J. E. Dugger, Secretary. 

The students represented sixty-two counties. 

Males 170 

Females 168 

Total 338 

Conspicuous among the teachers from abroad was Prof. 
William D. Marshall, of Massachusetts. His lectures on 
"Gold Mines and Mining," "The Yosemite Valley and the Yel- 
lowstone Park," also the "Structure and Climate of the West- 
ern Half of our Country as Affecting its Settlement and the 
Occupations of Its People," were singularly clear and full. 
They were illustrated by views of wonderful beauty, the photo- 
graphs taken by himself. His explanation of the pictures as 
thrown on the screen were so lucid that the listeners felt that 
they had learned as much as if they had traveled in person 
to the regions displayed. His advice to teachers in regard to 
instructing in penmanship was singularly reasonable and wise. 
"There are a few pupils who are endowed with peculiar apti- 
tude for drawing and wish to become skilled teachers. These 
may be taught the mysteries of caligraphy, illuminated manu- 
script, Old English, German texts, and the like. But all that the 
great majority need is legible and rapid writing. Therefore 
let the beginner be taught first how to hold his pen, so as not 
to pain or fatigue the fingers, then to make the letters as dis- 


242 History of University of North Carolina. 

tinct as possible, at first slowly, then increasing in speed, but 
always carefully retaining legibility. Discard all the fancy or 
the newly invented styles. The pupil by gaining what ought 
to be the object of all penmanship, capacity of being easily 
read, forms his own style, and has the valuable accompani- 
ment of speed. 

There were, as heretofore, frequent valuable addresses by 
eminent men, not connected with the school. 

University Day in 1881 was celebrated by an address by 
Major (now Colonel) Robert Bingham, which was greatly 
admired for its wisdom and sound instruction. His subject 
was the "Practical Value of Education." He spoke of the 
practical value of university and college training and the neces- 
sity of personal power in order to secure and profit by it. 

At the conclusion of Major Bingham's address, the students 
called out President Battle, Dr. John Manning, and Professors 
Venable, Holmes and Winston, who responded in brief 
speeches, which met apparently hearty appreciation. 

Senior Speaking. 

On March 15, 1882, the Seniors were called on for original 
speeches, delivered in public. Their names and subjects are 
as follows : 

J. W. Jackson on "Immigration and Its Results." He advo- 
cated more stringent naturalization laws, because of the im- 
mense influx of men who can not and will not understand our 

David S. Kennedy asked, "Why Study Law?" Literature, 
manufactures, medicine, offer greater fame, wealth, usefulness. 

Mack M. Thompson spoke on the "Philosophy of Nihilism." 
The Nihilists, although often wrong in their methods, are work- 
ing for reform in the Russian government. 

"The Golden Industry of the South" was treated by Emile 
A. de Schweinitz. The golden industry is the production and 
manufacture of cotton. 

G. G. Wilson described a "Representative American States- 
man." In his opinion it was Daniel Webster. 

Sexior Speaking in 1882. 243 

The "Opium War and Its Results" was handled by Frederick 
N. Skinner. The war was because of the seizure of opium 
smuggled into China by the English. The Chinese violated 
treaties made with England. 

A. W. McAlister discussed the fruitful subject, "The Puri- 
tan and Cavalier in England and America." The Puritan was 
conservative, the Cavalier an innovator. The Puritan settled 
Massachusetts, the Cavalier, Virginia. The fortitude of the 
Cavalier after the ruins of the Civil War is worthy of all 

"The Railroad Problem" was the subject of E. A. Alderman. 
The railroads are claiming some of the attributes of sov- 
ereignty. They are public plunderers, "hard as steel and piti- 
less as the storm." Liberty is in danger. The National Gov- 
ernment must check and control this new power. 

G. W. Whitsett spoke on "Drifting With the Tide." Civili- 
zation and religion are threatened by a new crusade of infidel- 
ity headed by Ingersoll and others. The forces of truth must 
organize to resist this evil. 

A. W. Allen selected a great theme, "True Heroism." In 
his view conspicuous examples are found in the fifty-one sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence and those who labored 
with them. 

Charles W. Worth spoke on "Our Newspapers. " They pro- 
mote reforms, but are too much given to politics. Their recip- 
rocal wrangling is disgraceful. 

Albert S. Grandy's oration was "The Insanity Plea." Too 
much abused. Human life is unsafe. The atrocity of a 
murder is deemed proof of insanity. 

The Senior Class Day celebration of 1882 was held on the 
31st of March. The University choir furnished the music. A 
thriving young water oak was planted not far from the Old 
Poplar and the exercises were under the Poplar's shade. The 
President of the class, Charles W. Worth, made a short intro- 
ductory speech. Then the Orator, A. W. McAlister, followed. 
The Historian, Fred X. Skinner, gave a faithful record of the 
class from its callow "Freshmancv" to the lordlv "Senioritv." 

244 History of University of North Carolina. 

Edwin A. Alderman, the Prophet, convulsed the listeners with 
his humorous and sometimes satirical description of the future 
fates of his classmates. It was interesting to witness the ex- 
treme gravity with which his preposterous predictions were 
made, and the good humor with which the sharp satire was 
received by the victims. There was no effort to make the 
prophecy fit the man but rather the reverse. For example one 
of the most pious and steadfast men would be depicted as in 
the future engaged in conducting a low-down groggery, being 
his own best customer, beating his wife and dying in a ditch. 
To use the words of a contemporary "he told candidly whether 
they would be henpecked by their wives, marry an heiress and 
spend their lives quarreling with their mothers-in-law, study 
law, run for town constable, or help their wives run a bakery, 
and pull teeth in the backroom, 'three jerks for a quarter.' " 

It is of some interest to know that the average weight of the 
class was one hundred and forty-six and one-half pounds ; the 
oldest member twenty-six, the youngest eighteen years of age, 
the average twenty-one and one-half years. Four were Meth- 
odists, five Baptists, six Presbyterians, two Episcopalians, one 
Lutheran, and one Christian Methodist. Eight proposed to 
be lawyers, two preachers, one a teacher, three physicians, three 
merchants, one a dentist, and one hesitated between law and 

The report of the Committee of Investigation, as they call 
themselves, properly termed the Visiting Committee — viz., Hon. 
Walter L. Steele, Chairman, and Hons. C. M. Cooke and Rob- 
ert B. Peebles, Rev. Dr. N. H. D. Wilson and Wm. J. Yates, 
Esq. — mentions the fact that all the assistants in the State Ag- 
ricultural Bureau are recent graduates of the University * * * 
The Professors and Instructors are not only learned in their 
several departments but devoted to their work and understand 
the art of practical rather than mere theoretical teaching. 
* * * -pj le stuc [ en t s feel that their teachers are men fully 
endowed with human sympathy, ready to assist in leading 
them up to knowledge, and to treat them with the courtesy 
and kindness which is a moral duty. 

The University Railroad. 245 

The committee expressed sincere pleasure in commending 
the general good conduct and gentlemanly bearing of the stu- 
dents. The seeds of kindness sown by the Faculty have yielded 
most excellent fruit, and the young men themselves deserve 
credit for the assistance which they have given in the produc- 
tion of this result. Strong praise was given to the new Pro- 
fessor of Law, Hon. John Manning, and to the Professor of 
Medicine and Pharmacy, Dr. Thomas W. Harris. The com- 
mittee felt gratified in saying that the University has met, and 
is meeting, all the obligations which just men will say it owes 
the public. 

They report that the moral tone pervading the institution is 
worthy of all praise and parents may feel, with entire confi- 
dence, that their sons will be as free from temptation to do 
wrong as they would be at any similar establishment, either 
within or without the borders of the State. 

The report was penned by Chairman Steele. Appended to it 
are extracts from the reports of members of the Faculty show- 
ing their work during the year. 

The State University Railroad. 1882. 

All the customary forms were adopted in inaugurating the 
State University Railroad. Being the first named in the list of 
corporators I called them together on April 12, 1879. Mr. 
P. C. Cameron was called to the chair and Seaton M. Barbee 
was elected secretary. The following were present, P. C. Cam- 
eron, K. P. Battle, Julian S. Carr, John R. Hutchins, James B. 
Mason, and W. F. Stroud. Messrs. R. F. Hoke. Thomas M. 
Holt, David McCauley, and Jones Watson were absent. 

Books of subscriptions were ordered to be opened, under 
supervision of proper persons, at Chapel Hill, Durham, Patter- 
son's Mill, Morrisville, Pittsboro, Bynum's Factory, Hillsboro, 
University Station, Cary, Apex, Oaks, and Raleigh. Three 
commissioners at each place were appointed to solicit subscrip- 
tions. It was voted that no conditional subscriptions should be 
received. The Board adjourned to meet on the 17th of May. 

The failure of one attempt to build a railroad from the North 
Carolina Railroad to Chapel Hill has been heretofore narrated. 

246 History of University of North Carolina. 

In 1873 a new charter was obtained from the General As- 
sembly under which the work was eventually accomplished. 
Considering the poverty of the people of Chapel Hill and of 
the University, only wise and careful management could have 
succeeded. The prime mover was General Robert F. Hoke. 
The University, through its President, cooperated with him, 
but their joint efforts would have been naught without the 
powerful assistance of Governor Jarvis and of Colonel A. B. 
Andrews, then superintendent of the Richmond and Danville 
Railroad Company, now first vice-president of the Southern 
Railway Company, of which the Richmond and Danville rail- 
road is a part. General Hoke owned the greater part of the 
Iron Mountain, one mile north of Chapel Hill. In 1880 the 
price of iron was so high that it was profitable to ship the ore 
to the furnaces in Pennsylvania. Hence the General desired 
the railroad. 

Colonel Andrews agreed that if we would grade and crosstie 
the road his company would iron and provide the rolling stock. 
Governor Jarvis obtained for us the hire of convicts at a very 
moderate figure because it was chiefly for the benefit of a State 
institution. The North Carolina Railroad Company agreed to 
subscribe $5,000 for buying the crossties. Only one stock- 
holder, D. F. Caldwell, objected to this, alleging that some 
thirty years of its lease to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company had expired, and his company had little interest 
in the enterprise. Care was taken to make him president of the 
meeting of stockholders, so that the proposition passed unani- 
mously, or at any rate ncm. con. About $4,300 was secured 
from Chapel Hill and the Iron Mountain Company subscribed 
$6,000. President Battle was made president of the road with- 
out salary and General Hoke was superintendent on the same 
terms. The manager of the hands was the efficient Mr. John 
Holt, whose theory was to feed them well, clothe them well, 
give them good sleeping quarters, and then require a good day's 
work. The civil engineer was Captain Fry, a man of noted 

It was desired to run the road to Durham, about three miles 
further than the route adopted. Owing to the scantiness of 

The University Railroad. 247 

our funds, to secure this result it was necessary for people of 
that city to subscribe enough to pay for the excess in distance. 
As chairman of the commissioners' for procuring subscriptions 
to the capital stock I spent a day in the endeavor to persuade 
them to do this, but met with no response. General J. S. 
Carr's $500, given with no stipulation as to the route to be 
adopted, was the only subscription that could be secured. One 
merchant replied, "Your road is against the interests of Dur- 
ham. Trade would stop at Chapel Hill." A meeting of the 
stockholders was called and the shorter line selected : that to 
what is now called University Station or simply "University." 
It had the advantage over the line to Durham not only of being 
shorter, but of easier grade, and of being nine miles nearer to 
Greensboro, through which the iron ore was to be transported 
to a northern furnace. 

The road was graded, by the favor as to convicts granted by 
Governor Jarvis, by buying all supplies for cash and by having 
no salaried president and superintendent, for about $1,100 per 
mile. It was necessary, however, to leave the ravines over 
which the line ran to be covered by wooden trestles. Colonel 
Andrews and his company looked upon this at first with a 
doubting eye, having expected the State University Railroad 
Company to prepare all parts of the roadbed ready for the iron, 
but they magnanimously waived the objection and finished the 
trestling. The road has been a safe one, except in one winter, 
when the settling of the track caused locomotives or cars occa- 
sionally to leave the rails. Although some passengers were well 
shaken up — in one instance a passenger car was completely 
turned over, Dr. Winston for the fraction of a second standing 
on his head — no lives were lost. The brakeman rejoiced at 
being awarded $500 for an injury, without suit. 

The road has been of great benefit to the University and the 
town. The University could not possibly have increased so fast 
without it and valuable factories and new buildings owe their 
origin to its facilities. 

The iron mine has not been successful. The expense of 
transportation of the ore is too heavy to make its mining 
profitable, and there is not fuel adjacent to it to enable it to be 

248 History of University of North Carolina. 

smelted on the spot. The market price of iron ore was high 
when the road was being built, but fell soon after it was 

It is a proof of the estimation of the citizens as to the value 
of the road that when it was proposed to dispense with it in 
order to obtain a trolley line to Durham, the proposal was de- 

The original corporate name was "The Chapel Hill Iron 
Mountain Railroad Company," but, under a clause in the char- 
ter giving the privilege, the name was changed to "The State 
University Railroad Company." 

By agreement the expenditures incurred by the Richmond 
and Danville Railroad Company .were to be charged to capital 
stock. Owing to the number and depth of the ravines trestled, 
the high price of rails, and other expenditures, when a settle- 
ment was made that company was found to have the control- 
ling interest. The organization of the State University Rail- 
road Company is still kept up, but is under the control of the 
Southern Railway Company. 

When the grading was finished the ladies of the village gave 
the employees and convicts an excellent dinner. The daughter 
of Mrs. C. P. Spencer, Miss Julia J., now Mrs. James Lee 
Love, was induced to come up from Raleigh, where she was 
teaching in Peace Institute, in order to drive the last spike. 
Speeches were made by President Battle, Mr. Jones Watson, 
and others. The first speaker (Battle) ventured on a parody 
of Daniel Webster on the Falls of Rochester. "Egypt has 
her pyramids, Athens her Parthenon, Rome her Colisseum, but 
neither Egypt, nor Athens, nor Rome in all their glory had a 
railroad ten and two-fifths miles long." He also defended 
President Swain from the charge of keeping the North Caro- 
lina Railroad away from Chapel Hill. But Mr. Watson, who 
followed, combated this defense vigorously, alleging that the 
charge was true of his own knowledge. 

President Battle recalled an incident strikingly illustrating 
the rapid growth of the railroad system. Shortly after Presi- 
dent Caldwell's return from Europe in 1825 he was called on 
to address the citizens of Chapel Hill and vicinity on their 

The University Railroad. 249 

favorite subject, internal improvements. Among other things 
he stated that he had seen a load as heavy as could be drawn 
by four four-horse teams carried without horses, mules or 
oxen at a speed of ten miles an hour. One of the auditors, 
after the speaking was over, gave it as his opinion that Dr. 
Caldwell was in his dotage — that the story was incredible. 
The new railroad ran near the home of this man, who was 
still living. Dr. Battle told of having once in the old days 
consumed nine hours in the journey from Chapel Hill to 

Miss Spencer, whose love for our University, its village 
and the lovely scenery around it, is equal to that of her mother, 
tapped the last spike with becoming grace, and the hammer, 
with gilded handle, especially prepared for the occasion, was 
presented to her as a trophy. Afterward, when she moved to 
Cambridge, she transferred it to the University Museum. 

The following stirring song, the words written in honor of 
the completion of the road, was sung: 

A song, my boys, for Chapel Hill, 

And for the N. C. U., 
And three times three the echoes thrill, 

And keep them ringing, too. 
Away with study, toil and care; 

Our hearts, with pride elate, 
Shall crown in joy without alloy 

The day we celebrate. 

Choktts : 

Farewell, old wagon, 
Jolting hack and phaeton, 
Farewell forever, 
We're going to take the train. 

With hill and valley smiling 'round, 

In vernal robe arrayed, 
We are summoned by a grander sound 

Than cannon ever made — 
The whistle of the engine, boys; 

The cars are here at last. 
So, fellows, let us all rejoice, 

For jolting days are past. 

250 History of University of North Carolina. 

Chorus : 

Farewell forever, 

Old road to Durham, 

Farewell forever; 

We'll travel now by train. 

And all along the coming years 

That time for us may fill, 
We'll bless the men that brought the road 

To dear old Chapel Hill. 
So cheers and thanks we join to give 

For what we all do see; 
The railroad, boys, has reached up to 

The University. 

Chorus : 

Three cheers for the whistle, 
The grand old whistle, 
The loud sounding whistle, 
That blows for the train. 

Now that the ending rail is laid, 

The last hard spike is driven, 
Some special tribute should be paid, 

Some names with honor given. 
Thank Battle, Jarvis, Andrews, Hoke, 

Caldwell and Coley strong; 
Holt, Raiford, Cooley, Witherspoon — 

We'll bless them all in song. 

Chorus : 

Hurrah for the builders, 
The brave hearted builders, 
The hard working builders, 
And the crew that run the train. 

Two disasters occurred in the progress of the work. The 
first was the shooting of a convict, a bad white man, near Uni- 
versity Station. He entered into a conspiracy with the negroes 
in his cabin, all agreeing to run on the march to their work, 
when he gave the word. Either because their hearts failed 
them or because they did not understand the signal he was the 
solitary fugitive. Several of the guards nearest to him missed 
their aim, but as he was entering; a forest about one hundred 

The University Railroad. 251 

yards off, one, who had been a Confederate soldier, fired and 
killed him instantly. He was acquitted of the homicide as he 
was in the performance of official duty. 

The other was when a negro convict died soon after being 
whipped by the railroad authorities. Those engaged in the 
whipping were at first bound over by Judge Seymour to ap- 
pear at the next term of the court on the charge of man- 
slaughter. A coroner's jury, after hearing the evidence, found 
that "the man, Fries, came to his death from gangrene, caused 
by a combination of circumstances, among them his treatment 
in the town of Winston prior to his being brought to the State 
penitentiary, and his being compelled to work on the Univer- 
sity railroad while in a depleted state, and that said death was 
hastened by whipping, inflicted at the hands of Charles H. 
Motz, instigated by John A. Holt." Of course Motz and Holt 
contended that they were not physicians, that they had a right 
to presume that the penitentiary authorities would not have 
sent a diseased man to work on the road. They further 
proved that the punishment by them was not unduly severe. 
The Solicitor of the Circuit, Hon. Fred N. Strudwick, reviewed 
the facts carefully, and decided that there was no evidence of a 
legal crime and declined to send a bill to the Grand Jury. It is 
well to add that Fries was not whipped until he had been caught 
in two falsehoods as to what was the matter with him, and after 
an attempt to escape ; moreover, that re reputable physician em- 
ployed to examine him did not report that he had gangrene. 

On the whole the convicts were humanely treated. They 
had good quarters and good food. Visits were made to the 
camps by experienced employers of labor, without notice to 
the officers, and their report was very favorable. General 
Hoke and myself repeatedly examined into the management 
and saw nothing wrong. It seems to be certain that the whip- 
ping of Fries was not such as would have been of permanent 
injury to a healthy man, and that those who punished did not 
know of his precarious condition. The action of the Solicitor 
quieted all complaints. 

At Commencement a special hour was set apart to celebrate 
in Gerrard Hall the coming of the railroad to Chapel Hill. 

252 History of University of North Carolina. 

President Battle made the introductory speech. He called at- 
tention to the letters from Professor Harris to Dr. Caldwell 
informing him how he might travel from Princeton to Chapel 
Hill in thirty days, if he should not be impeded by high waters. 
Now the journey is made in less than twenty-four hours. 

He then gave a history of the building of the road. Col. 
John M. Robinson, president of the Seaboard Air Line, came 
by invitation to Chapel Hill, but after examination declined 
to aid a branch to his lines. Fortunately Col. A. B. Andrews 
took a different view. He, Governor Jarvis, the University, 
and the stockholders of the company who subscribed without 
expectation of dividends, were efficient aids in procuring this 
benefit to Chapel Hill and to the University, but in truth Gen. 
R. F. Hoke is fons ct origo of the enterprise. He may be 
called the Father of the State University Railroad Company. 
I was his willing coadjutor. 

A letter of Col. Thos. M. Holt was read expressing his love 
for the University and gratification at being of service in 
building the road. Governor Jarvis spoke, as he always does, 
strongly and pointedly. He explained the great value of 
branch lines and advocated the policy of employing convicts 
in building them whenever needed. Mr. A. W. Allen, a stu- 
dent, was then called on and made an admirable address. 

Mr. Paul C. Cameron began with a gloomy description of 
Chapel Hill when Col. W. L. Steele and he visited it as com- 
mitteemen in 1875, before the reopening. There was no hotel 
nor boarding house and he acknowledged with thanks the hos- 
pitality of the citizens who entertained them. His speech was 
eloquent and was much applauded. Mr. F. H. Busbee felici- 
tated the citizens of Chapel Hill and friends of the University 
on obtaining a railroad so cheaply, stating that the Richmond 
and Danville Railroad Company had defrayed four-fifths of 
the cost. Colonel Andrews and Colonel Buford, President of 
the last named company, deserve our hearty thanks. 

In response to the call of the President Col. W. L. Steele 
made a short talk, full of humor and love of the University. 
His description of Professor Manning and himself as sur- 
vivors of the old Mound Builders created much merriment. 

Dr. Deems Addresses Graduates. 253 

Commencement of 1882. 

The Commencement of 1882 began as usual with the meet- 
ing of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies held 
in their halls, only members of the societies being admitted. 
The chief business was short speeches by the old members and 
presentation of prizes for victories in competitive speaking and 
debates. On one occasion Rev. Dr. C- F. Deems was asked as 
he entered the door to present a medal, the distinguished visi- 
tor selected for the purpose finding it impossible to be present. 
His short speech was wonderfully appropriate and in beautiful 
language. After concluding, the good Doctor, one of the 
kindest hearted of men, for the encouragement of his auditors 
said, "Young men ! doubtless some of you, knowing that I had 
no time for preparation, may give me credit for extraordinary 
readiness. But the speech you have just heard is no exception 
to the rule that labor is necessary to success in speaking as in 
everything else. I have had that speech 'in soak' for fifteen 
years and have been waiting for the opportunity of getting it 
off. I am thus egotistical because I wish to encourage my 
young friends. Some may possibly conclude that because they 
can not discourse so elaborately they will not try at all." 

Kesnich's First \ "irginia Regimental Band furnished delight- 
ful music. 

This eighty-seventh Commencement was the first when visi- 
tors came to Chapel Hill by railway. The correspondent of the 
New York Herald praises bountifully the beauty of the place 
and the attractiveness of the lady visitors. Of the latter he 
says, "The type of beauty is delicate and high bred. There is 
a lack of color to a Northern critic, but the eyes are bright 
and full of spirit, the forms well rounded, the hands and feet 
wondrously small and beautiful. These bright and sparkling 
creatures make the best wives and mothers in the country. I 
remember to have heard an old Alabamian say twenty years 
ago, 'Go to Xorth Carolina for a wife if you want a good 
one.' " 

At ten o'clock on Wednesday came an address before the two 
societies bv Hon. Wm, M. Robbins, of Statesville, an orator of 

254 History of University of North Carolina. 

wide reputation in this State. His subject was in substance 
"The world moves on and we must keep pace with it educa- 
tionally, industrially, politically.'' 

At 4 p. m. was the Baccalaureate Sermon by Rev. J. G. 
Armstrong, D.D., a distinguished Episcopal divine of Rich- 
mond, Virginia. His text was from Ecclesiastes, "Strive for 
the truth unto death, and the Lord God will fight for thee." 
It was a powerful sermon, especially valuable to young men 
seeking to build an upright character. 

After supper the society representatives delivered original 
addresses : 

Livingston Vann on "Florida," of which State he was a 

John W. Hays, Jr., made a plea for "Freedom of Thought 
and Discussion." 

T. A. Wharton spoke on "The Peace Victories of the Nine- 
teenth Century." 

Thomas Radcliffe discussed "Labor Unions," having good 
purpose but sometimes wrong. 

J. T. Strayhorn discussed "Southern Development." Aboli- 
tion of slavery will be succeeded by rapid increase of wealth. 

T. A. Wharton's speech on "The Peace Victories of the 
Nineteenth Century" was so cogent that a preacher of the 
Society of Friends (Quakers) presented him with a Bible. 

Mr. Strayhorn was decided to be the best speaker. 

A graceful feature at the Commencement was the bringing 
over of the Masons, then in attendance at their annual meet- 
ing, by Messrs. Julian S. Carr and W. T. Blackwell, at their 
own expense. Their presence was of great interest and value 
to the institution. In addition to this liberality Mr. Carr do- 
nated to the fund for rebuilding Person Hall, one-half of the 
expenses of the expedition, including a handsome dinner to the 
company. The cavalcade as the visitors entered and left the 
Campus was quite imposing. . 

The speeches by the graduates were confined to ten, chosen 
by members of the Faculty : 

Jonathan W. Jackson discussed "The Relation of Law to 
Tustice in American Societv." 

Commencement of 1882. 255 

Allen T. Davidson, Jr., uttered a "Plea for Reform in Fed- 
eral Taxation." 

Emile A. de Schweinitz handled the subject of "Legislators 
and Legislation." 

David S. Kennedy's subject was "Modern Culture." 

George G. Wilson gave his views of "The True Hero in the 
Light of History." He eulogized Daniel Webster as entitled 
to this distinction. 

Frederick N. Skinner spoke on a very live subject, "The In- 
ter-oceanic Canal." He preferred one through Lake Nica- 

Alexander W. McAlisters address was less practical, "The 
Philosophy of American Civilization." 

Charles W. Worth spoke on "The Relations of the Execu- 
tive." He thought that his powers were becoming so wide- 
spread as to be dangerous to liberty. 

Albert Sidney Grandy's subject was "Civilization and Pov- 
erty." He contended that poverty and crime go together. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman spoke on "Corporate Power," 
predicting direful results if it should not be placed under legal 

The judges of the debate had no hesitation in giving the palm 
to the last speaker. 

In the afternoon the diplomas were delivered, medals 
awarded, reports read and degrees announced. 

The graduates, whose names will appear in the Appendix, 
were : 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 9 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 5 

Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 2 

Medals and prizes : 

Geeek Medals. — William Donald Mclver, Samuel Bryant Tur- 

Representative Medal, foe Oeatoev. — John Thomas Strayhorn. 
Mangum Medal. — Edwin Anderson Alderman. 
Phillips Mathematical Peize. — James Lee Love. 
First English Medal. — John Robert Herring, Jr. 
Peize in Mateeia Medica. — Joshua Montgomery Reece. 
Cheiiistet Medal. — Emile Alexander de Schweinitz. 

256 History of University of North Carolina. 

Honorary degrees were conferred upon the following : 

Doctor of Laws. — Hon. Thomas L. Clingman, Representa- 
tive and Senator in United States Congress, Brigadier-General 
C. S. A. ; Hon. George Davis, Attorney-General C. S. A. 

Doctor of Divinity. — Rev. Jethro Rumple, Presbyterian 
minister, author of History of Rowan County; Rev. E. 
Rockwell, minister of the Lutheran Church; Rev. Robert Bur- 
well, Presbyterian minister, Principal of Advanced School for 

Master of Arts. — Rev. D. A. Long, Dr. Nelson M. Ferebee. 

Master of Science. — A. R. Ledoux, Ph.D. 

In 1882 the Chief Marshal was M. C. Millender. He had as 
aids W. T. Dortch, J. A. Bryan, and C. W. Smedes from the 
Philanthropic, and G. A. Mebane, J. F. Rogers, and Edmund 
Ruffin from the Dialectic Society. 

J. F. Wilkes was elected Chief Ball Manager by all the stu- 
dents, and J. Wood, T. R. Ransom, P. Stamps, and J. R. Bea- 
man were the submanagers. 

The editors of the monthly for the ensuing year were 
Thomas M. Vance, Turner A. Wharton, and Walter W. Van- 
diver, of the Dialectic Society, and Frank S. Spruill, M. C. 
Millender, and J. U. Newman, of the Philanthropic Society. 

In August, 1882, the University had the misfortune to lose 
by resignation, on account of sickness, Professor Carey Demp- 
sey Grandy, an exceedingly promising man. He was trained 
at the Virginia Military Institute and was one of its best stu- 
dents. He was an excellent teacher, and with the highest vir- 
tues as a man. His disease, tuberculosis, soon carried him to 
his grave. His specialties were mathematics, engineering, and 
physics. His chair at the time of his resignation was Natural 
Philosophy and Engineering. 

The changes in the Faculty were few : Professor W. C. 
Kerr's lectureship was vacated by his death. Thomas Rad- 
cliffe was appointed Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory. He 
was a promising student in science, but was cut off in early 

Faculty Changes in 1882. 257 

In place of Carey Dempsey Grandy, Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Engineering, the Board unanimously chose 
Joshua Walker Gore, C.E. He was a native of Virginia, 
about thirty years old, a graduate first of Richmond College. 
He then gained the degree of Civil Engineer at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. He then won a Fellowship at Johns 
Hopkins University by a paper on the cycloid, and spent two 
years at that institution in the study of mathematics and allied 
branches. He was for three years Professor of Physics, As- 
tronomy, and Chemistry in a Baptist institution, the South- 
western University of Tennessee. Wishing to confine his ener- 
gies to mathematics, physics, and engineering he became an 
assistant in the department of Mathematics in the University 
of Virginia. He showed himself a skilled teacher. He was 
endorsed as to scholarship and character by President Gilmer, 
Professors Sylvester and Story of Johns Hopkins, by Colonel 
Venable and Professors Peters, Cable, Mallet, Davis, and 
Minor of the University of Virginia, and Professor Simon 
Xewcomb of the United States Astronomical Observatory, in 
addition to the authorities of Richmond College and the South- 
western University of Tennessee. He proved to be in all re- 
spects worthy of his endorsements — an excellent man and an 
accomplished and useful officer. 

Normal School of 1882. 

The Normal School of 1882 began June 15 and ended July 
20. President Battle had general charge and had the coopera- 
tion of Superintendent Scarborough. The Superintendent of 
the School was Hon. M. A. Newell, Superintendent of the City 
Schools of Baltimore. 

Prof. Edward P. Moses, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of 
Goldsboro, was Assistant Superintendent, and teacher of Geography, 
History, and Calisthenics. 

Prof. N. Y. Gulley, Franklinton, .was teacher of Mathematics. 

Prof. Eugene L. Harris: Penmanship and Drawing. 

Prof. Robert P. Pell, Chapel Hill: Grammar and English Lit- 

Prof. J. H. Rayhill, Illinois: Reading and Elocution. 

Capt. John E. Dugger, Raleigh: Phonics. 


258 History of University of North Carolina. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Physiology. 

Prof. William B. Phillips, Chapel Hill: Physics. 

Prof. E. H. Wilson, Chapel Hill: Vocal Music. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble, Wilmington: Algebra. 

Miss Jane F. Long, Raleigh, trained the Model Class. 

The number of students enrolled was 352, of whom 177 were 
women. The number of counties represented was sixty-two. 
There were many addresses by eminent men. 

University Day. 

University Day, October 12, 1882, was celebrated with due 
dignity and to the gratification of a large audience. Rev. Mr. 
Stone, of the Methodist Church, opened the exercises with 
prayer. Then the Foundation hymn was sung by the Uni- 
versity Glee Club to the air of "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, The 
Boys Are Marching." The words were by Mr. A. D. Betts, 
of the class, adapted from a similar hymn at Cornell University. 
It is in honor of the University bell. 

To the busy morning light, 

To the slumbers of the night, 
To the labors and the lessons of the hour, 

With a ringing, rhythmic tone, 

O'er hill and valley blown, 
Come the voices, mellow voices, from the tower. 

Chorus : 

Cling, clang, cling! 

The bell is ringing; 
Hope and health its chimings tell, chimings tell! 

O'er the halls of N. C. U., 

O'er the quiet village, too, 
Come the voices, gentle voices, from the tower. 

By our Otey's famed Retreat, 

Where the loved and lovers meet; 
By the laurel bank and glen of dreaming flower, 

Where the groves are dark and grand, 

And the oaks majestic stand, 
Come the voices, mellow voices, from the tower. 

Chorus — Cling, clang, cling, etc. 

Celebration of University Day, 1882. 259 

When the gentle hand that gave 

Lies beneath the marble grave, 
And the daisies weep with drippings of the shower, 

Oh! believe me, brother dear, 

In the future we shall hear 
Guiding voices from our angel in the tower. 

Chorus — Cling, clang, cling, etc. 

Not afraid to dare and do, 

Let us rouse ourselves anew, 
With the knowledge that is victory and power; 

And arrayed in every fight, 

On the battle side of right, 
Gather glory from our angel in the tower. 

Chorus — Cling, clang, cling, etc. 

President Battle continued his history of the foundation of 
the University. He described the Committee on the Curricu- 
lum, Rev. Dr. S. E. McCorkle, David Stone, Alfred Moore, 
Samuel Ashe, John Hay, and Dr. Hugh Williamson. The cur- 
riculum reported was a marked advance in the direction of in- 
dustrial and scientific studies. He further sketched Dr. David 
Ker, not given the office of President but that of Presiding 
Professor, afterwards a Federal Judge in the Territory of Mis- 
sissippi. It is possible that his throwing off his Presbyterian 
principles and embracing the then fashionable infidel or athe- 
istic notions commended him to Jefferson, who appointed him 
on the recommendation of David Stone. He had no reputa- 
tion as a lawyer before entering on his judgeship. 

In accordance with custom short speeches were called for. 
Talks in excellent taste were made by Hon. John Manning, 
newly elected Professor of Law ; Rev. Dr. Jeffreys, of the Bap- 
tist church ; Professors J. W. Gore and George T. Winston. 
All of these speeches were full of spice, humor and good advice. 

"Roaring Fountain" was a lovely spring, so called because 
the water trickled into it with a gentle sound ! In old times it 
was a favorite spot to which girls and boys were fond of walk- 
ing. After spending much coin on an artesian well, Professor 
Winston concluded to have a hvdraulic ram force water from 

260 History of University of North Carolina. 

the spring into his dwelling. After full trial it was given up 
on account of the frequent stoppage in the flow of water and 
its unpleasant Avarmth after reaching the summit of the hill. 
Mrs. Spencer penned the following exulting ode, parodying an 
old English song, Twickenham Ferry : 

Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain? 

(Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.) 
Come from the Valley, or come from the Mountain, 

And 'tis but a step to felicitate me. 

Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain? 

(Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.) 
Fireflies are glancing and Naiads are dancing 

With Fairies of the Glen and Dryads of the tree. 

Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain? 

(Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.) 
Oho, ho ye ho! Dame Nature willed it so, 

That Science should be foiled and victory with me. 

Oho ye no! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain? 

(Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.) 
In my heart is no malice, I fill a brimming chalice, 

Wishing well, well, well, to the man who scorns me. 

The following account of an abortive combat, found in a 
number of the University Magazine of 1882, shows literary 
skill superior to the ordinary attempts at humor. 

"The thrilling encounter between a Fresh and a Junior last 
month, which would have resulted in a sanguinary struggle but 
for the exquisite calmness and extraordinary presence of mind 
in one of the combatants in retreating promptly, has, we are 
proud to say, been amicably adjusted. Though the retreat was 
not one which, in strict military parlance, might be termed 
orderly, yet it was conducted with such astounding celerity and 
earnestness of purpose — two military requisites, that we are 
surprised and delighted to see among us such undoubted mili- 
tary genius in one so young." 

The names of the parties to this Parthian duella have not 
come down to us. 

Miss Nancy Hilliard's Hotel. 261 

The Eagle Hotel, so long under the efficient management of 
the kindhearted old maid, Miss Nancy Hilliard, was after her 
regime leased by Colonel Hugh B. Guthrie. He was a good, 
kindly man and capable of an interesting and humorous 
speech. He was afterwards postmaster of the village. His 
wife, Miss Jane Cave, a descendant of "a land giver," Christo- 
pher Barbee, left a son, John Guthrie, one of the very few of 
the blood of the old donors of the site of the University resid- 
ing in Chapel Hill. The hotel next went into the hands of 
Mrs. Rowe, daughter of old Postmaster McDade, and after- 
wards to John H. Watson, an excellent man, a Justice of the 
Peace and often Mayor of the village. The property was then 
bought by a New York lawyer, Wm. G. Peckham, and was 
leased to W. W. Pickard for several years. Peckham sold it to 
Prof. H. H. Williams. He transferred it to the University, 
whose plans in regard to it have not yet been formed. At pres- 
ent the buildings are used for dormitories and for table board. 


During this period the cabinets of the various departments 
were brought together in a large hall on the third floor of the 
north end of the Old East Building, once the Philanthropic 
Library. The Geological and Mineralogical collection includes 
the "Vienna Cabinet," which alone comprises over two thou- 
sand specimens from many parts of the world. There is also 
a large number of minerals, rocks and fossils, collected by the 
late Dr. E. Emmons, when State Geologist, donated to the Uni- 
versity by the State, and much material secured through the 
energy of the State Geologist, Dr. W. C. Kerr, illustrating the 
practical application of Geology to the arts, among others a 
number of jars of pigments of various colors, donated by John 
Lucas and Company, a set of North Carolina marls, samples 
of mica, gold and other minerals, and of building stones found 
within the State. 

The Zoological Collection includes a cabinet of insects found 
in the vicinity of Chapel Hill, containing rare species, reptiles 
preserved in alcohol, and skins of species of birds found in and 
near the village, collected by Professor Atkinson. 

262 History of University of North Carolina. 

In Botany, besides an herbarium of the local flora, there is a 
fine set of native woods, and a large collection of seeds, grains 
and fibres from many countries. 

During this year the good order was broken by a ludicrous 
combat which came near having a serious termination. A 
student, A. B., had a grievance against another, C. D. A friend 
of A. B., a meddlesome, Ransy Sniffle sort of a fellow, per- 
suaded him to take a pistol and demand an apology. Learning 
this C. D. borrowed a pistol. They met near a large oak tree, 
when C. D. ran around the tree, shooting wildly and aimlessly 
as he ran. Accidentally a bullet grazed A. B.'s neck; but the 
wound was not dangerous. On examining into the matter the 
Faculty concluded that the man most blamable was Ransy 
Sniffle, and dismissed him ; that A. B. did not intend to use his 
pistol, but only to intimidate, but that C. D. did not know this 
and acted in self-defense, as he thought. The Faculty con- 
cluded that the dismissal of Ransy was sufficient. C. D. was 
an exceptionally faithful student. 

During the year the University lost the services of one whose 
name has long been a synonym for active and faithful dis- 
charge of duty and for fearless and conscientious devotion to 
right, our Bursar, Andrew Mickle. He removed to Texas to 
live with his children and carried with him the love and admi- 
ration of the entire Faculty and of the community. He has 
since died. 

Mr. Willie T. Patterson, an experienced bookkeeper, and of 
rare business talent, entered on the duties of Bursar, with in- 
telligent zeal which had no impairment by the loss of a leg at 
Sharpsburg. Although a private in the Confederate Army he 
was generally called Major Patterson. 

The wish expressed by the Board that the Professors should, 
as far as practicable, make addresses in different sections was 
met by frequent excursions of the President in all parts of the 
State, and by Professor Winston, who delivered speeches of 
great force and eloquence in Oxford, Salem, Winston, Raleigh, 

Teachers' Course Provided. 263 

and at the Bingham School. He aroused the spirit of educa- 
tion and gained favor to the University. 

As there is much curiosity on the subject of the actions of 
the Ku Klux Klan I state that there is no tradition of their 
invading Chapel Hill except on one occasion. They rode in at 
midnight, searched for a man who had criticized the organiza- 
tion, but not finding them, they rode out again. They were 
fully disguised. 

Reports of President and Visiting Committee. 

February 1, 1883, President Battle submitted his report. 
The number of students had reached two hundred and five, the 
largest since i860. The new members were ninety-seven in 
number. The behavior had been very good, testified to by all 
visitors to Chapel Hill. The standard of scholarship was con- 
tinually raised and, as so many of our graduates became teach- 
ers, the preparatory schools were being multiplied and their 
pupils better taught. The society elections were still affected by 
party spirit, resulting in occasional choice of inferior men and 
arousing bad temper among the minority of the voters. The 
health of the students had been, as usual, good. A gymnasium 
was sadly needed for bad weather. Efforts were being made to 
remedy this defect. 

A department for the education of teachers was needed. The 
University was already a potent influence among the educators 
of the State. Four-fifths, thirteen, of the last graduating class 
became teachers and their work was of the best. There was a 
constant demand for others. The Faculty had arranged a 
course to prepare young men for this important calling, em- 
bracing all the studies required by law, with liberty to pursue 
the other studies free of charge. By attending in vacation the 
Summer Normal School the student could become an expert in 
this grand profession. With $3,000 annually could be organ- 
ized a permanent Normal Department. 

Hon. Joseph J. Davis was chairman of the Visiting Com- 
mittee in 1883, the other members being Col. Paul B. Means, 
Rev. J. L. Stewart, Messrs. F. P. Johnston, and D. P. Mc- 
Eachern. Their report was eminently favorable. "The Presi- 

264 History of University of North Carolina. 

dent and Faculty have discharged their duties faithfully and 
are entitled to the confidence and commendation of the public 
for the zeal and ability with which they have labored in the 
interests of the University and the cause of education in the 
State. The training and instruction has been as thorough and 
complete as at any time in the history of the University. The 
students and the Faculty seem inspired by love and devotion 
to the University." 

The committee recommended assistants in various depart- 
ments as soon as the means of the institution would admit, 
especially in that of Dr. Mangum, and a larger salary to the 
Assistant in Chemistry. The class in Mathematics especially 
needed division and an able instructor secured to aid the Pro- 

Commencement of 1883. 

The Commencement of 1883 began on the 6th of June, the 
annual meeting of the two societies having been on the evening 
before. The visitors were struck with the orderly conduct of 
the students. The press correspondent heard repeatedly the 
remark, "Never has the University had better behaved stu- 
dents." He gave much of the credit to the "Christian and 
gentle bearing" of the officers. 

The address before the two literary societies was by the 
Hon. Thomas Courtland Manning, LL.D., Chief Justice of 
Louisiana. He had been Brigadier-General C. S. A. and was 
afterwards United States Minister to Mexico. He was an 
alumnus of the University from Edenton in 1842-43, then set- 
tled in Louisiana. He gave in a clear and comprehensive way 
the requisites of success in a public career and was much ap- 

In the afternoon the Rev. Andrew Doz Hepburn, President 
of Davidson College, once Professor of Rhetoric and Logic 
in this University, delivered the Baccalaureate Sermon. He 
was a strong and graceful orator and able preacher. 

His text was "I have written unto you, young men, because 
you are strong." Strength is necessary to persevere, to avoid 
falling into temptation. * * * In the dark hours of wait- 

The Commencement of 1883. 265 

ing the decisive hours of the battle are fought. Manly strength 
is shown in firmness and courage. * * * Blended courage 
and moderation is the royal virtue. * * * Man lives to 
work. Only God and the angels are created to look on. The 
excellency of the thought and the language was equaled by the 
appropriateness of the delivery. 

At 8 p. m. representatives of the two societies delivered 
original orations. 

John Robert Herring, Jr., spoke on "The Mission of the 
Jews in Europe." 

James Alexander Bryan on "The Benefits of Organized 

John Charles Slocumb on "The Destiny of the Indians." 

Jesse Bowden Hawes on "The Perils of Infidelity." 

Wra. Theophilus Dortch, Jr., on "The Rebounds of Public 

Zebulon Baird YValser on "Shall the Land of Washington 
Survive ?" 

The Philanthropies were Herring, Bryan, and Dortch. The 
Dialectics were Slocumb, Hawes. and Walser. The judges of 
the contest decided in favor of Hawes as the best speaker. 

The Commencement exercises opened with the following 
hymn, led by the band : 

Oh God, our fathers' God, whose care 
"With blessings fill the circling year; 
Remembering Thee in all our ways, 
We bring our annual song of praise. 

We bless Thy name, Almighty God, 
Who giv'st us here a sure abode, 
For all the favor Thou hast shown 
The State and age we call our own. 

Here Freedom spreads ber banner wide; 
Here Learning and Religion guide, 
By heavenly Truth's unfading ray, 
Our youth in Wisdom's narrow way. 

Eternal Source of every joy! 

Well may Thy praise our lips employ; 

And all our powers unite to bless 

The Lord, our Strength and Righteousness. 

266 History of University of North Carolina. 

There were seven graduates selected by a committee of the 
Faculty to deliver original orations. Henry Horace Williams 
spoke on "England's Middle Class.'' 

Charles Urquhart Hill on "Influence of the Crusades on 
Modern Civilization." 

Preston Stamps on "The Final Verdict on the Character of 
the Regulators." 

Ira Thomas Turlington on "The Immoral Influence of our 

Charles Lucien Riddle on "The Priceless Heritage of our 
English Blood." 

Thomas Radcliffe on "The Ideals of the Great Civiliza- 

Xuma Fletcher Heitman on "Liberty and Law in North 

The judges gave their preference to Air. Heitman for the 
Mangum Medal. 

The degrees conferred were: Masters of Arts (A.M.) two, 
Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) eight, Bachelors of Philosophy 
(Ph.B.) three, Bachelors of Science (B.S.) three, Bachelor of 
Law ( B.L. ) one, a total of fifteen. (For names see Appendix.) 

The following Honorary Degrees were conferred : 

Doctor of Lai^s, LL.D. — Hon. John Manning, graduate of 
1850, Professor of Law in this LJniversity, member of the 
Convention of 1861, Representative in Congress, U. S. A., 
Code Commissioner. Rev. Albert Mica j ah Shipp, D.D., gradu- 
ate of 1840, Professor of History in the University of North 
Carolina, Professor of Theology and Dean of the Theological 
Department, Vanderbilt Lmiversity, author. Rabbi S. Men- 
delsohn, Wilmington, N. C, author of Jewish Jurisprudence 
Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, President of College of Charleston, 
Superintendent of City Schools of Baltimore, author of the 
Life of Robert E. Lee and other works. 

Doctor of Divinity, D.D. — Rev. J. E. C. Smedes, President 
of the St. Augustine Normal School and Collegiate Institute. 

Master of Arts. — Prof. Alexander Graham. Superintendent 
of the Graded Schools of Fayetteville and then of Charlotte. 

The Marshals performed their duties with great assiduity 

The Commencement of 1883. 267 

and grace. They were Missouri R. Hamer, of South Caro- 
lina, Chief, and Assistants Tilman B. Cherry, James H. Bob- 
bitt and Alexander C. Tate, and William H. McNeill, Silas 
A. Holleman, and Samuel B. Turrentine. Of these Cherry, 
Bobbitt and Tate were Philanthropies, and the others, includ- 
ing the Chief, Dialectics. 

Medals and prizes were awarded as follows : 

Greek Medals. — Berrie Chandler Mclver, Solomon Cohen Weill. 
Representative Medal. — Jesse Bowden Hawes. 
Mangum Medal (Oratory). — Numa Fletcher Heitman. 
Phillips Mathematical Prize. — Edward Daniel Monroe. 
Worth Prize. — Numa Fletcher Heitman. 
Chemistry Medal. — James Lee Love. 
Materia Medica Prize. — James Clifford Perry. 

The Class Day officers of the Senior Class of 1883 were 
Henry Horace Williams, President ; Robert Percy Gray, Vice- 
President; J. Urquhardt Newman, Orator; Thomas Radcliffe, 
Prophet ; Numa Fletcher Heitman, Historian ; Edmund Ruffin, 
Poet ; J. F. Wilkes, Marshal. 

The tree selected for planting was the white pine. The fea- 
ture of all the class smoking the Pipe of Peace under the Old 
Poplar was introduced for the first time. 

Normal School of 1883. 

The University Normal School of 1883 was opened June 
21 and closed July 26. President Battle had general charge 
as before. 

Prof. E. P. Moses was Superintendent and teacher of Arithmetic, 

Prof. A. Leazer, of Mooresville: English Grammar. 

Prof. A. Wilborn, Salisbury: Geography. 

Prof. E. L. Harris: Penmanship and Drawing. 

Prof. E. W. Kennedy, Durham: Algebra and Natural Philosophy. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Physiology and Hygiene. 

Prof. James C. Meares, Raleigh: Vocal Music. 

Capt. John E. Dugger, Rocky Mount: Phonics and Reading. 

Prof. E. V. DeGraff, Paterson, N. J.: Lecturer on Science and Art 
of Teaching. 

Prof. George Little, Washington, D. C: Freehand Drawing in 
Crayon and Charcoal. 

268 History of University of North Carolina. 

Mrs. Mary 0. Humphrey, Goldsboro: Teacher of Model Primary 

Miss Lillie W. Long, Charlotte: French. 

Miss Jane C. Wade, Monroe: Calisthenics. 

Mrs. Charlotte D. Murrill, Lynchburg, Va.: Reading. 

Mr. Willie T. Patterson, Chapel Hill, Business Agent. 

Capt. John E. Dugger, Secretary. 

There were: 

Men 123 

Women 194 

Total 317 

Children in Model School 29 

The Bursar's Duties. 

In June, 1883, the Executive Committee adopted fifteen rules 
in regard to the Bursar's duties. Among others he was bound 
to keep a list of the students, apply to them for University 
dues, if the same have not been paid; if not paid notify parents 
and guardians ; make monthly reports to the Faculty, oftener 
if requested. He must furnish the Faculty once a year with 
a list of all delinquents, shall have charge of the University 
Grounds and Buildings, and keep from the Campus hogs and 
cattle; shall keep the keys of the rooms and let the rooms to 
students, requiring a written agreement to restore them in as 
good condition as when taken possession of, shall keep the 
buildings in good order, and exclude from the Campus all 
idlers, loafers, vicious, immoral, and suspicious persons ; shall 
keep the College servants to their work. If a student shall 
fail to repair damages to his room, the Bursar must have the 
repairs done at the student's expense. His office must be in 
the University Buildings and his hours from 10 to 12 a. m. 
and 3 to 5 p. m. He must give the new students information 
concerning board, furniture, books, etc. It must be admitted 
that this is a formidable burden put on an officer with $350 
salary. As a matter of fact the Bursar was never physically 
able to perform them all with equal fidelity. 

President Battle resigned the Treasurership August 15, 
1883, and W. L. Saunders was elected in his place. 

Factionalism in the Societies. 269 

The offices at Commencement and those in the societies were 
as much prized apparently as those of President, Governors 
and Judges in the larger world. Parties, called "factions," 
were formed and, soon after admission into the University, the 
new men were pledged to vote with one or the other. Gen- 
erally the fraternity men formed the bulk of one faction, some- 
times, in the early days, occupying the South Building. In 
the Philanthropic Society there were usually two factions, the 
South Building and the East. In the Dialectic there were gen- 
erally three, South, West and New West Buildings. Out- 
siders could with difficulty understand the differences be- 
tween them but to the students it was a serious reality. The 
weakest would endeavor to hold the balance of power between 
the other two. Now it sometimes happened that when the 
election came, the members in the parties were equal or nearly 
so. Then ensued angry discussions as to who were entitled 
to vote. Proxies were allowed and it would be contended that 
the man who gave the proxy was absent because he had "quit 
college." Students were obliged to be in the University so 
many weeks before joining the societies. It was contended 
that this had not been complied with strictly. In truth the 
technicalities brought forward would have done credit to a 
criminal court. 

In 1884 much bad feeling was engendered in the societies, 
including charges of fraud and snap judgments. It caused a 
secession of some good members of the Philanthropic Society, 
and came near causing a similar secession from the Dialectic. 

The cause of this secession is a good example of the per- 
plexing questions that would come up for settlement. Two 
students, belonging to the South Building party, although, as 
was alleged, repeatedly invited to join the Philanthropic 
Society, delayed doing so until the end of the term. With them 
their party had the majority and could have elected their can- 
didates ; without them the East Building party had the advan- 
tage. Importuned by party friends they offered to join at the 
last meeting of the term. The election was to take place at the 
first meeting in January. Their opponents said, "You have re- 

270 History of University of North Carolina. 

fused to become members until the last meeting, you know 
nothing of the workings of the society. You have no means of 
knowing the merits of the candidates, having never heard them 
debate, or perform other society duties. You wish to become 
members merely to dictate the representatives of the society. 
We who have borne the burden and heat of the day should not 
be deprived of our victory by those coming in at the eleventh 
hour, not to perform the duties of the society, because exer- 
cises are all finished. Besides we are not preventing your join- 
ing the society. We merely postpone it for two meetings." 

As I am a member of the Dialectic Society I could not attend 
the meeting of the other but I requested Professors Winston 
and Alarming to do so, and if possible induce the seceders to 
return. They found that nothing could be done. In the opin- 
ion of the committee they did not much regard the severance 
of their connection. The Faculty could do nothing. To have 
forced them to reenter the society would have introduced a 
discordant element which would have paralyzed its usefulness. 

For many years it was the rule that all students should join 
one or the other of the two literary societies. As the num- 
bers increased it became necessary to excuse first the Seniors 
and then the Juniors from regular attendance. This had the 
effect of throwing the conduct of business into the hands of 
inexperienced men. It also had the tendency of accustoming 
the minds of students to seeing members enjoying the freedom 
from society restraint. Then again the increase of the Law, 
Medical, and Pharmacy departments and of the special scien- 
tific schools, introduced a large number of students who would 
have found it extremely irksome to be forced into the society 
obligations. It is probable, too, that some fraternity men were 
satisfied with their own meetings and desired to attend no 

From another point of view a change was deemed advisable. 
The compulsory feature forced into the societies youths who 
were reluctant and even hostile members. There was begun 
disorder unknown in early days, such as applauding or hissing 
speakers, which seriously affected the character of the bodies. 

Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 271 

Accordingly, in 1889, joining them was made voluntary and 
they have been improved by it. The Faculty add to their dig- 
nity by requiring that the representative speakers at Com- 
mencement shall be chosen by them. They are now in good 
condition. Their inter-society debates in public, and debates 
with other institutions, their union in the procurement of star 
entertainments, and their joint banquet at Commencements, 
not to mention the opportunities for training in debate, and 
the advice of old members, are powerful factors in keeping 
up respectable numbers. 

While the relations between the law students and the Uni- 
versity were for some years only nominal, one of them was 
allowed to have a room in the New East Building. One night 
a company of young men, having acquired a small quantity 
of lager beer, were desirous of imbibing it, without interrup- 
tion by the society monitors or accidental visit of a Faculty 
man. The law student kindly invited them to his more se- 
questered apartment. When haled up for punishment he 
pleaded that he was not amenable to the laws of the Univer- 
sity. The Faculty concluded not to dismiss him but to put 
him and all other law students occupying University buildings 
under its jurisdiction. It was not long before the distinction 
in discipline between the two classes of students was abol- 
ished. It was also enacted that Law and Medical students 
might compete for society honors, if they were regular mem- 
bers and had ten hours a week in academic studies. 


State of the University in 1884. 

The Visiting Committee of 1884 was^ large and composed 
of able and practical men. At the head was Hon. A. Haywood 
Merritt, who had served as State Senator from Chatham and 
was an experienced and successful teacher. The other mem- 
bers were Charles M. Cooke, afterwards Judge; Julian S. 
Carr, a wealthy manufacturer ; D. P. McEachern, a noted 
farmer and Member of the Legislature ; Col. Paul B. Means, 
a prominent lawyer and Member of both branches of the 
General Assembly; Hon. Benjamin F. Grady, an experi- 
enced teacher and Member of Congress, and Rev. A. D. Betts, 
D.D., a valued preacher of the Methodist Church. As one 
of the accusations against the University at that time was that 
it was under Episcopalian influence, I state that of the seven, 
the Chairman and two others were Methodists, two were Pres- 
byterians, another a Presbyterian by lineage, and one a promi- 
nent Baptist, President of the Board of Trustees of Wake For- 
est College. There was not one Episcopalian. As the report is 
a true picture of the University I give much of it as written : 

"The Constitution of the State is but the written expression 
of the will of the people. Our fathers of the past century met 
in Convention at Halifax, December 18, 1776, and declared 
in the Constitution then adopted that schools shall be estab- 
lished and all useful learning shall be duly promoted and en- 
couraged in one or more Universities. This injunction has 
been reaffirmed from time to time, and our present Constitu- 
tion declares that 'religion, morality and knowledge being nec- 
essarv to good government and the happiness of mankind, 
schools and means of education shall be forever encouraged.' 
The educational system of the State is but the outgrowth of 
the will of the people. The University is placed at the head 
of this system, and consequently belongs to the people; and 
as it is from the people and for the people they have a right 

Report on the University in 1884. 2 73 

to know how their institution is conducted, and how far it is 
carrying out the objects of its creation and meeting the just 
expectations of the public. 

the curricula. 

"The range of studies is broad and comprehensive. There 
are three regular curricula, each leading to a separate aca- 
demic degree of equal dignity. The Classical Course is essen- 
tially the old curriculum, and leads to the degree of A.B. The 
Scientific Course includes all the studies of the Classical Course 
except Latin and Greek, and for them it substitutes Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, Natural History, Drawing, Bookkeeping and 
additional studies in English ; it leads to the degree of B.S. 
The Philosophical Course is a mean between the two other 
courses. It includes either Latin or Greek at the option of the 
student, and leads to the degree of Ph.B. In addition to these 
three are a one year advanced course leading to the degrees 
of A.M. and M.S.; and a two years course leading to the de- 
gree of Ph.D. Young men are thus offered the means of a 
broad and liberal culture, and at the same time they may con- 
sult their tastes, talents, and future aims in life. 


"We were greatly impressed with the enthusiasm of the 
Faculty. There is a spirit of zeal and earnestness visible in 
every recitation room that is truly refreshing. Instruction is 
given from textbooks, by lectures, on the blackboard, and by 
practical work in the laboratory, the field and the museum. 
Every student is armed with tablet and pencil for notes, and 
in the classics frequent compositions are required in the dif- 
ferent languages. A great deal of writing is insisted on as 
necessary to accuracy. The methods of instruction are thor- 
oughly progressive. 


"We are glad to know that, while general and abstract prin- 
ciples are thoroughly taught at the University, the application 
of these principles to the common uses of life is not neglected. 
Much of the teaching leads to practical results. The conditions 


274 History of University of North Carolina. 

imposed by the Federal Government in the Land Scrip Grant 
are met and the University is prepared to turn out men edu- 
cated for the farm as well as the forum and the bench. Espe- 
cial attention is given to the English language in all the de- 
partments, from the beginning to the end of all the courses. 
\\ "hen the student comes to the study of Botany his attention 
is directed to the diseases of agricultural plants, such as smut, 
rust, mildew, and the remedies and precautions against them ; 
to forage plants, the improvement of lands, the germination 
of seeds, and the influence of fertilizers on the growth of 
plants. In Physiology and Zoology the student is taught the 
anatomy of the common domestic animals, and their internal 
organs are used to illustrate those of the human system. He 
is taught the principles of breeding, feeding and improvement 
of farm stock. He learns about food-fishes and their propa- 
gation, injurious insects, vermin, and reptiles. In Geology the 
student's attention is turned from the theoretical to such prac- 
tical subjects as mines and how to mine coal, iron, gold, etc., 
the origin and varieties of soils, building stones, marls, and 
phosphates and their uses in agriculture. The Natural History 
Museum contains over three thousand specimens of rocks, ores, 
and minerals, and a valuable and increasing collection of native 
woods, botanical and zoological specimens illustrating the 
fauna and flora of North Carolina. This department has two 
laboratories, one for practical work in Geology and Miner- 
alogy, the other for Zoology and Botany. Professor Holmes 
presides with the vigor of youth and the skill and learning 
of age. Professor Venable has charge of general Agricul- 
tural and Analytical Chemistry. He is a valuable man, an 
excellent instructor, and is fully up with the progress of the 

"Here the student is taught the analysis of soils, manures, 
and ores, how to extract metals from ores, how glass, porce- 
lain, and earthenware are manufactured, how leather is tanned, 
how soap, sugar, ink, and matches are made, how calico is 
printed, cloth dyed and bleached, woods preserved by paints, 
and many other such practical things. The two laboratories 
connected with this department are supplied with water, gas 

Report on the University in 1884. 2 7S 

and other appliances necessary to the successful prosecution of 
scientific investigation. Professor Venable deserves special 
mention for the elegant and valuable museum of chemical, in- 
dustrial, and agricultural products which he has collected and 
so handsomely arranged. In the department of Natural Phil- 
osophy, presided over by Professor Gore, another young, 
learned and efficient instructor, the student is enabled to gain 
an intelligent understanding of the forces in nature from the 
motions of the planets to the turning of a flutter-mill. The 
skill and industry of the Professor in repairing the old appa- 
ratus and the purchase of new enable him to make experiments 
in the presence of the class which constitute an important and 
impressive part of his instruction. He illustrates the move- 
ments of the sidereal heavens, shows the application of elec- 
tricity to the telegraph, telephone, etc. He explains the phe- 
nomena of sound and the properties of light and heat. He also 
teaches land surveying, plotting, leveling, laying out railroad 
curves and switches, and all railroad work, to the point of 
actual construction. 

"The President teaches Constitutional, International, and 
Business Law. This latter department embraces such legal 
principles, civil and criminal, as are indispensable to a correct 
transaction of the ordinary business of life. This feature is 
believed to be peculiar to this institution. It is appreciated 
by the students, is practical and praiseworthy. 

"We might show how Professor Graves, thoroughly com- 
petent and skilled as he is, comes down from Differential and 
Integral Calculus and the theory of logarithms to the science 
of accounts and practical bookkeeping; how that elegant classi- 
cal scholar. Professor Hooper, and that earnest and excellent 
teacher, Professor Winston, manage to give a practical turn 
to all their teachings in the modern and ancient languages ; 
and how well that faithful worker. Professor Mangum, leads 
the student along the plains of higher English literature and 
thence into the fields of moral science and Christian ethics. 
But enough has been said to show that the teaching is not only 
progressive and of wide range but eminently practical. 

2j6 History of University of North Carolina. 

"The diplomas of the University can be obtained only by 
successful study. Strict accounts are kept of daily recitations, 
followed by rigid and searching examinations. If certain real 
attainments are not reached, the student is not permitted to 
advance. The standard of scholarship is high. 


"Each student is required to attend three recitations a day, 
and a strict accountability is demanded for absences. No in- 
corrigibly idle or vicious student is permitted to remain in the 
institution. The discipline is mild, firm, and successful. 


"What moral and religious influences will surround his boy 
when he shall go from home is a question of prime importance 
to parents. It affords your committee sincere pleasure to as- 
sure such parents that there is a very healthy moral and re- 
ligious atmosphere at the University. We are assured of this 
by personal observation of the students in the recitation rooms, 
in their private apartments, in the Campus, at the meals, and 
at their daily worship in the College Chapel, and we are con- 
firmed in this belief by evidence from various and disinter- 
ested sources. The Young Men's Christian Association meets 
regularly in its well fitted hall in the South Building, and 
the exercises are for the most part conducted by the students 
themselves. On the Sabbath the village churches are open 
to and attended by the students ; and each student is expected 
to attend one of the four Bible classes, conducted by the Faculty 
for their benefit. There is no such thing as 'deviling the 
Faculty,' and 'paping,' or cheating on recitation or examina- 
tion, is not tolerated by the students themselves. 'Hazing the 
Fresh' is also under ban, by order of the Faculty and the joint 
action of the two literary societies. A manly sense of honor 
pervades the whole body of students. Instances of disorder 
and violation of law occur sometimes, but they are rare. When 
over two hundred young men are thrown together so inti- 
mately, it were vain to expect perfect harmony at all times. 

Report on the University in 1884. 277 

An altercation occurred while your committee was on the Hill, 
and we witnessed the prompt decision of the Faculty in dealing 
with the offenders and punishing the offense. We note this 
as an exception to the general rule of good behavior. 


"There is no attempt at display, and a spirit of economy is 
visible in every direction. We are assured that the total ex- 
penses for tuition, books, board, fuel, lights, and washing need 
not exceed $200 per annum. Considering its advantages the 
University is one of the very cheapest institutions in the land. 

"The Constitution provides that the benefits of the Univer- 
sity, as far as practicable, shall be extended to the youth of 
the State free of expense for tuition. Therefore, under legis- 
lative enactment, the University grants free tuition to one stu- 
dent from each county. Forty counties are thus represented. 
The Faculty, moreover, carrying out the spirit of the Consti- 
tution, has dispensed charities with a liberal hand. Time is 
allowed for the payment of tuition of young men of limited 
means, and in some extraordinary cases the fees are altogether 
remitted. Since 1875 about two hundred have been granted 
free tuition, exclusive of county students. Three young men 
are now enjoying the benefits of the scholarships established 
by the late B. F. Moore ; and still further aiding in this direc- 
tion is the Deems Fund. Through the munificence of Rev. 
Dr. C. F. Deems and Mr. W. H. Vanderbilt, of New York, 
a fund now amounting to about $12,000 has been placed at 
the disposal of the Faculty to assist students by loans. It is 
judiciously used, and many worthy young men are thus enabled 
to secure a liberal education. 


"The halls and library rooms of the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies are commodious and elegantly furnished. 
Thev contain perhaps the finest collection of portraits in the 
South. Each librarv has about eight thousand volumes and 

278 History of University of North Carolina. 

an interesting cabinet of minerals and curiosities. These socie- 
ties are held in affectionate remembrance by all their old mem- 
bers. They, still in their dignity and glory, give practice to 
young authors and orators, cherish an honorable rivalry, and 
cultivate a literary taste. They exercise a wholesome influence 
over the conduct of their members, and thus lighten for the 
Faculty the burden of discipline. 


"The University Library numbers nine thousand volumes 
and two thousand pamphlets. Many of these books are ex- 
ceedingly rare and valuable, but are so arranged as to be com- 
paratively useless for consultation. Some of them are on 
shelves twelve or fifteen feet from the floor. With nothing 
but a frail ladder to aid one in reaching them, the sublime 
ascent is likely to end in a ridiculous descent. 

"For practical purposes these books might as well be with 
Alexander Selkirk on the Island of Juan Fernandez — 'they are 
out of humanity's reach.' Your committee earnestly urges 
that alcoves be speedily fitted up, the books brought down from 
their lofty heights, classified and arranged for use. We recom- 
mend that an appropriation for this purpose by the Legisla- 
ture be applied for and also for the binding of pamphlets and 
the rebinding of valuable old volumes, and for the purchase 
of some new scientific works. When this is done, but not till 
then, will this library be worthy of Smith Hall and the Uni- 


"Your committee is of opinion that the fees of the Professor 
of Law (Mr. Manning) ought to be supplemented, that he be 
made a regular member of the Faculty, and his full time be 
required in the service of the Institution. 

"The Medical Department seems to be less successful than 
any other. We are assured of the ability and qualifications 
of Dr. Harris, who has charge of this department; but, how- 
ever great may be the facilities for study, the course does not 
and can not now lead to a degree. Let a thoroughly organized 
Medical School be established. If the means to do this are 

Report on the University in 1884. 279 

not within the reach of the Trustees (and we fear they are 
not), let State aid be invoked. Let the Legislature be im- 
pressed with the fact that it can be done with comparatively 
little outlay ; that such a school would soon be self-supporting ; 
that we can not afford to be outstripped by neighboring States ; 
that the University has never been a burden on the State Treas- 
ury; that our sister States grant much larger appropriations 
to their educational centers than we do ; that twice as much 
money is annually carried out of the State to Medical Colleges 
as it would require to equip one for ourselves; and that we 
owe it as a great patriotic duty to our State to provide this 
additional educational advantage. Such an appeal, we think, 
would not go unheeded. 

"We congratulate the Trustees and the good people of the 
State on the past glory of their University, its present useful- 
ness, and its future prosperity ! With an able President at its 
helm, who is so devoted to its interests that his life seems 
bound up with that of the institution over which he presides ; 
with a Faculty thoroughly competent, enthusiastic and skilled 
in imparting knowledge, the prospects for success are most 

Commencement of 1884. 

The Commencement of 1884 was one of extreme interest. 
The number attending was large and included some of the 
best men in the State, such as Governor Jarvis, Lieutenant- 
Governor Robinson, who was a nephew of President Swain ; 
Colonel Saunders, Secretary of State; Mr. Paul Cameron; 
Col. W. L. Steele; Major (now Colonel) Bingham; Dr. Gris- 
som, Superintendent of the State Hospital for the Insane ; Col. 
A. B. Andrews, railroad magnate; Editors Ashe, Yates, 
Daniels, and Page ; and Rev. Drs. Skinner and Wilson. Be- 
sides these were merchants and farmers, teachers and preach- 
ers, manufacturers and mechanics, and their wives, daughters 
and friends, including a goodly array of alumni. Jupiter 
Pluvius smiled benignantly. This was notable as the last time 
when the Trustees and other dignitaries sat in the open space 
in the irreverently named Bull Pen. The next Commencement 
they were in the spacious Memorial Hall. 

280 History of University of North Carolina. 

What passed in the society halls Monday night was not 
made public, but Dr. Hawthorne in his sermon praised a 
speech he had heard in the Dialectic Society meeting. It tran- 
spired, too, that when called on for a talk, among other topics 
of good advice, he warned the members against bathos and 
gave this specimen, said to be a part of a sermon on the miracle 
of healing the Gergasene madman: "The sun was just il- 
lumining the tops of the mountains, the company in reveren- 
tial attitude was gathered around the Divine Healer, while 
the man from whom the devil had been cast was worshipping 
at His feet. All was calm and peaceful save where the fright- 
ened swine leaped into the lake and on its placid surface could 
be seen the twinkling of their curly tails as they dived for the 

On Tuesday afternoon the Senior Class Day exercises were 
held in the Chapel, the class tree having been planted in the 
early spring. Samuel M. Gattis narrated interestingly and 
often humorously the history of the class. Jesse B. Hawes 
delivered an oration of good sense and in good style. William 
G. Randall was the Prophet, giving the fate of each member, 
some in dark colors, but mostly absurd and humorous. 

James Lee Love, the President of the Class, delivered 
the parting address, full of wise counsel and feeling. At the 
close was sung an ode written especially for the occasion by 
Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, "whose pen in prose and poetry 
has been ever ready to utter delicate sentiments and bright 
thoughts and graceful words for the honor of North Caro- 


Bright be the beams of this vernal morn, 
Far hence, ye clouds, ye dark shadows borne; 
Light are our hearts while pleasure has sway, 
Classmates and comrades, honor our day; 
Day that henceforth shall ever be bright, 
Calling up memories of sweetness and light. 

Gaily we sing, 

Time's on the wing; 

Hail, grove and dell, 

Hail and farewell. 

The Commencement of 1884. 281 

Brothers, our tree will a symbol prove 
Of faith, of hope, and of constant love; 
Strong shall it grow, piercing the blue, 
Drinking for ages sunlight and dew; 
Thus may our life grow prosperously, 
Deep in our hearts may its friendships be. 

Ring bells and sing, 

Time's on the wing; 

Each well known dell, 

Hail and farewell. 

Swiftly will pass our youth's golden day; 

Far up yon height lies our toilsome way; 

Duty will summon, answer its call, 

Courage within us and God over all. 

Far from the Hill, but loving it still, 

Clasp hands at parting with peace and good will. 

Then let us sing, 

Time's on the wing; 

Tree, hill and dell, 

Hail and farewell. 

There came a telegram from Mr. Henry Watterson, the 
well-known editor of the Louisville Journal, who had accepted 
his election as orator by the Dialectic Society, announcing that 
ill health prevented his fulfilling his engagement. The society 
thereupon chose Col. Walter L. Steele to fill the vacancy. Al- 
though he had only one day's notice, Colonel Steele made an 
address of remarkable merit. His counsels were founded on 
a text of the Book of Proverbs, "Remove not the old land- 
marks." He insisted on the Latin maxim, Festina lente. He 
urged economy in business, charity in politics, veracity in 
morals, courtesy in manners, and the fear of God in religion. 
It was the. universal opinion of the auditors that, while the 
eminent Kentuckian may have spoken more eloquently, he 
could not have excelled Colonel Steele in sound sense, embodied 
in deeply interesting discourse. 

At the conclusion of this address Hon. John Manning, at 
the request of the grandsons of the late Gov. Jonathan Worth, 
presented an oil portrait of the Governor to the University. 
The short speech of Dr. Manning was truly eloquent and was 
most gracefully delivered and with a peculiarly sonorous 

282 History of University of North Carolina. 

voice. I give one sentence : "Called by the voice of the people 
of this State twice to the gubernatorial office, we all know 
how nobly, strongly, grandly he bore himself in those worry- 
ing, exciting, tempestuous years, and how firmly, plainly and 
ably he contended for the liberties of the citizens against the 
exercise of unwarranted power, though that power was clothed 
with all the panoply of war, supported by the sheen of bayo- 
nets under the banners of a victorious army." Dr. Manning 
further stated that he was a Trustee of the University for 
nearly thirty years, devoted to its interests and a strong ad- 
vocate for higher education as well as improvement of the 
public schools. 

President Battle received the gift for the University, say- 
ing, among other things, "I was thrown into intimate personal 
and official relations with Gov. Jonathan Worth while he oc- 
cupied the Executive chair. I freely say that I have never 
known a more estimable man, or a more firm, prudent and 
sagacious officer. He investigated all subjects with deliberate 
care, he weighed all arguments with unprejudiced judgment; 
he made his decisions without fear, favor or affection ; he 
carried them into execution with a courage that knew no 
faltering. No man had a harder task. No man could have 
performed it with more thorough conscientiousness, more in- 
telligent zeal, more determined nerve or a broader patriotism. 
It was in the labors, the troubles, the torments of endeavoring 
to uphold the civil over the military law that he broke down 
a fine constitution. He died a martyr to his struggles to main- 
tain constitutional liberty. Tn the name of the University I 
thank the donors for this generous gift. It shall be placed 
upon our walls as a monument of a most important epoch of 
our history and as a perpetual incentive to our youth to imitate 
what is brave and honorable and true." 

Governor Jarvis, being called on, added his earnest testi- 
mony to the real value of his predecessor's example of dili- 
gence, integrity and independence. No such letter books, as 
those which belong to Governor Worth's administration, are 
in the Executive office. They set forth clearly the proper re- 
lations between our State and our general government, and 

The Commencement of 1884. 283 

are marked by a very proper spirit of independence, breathing 
all loyalty to law and order. 

The portrait was then hung by the side of those of Davie, 
"the Father of the University," and of Presidents Caldwell 
and Swain. 

On Wednesday afternoon came the sermon before the 
graduating class by Rev. Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, of the First 
Baptist Church of Richmond, Virginia. He discussed with 
ability and clearness, and frequent bursts of eloquence, the 
relation of the Christian pulpit to trade and politics, and the 
other questions of the present day. The principles of the 
Gospel, rightly applied, are sufficient for their solution. His 
intonation and gesticulation were eminently appropriate and 
matter and manner were a great intellectual and moral treat. 
An admirer wrote, "It was simply grand — toweringly and mag- 
nificently grand." 

The night of Wednesday saw the friendly rivalry between 
the venerable societies of the University. The following was 
the program: Adolphus Hill Eller on "Servility in American 
Politics" ; Heber Amos Latham on "What is the True Aris- 
tocracy?"; Frank Fries Patterson on "Orators and Oratory of 
America" ; Augustus White Long on "The Morals of Southern 
Society" ; Oscar B. Eaton on "Popular Amusements" ; Edward 
W. Pou, Jr., on "The Freedom of the Seas." 

Of these Eller, Patterson and Eaton were Dialectics, the 
others Philanthropies. 

While all were creditable, the preference was given to Mr. 
Long. Mr. Seymour W. Whiting presented to Mr. Latham 
a handsome volume of Tennyson's Poems as a tribute of ad- 
miration for his address. 

The reporter criticised four of the six speeches of these rep- 
resentatives, in that while they praised Southern manners and 
morals, they were perhaps too depreciatory of the morals and 
manners of other folks. "These young gentlemen," Dr. Skin- 
ner remarked, "have just found out that we had a war. Massa- 
chusetts may indeed be blameworthy, but is the rostrum of the 
University the place for such criticism? It hardly gives the 
institution credit for the cosmopolitan character that it really 

284 History of University of North Carolina. 

has." The declamation was, however, pronounced to be un- 
commonly graceful and appropriate, and better results are 
•obtained by allowing the young orators to express their own 
ideas, and not restricting their tongues to speaking only what 
is agreeable to all in the audience. 

On Thursday the graduates spoke, Rev. Dr. Thomas E. 
Skinner, of the Class of 1847, opening with prayer. The 
speakers and their subjects were as follows: 

Samuel Mallett Gattis, "A Dangerous Question" ; that is, 

Lee Martin Warlick, "The Race Problem in the United 
States." The Caucasian must rule. 

Thomas Richard Rouse, "North Carolina Since the War." 
Our future is bright. 

James Cole Roberts, "The Present Status and Influence of 
Mohammedanism." It is losing its influence. 

Missouri Robert Hamer, "Influence of the Legal Profes- 
sion." Lawyers are at the head of great movements. 

John Lemuel Borden, "The Virtues and Vices of the Press." 
The greatest power in the land. Should be kept pure. 

Julian Wood, "North Carolina for North Carolinians." We 
have an excellent population. We wish no influx of for- 

Edward Daniel Monroe, an essay on "Science." Colonel 
Steele, in awarding the Mangum Medal to another, said : 
"This essayist exhibits a power of reasoning and analyzing 
worthy of any man in the State." 

Samuel Bryant Turrentine, "The Progress and Prospects of 
Christian Missions." This is a great field for work. In it 
women can do great good. 

Jesse Bowden Hawes, "The Day and Its Demands." A 
thoughtful dissertation on this subject of passing importance. 

William George Randall, "North Carolina Folk Lore." A 
humorous and able disquisition. 

James Lee Love (Valedictorian), "The New North State." 
He spoke gracefully and strongly of the causes transforming 
the old into the new State. 

Mr. Love was pronounced the best for general excellence 

The Commencement of 1884. 285 

in oratory and won the Mangum Medal. Besides the above, 
eight members of the class were at their own request excused 
from speaking. These were : Charles Taylor Alexander, 
Andrew Jackson Harris, William Donald Mclver, George A. 
Mebane, James Daniel [Miller, Thomas Samuel Osborne, John 
Charles Slocum, and Benjamin Franklin White. 

In the afternoon the reports were read. The degree of A.B. 
was conferred on five graduates, that of Ph.D. on eleven. 

The Classical Oration was won by Lee Martin Warlick ; 
the Greek Medal for Scholarship by James R. Monroe, 
Henry Wm. Rice, James Thomas, and Stephen Beauregard 
Weeks ; that for Improvement by Joseph John Jenkins ; the 
Phillips Mathematical Medal by Frank Milton Little : the 
Worth Prize by Samuel Bryant Turrentine; the Chemistry 
Medal by James Cole Roberts ; the Representative Medal for 
Oratory by Augustus White Long. The best scholar in the 
class was James Lee Love, and to him had been awarded the 
Valedictory Oration. 

Some of the graduates have attained distinction. Randall, 
now dead, was a painter of merit; Turrentine, now a Doctor of 
Divinity, is an honored Presiding Elder of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church ; Gattis has been Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives; Love has been an Instructor of Mathematics in 
Harvard University and Superintendent of its Summer 
School ; Miller is an able and useful Episcopal minister. 

In 1884 the grades of the undergraduates were arranged as 
follows : Those who obtained marks of 70 to 80 in all studies 
were allowed to pass and the Seniors were granted diplomas. 
The Seniors obtaining 80 to 90 obtained diplomas cum laude; 
those from 90 to 95 magna cum laude; those who obtained 
from 90 to 100, insigni cum lionorc. The student who ob- 
tained the highest average of all, not less than 90, obtained the 
Valedictory Oration. To him who should have the highest 
mark, not less than 90, in the Classical Course, was awarded 
the Classical Oration. The Philosophical and Scientific Ora- 
tions were awarded to the best scholars in those courses, pro- 
vided the marks averaged as high as 90. For speaking at Com- 
mencement four Seniors were to be selected bv the Faculty 

286 History of University of North Carolina. 

after competition. Medical and Law students were not allowed 
to compete. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on Gov. Thomas J. Jarvis, an officer of enlightened 
views generally and an especial advocate of higher education ; 
on Augustus S. Merrimon, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
a learned jurist; and on Dr. Edward Warren, Bey, who was, 
during the Civil War, Surgeon-General of this State, then a 
Professor in the Medical College of Baltimore, from which 
he was appointed a surgeon on the staff of the Khedive of 
Egypt, from whom he received the title of Bey. He was also 
author of a book entitled "Experiences of a Physician in Three 

Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred upon Rev. N. 
Collin Hughes, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Principal 
of a classical school of high standing at Chocowinity ; on Rev. 
John S. Watkins, an eloquent Presbyterian divine, then of 
Raleigh ; and on Rev. M. L. Wood, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, President of Trinity College, of this State. 

Governor Jarvis, in presenting diplomas to the graduating 
class, made a speech whose eloquence was in an inverse ratio 
to its length. Alluding feelingly to the fact that this was his 
last duty as President of the Board of Trustees, as he would, 
before the next Commencement, cease to be Governor, he 
asked, "What constitutes the University? These spacious and 
attractive grounds ? These magnificent trees ? These commo- 
dious buildings? No! The University consists of the man- 
hood of her sons ! You have a responsibility, young gentle- 
men, that you could not escape if you would, for you are the 
University and its destiny is largely in your hands. I feel 
that this is in one way my valedictory. And although I may 
not have the means or the opportunity to be here as frequently 
as in the six years past, my interest in the institution shall not 

President Battle paid a strong tribute to Governor Jarvis's 
fidelity as Chairman of the Board. "To him we owe more 
than to anv other man, our railroad, Memorial Hall, and pe- 
cuniary aid in times of desperate need." 

Faculty Changes in 1884. 287 

The changes in the Faculty in i883-'84 were principally 
among the Instructors and Assistants. 

Prof. Joshua W. Gore, C.E., took charge of Natural Phil- 
osophy and Engineering. Emile A. de Schweinitz, A.B., was 
made Assistant in Chemistry and Mineralogy ; Albert L. Coble, 
Assistant in Mathematics ; James Lee Love. Instructor in Eng- 
lish; Berrie C. Mclver, Instructor in Greek; Benjamin F. 
White, Instructor in Latin; Edward D. Monroe, Assistant 

Normal School of 1884. 

The Summer Normal School of the University in 1884 was 
opened June 17th and closed July 17th. 

The following is a list of the Faculty, Officers and Instruc- 
tors : 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D.: President. 

Prof. Julius S. Tomlinson, Superintendent of the Graded Schools 
of Winston: Superintendent. 

Prof. E. V. De Graff, Washington, D. C: Lecturer on Methods. 

Prof. Alexander L. Phillips, Burgaw: Teacher of Geography. 

Prof. T. J. Mitchell, Charlotte: Teacher of Arithmetic and Al- 

Prof. A. Leazar, Mooresville: Teacher of Grammar. 

Prof. J. H. Meyers, New York: Teacher of Primary Work. 

Prof. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Teacher of Physiology and Hygiene. 

Prof. F. P. Venable, Chapel Hill: Lecturer in Chemistry. 

Prof. J. W. Gore, Chapel Hill: Lecturer on Natural Philosophy. 

Prof. E. L. Harris, Raleigh: Teacher of Drawing and Penmanship. 

Prof. H. E. Holt, Boston: Teacher of Music. 

Prof. C. L. Wilson, Asheville: Teacher of Music. 

Miss Boice, Philadelphia: Teacher of Reading. 

Mrs. M. 0. Humphrey, Goldsboro: Teacher of Model and Principal 
of Primary Class. 

Mr. W. T. Patterson, Chapel Hill: Business Agent. 

Rev. C. C. Newton, Chapel Hill: Secretary. 

The enrollment was: 

Men 167 

Women 138 

Total 305 

Children in Model School 23 

288 History of University of North Carolina. 

This was the last of these schools. The average attendance 
was about equally divided between men and women. The 
largest number of counties represented at any one term was 
sixty-two, but there was only a handful of counties that did not 
send representatives during one or more of the eight terms. 
As heretofore explained the University Normal School was the 
fons et origo of the upward growth of the public schools of 
the State. From it date most of the graded schools, and 
although there are not many separate kindergarten establish- 
ments among us, yet the principles of Froebel's teaching, in- 
troduced by the University, are blessing the little children 
under the guidance of numerous skilled instructors. 

There grew up a demand from distant sections of the State 
to inaugurate similar schools in their neighborhood, in order 
to enable their citizens at less cost to reap the benefits. The 
fund, $2,000 per annum, was equally divided by the General 
Assembly, to be disbursed at four points selected by the Board 
of Education. Hence Asheville, Newton, Elizabeth City for 
some years had their yearly gatherings. It was inevitable that, 
while the aggregate harvest was great, no one point could at- 
tain the preeminence of the University Normal School. 

The attendance on the various sessions of the University 
Summer Normal School was as follows : 

No. of Counties 
Years. Pupils. Represented. 

1877 235 42 

1878 402 59 

1879 290 54 

1880 241 54 

1881 338 62 

1882 352 62 

1883 317 

1884 305 

Total 2,480 

Of course many attended more than one session and are 
counted twice — very few more than twice. The numbers of 
counties represented for the last two years were not recorded 
but they were about the same as in 1882. 

Status of Education in North Carolina. 289 

After serving as Superintendent of the Summer Normal 
School, the able and accomplished scholar, Dr. Henry E. Shep- 
herd, accepted the Presidency of the College of Charleston. 
From that city he wrote to the Chronicle, a newspaper of 
Raleigh, his observations on the status of education in North 
Carolina. He was surprised as well as gratified to note the 
progress which had been made. 

"A new dispensation has arisen at Chapel Hill. The Uni- 
versity is beginning to assume a scholarly air, for the most 
part alien to its ante-bellum era. Its teaching is imbued with 
the critical spirit o'f modern science and philology. Original 
investigation is at last obtaining a recognized place in its 
scheme of work. It may be affirmed without exaggeration 
that the quality of work in most departments is immensely in 
advance of that which prevailed during its ancient days. The 
marked contrast between the Chapel Hill of i86o-'6i and the 
Chapel Hill of 1884, is one of the notable and distinctive fea- 
tures in the intellectual development of North Carolina." 

Dr. Shepherd then shows a "conspicuous defect in the pres- 
ent organization of the University, in the want of a Professor- 
ship of the English Language and Literature. This proceeds 
from no failure on the part of the esteemed Professor in 
charge, whose affectionate assiduity, invincible energy, and 
consecration to his work" are well known. Dr. Shepherd then 
states, what the authorities of the University were painfully 
cognizant of, and remedied as soon as more money was voted 
them, that Dr. Mangum was grievously overburdened. What 
he hoped for, the creation of a specific Professorship of Eng- 
lish, not a mere annex to some favored department, would 
tend to elevate the institution to a far higher rank in the world 
of critical scholarship, than it had thus far attained. 

Breaches of Discipline Under Dr. Battle. 

As has been said, there was a complete change in the exer- 
cise of discipline of the University. No restrictions on the 
movements of students within Chapel Hill were enforced. The 
old plan of all reciting at the same hour was necessarily abol- 
ished, and recitations were going on at all hours from break- 


290 History of University of North Carolina. 

fast to dinner, and laboratory work in the afternoon. As the 
students were not all in their rooms at the same time the old 
nuisance of shouting at objects and persons passing by was 

On one occasion President Battle heard of a number of stu- 
dents behaving in a boisterous manner in Durham, as they 
were coming to Chapel Hill. Of course the malevolent said 
that they were intoxicated, so he summoned them before him. 
They stood up solemnly in a line. "Gentlemen," said the Presi- 
dent, "I am grieved to hear that you have been on a bender 
in Durham." One of them, very much frightened, leaped for- 
ward in his earnestness and blurted out, "It's a mighty little 
bender I have been on." It was very comical. The President 
soon found that there had been nothing but boyish exuberance 
and closed the incident with a caution. One of them, now 
a great educational dignitary, Alderman, composed a song 
with the refrain, "It's a mighty little bender I've been on," 
which was sung by the students for many months. I regret its 

Another case illustrates my manner with the students. The 
fact of a student going to Pittsboro without my permission 
came to my ears. He was of exemplary conduct and I knew 
that his father allowed him to ride twenty or thirty miles or 
any other distance whenever he chose. With him a trip of 
seventeen miles to Pittsboro without permission was a malum 
prohibitum and not a malum in se. So my summons to him 
to appear before me was a mere matter of form. I began the 
interview, "Mr. Braswell, I understand that you have been to 
Pittsboro." He replied, "Well, Mr. President, I will tell you 
how it was. I learned that there was to be a hanging in Pitts- 
boro. I thought that I would never have another chance to 
witness one. I knew that my father would not care. If I 
asked your permission you would refuse because I did not 
have permission from home and there was not time to obtain 
it. So I concluded to risk it." "Well, sir," said I, "consider 
yourself well scolded and tell me all about the hanging." 

I add that this kindly manner of treatment of students by no 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880- 1890. 291 

means led to greater misconduct but seemed to have a healthy 

Among the most annoying incidents of University life have 
been the pledges taken by the students, sometimes in matters in 
which they were exclusively concerned, sometimes in matters 
of University discipline. As a rule the public opinion of the 
students holds them as irrevocable, so that, for example, if A 
pledges himself to vote for B, he continues to be bound to give 
the vote although for some reason he concludes that he ought 
to support some other person. The following episode illustrates 
the difficulty and folly of these engagements. 

As an examination of a class in Mathematics in the latter 
part of May was nearly due, members of the class approached 
their Professor, who was an assistant only, with the object 
of "pumping" him in regard to their prospects of success. 
They first asked for their term standing, which was given. 
They then learned his system of marking the examination 
papers, and, as they understood him, it was impossible to pass 
without obtaining an abnormally high mark. There was con- 
sternation in the class so great that some of the less diligent 
scholars drew up stipulations that they would not be examined 
by this Professor. There were statements in the paper founded 
on mistake, but still every member of the class signed it and 
agreed not to withdraw unless by unanimous consent. Their 
object was to be examined by the Senior Professor. 

On inquiring into the facts the Faculty found that the Pro- 
fessor had been misunderstood and the paper had been signed 
under a misapprehension. The class was summoned before 
them and, after hearing their explanation, were told that they 
had committed a breach of the laws by entering into a con- 
spiracy not to perform a University duty but that the Faculty 
were disposed to be lenient if they would retrace their steps. 
The Professor involved made such an explanation as was 
satisfactory to the students. The leaders of the class admitted 
that they had signed inadvertently and would be glad to be 
released and would withdraw their names if it were not for 
the unanimous consent clause. This consent could not well 
be obtained because one of the signers had left the Hill to 

292 History of University of North Carolina. 

visit Bingham School. It was suggested that the signatures 
were obtained on a misstatement of facts, and moreover the 
signers agreed to do an unlawful act, that is, to abstain from 
performing a duty assigned by lawful authority, and hence 
were not bound. But law was not considered by students as 
binding as a pledge. The knot was cut by obtaining the con- 
sent of the absent one by telegraph and "all was serene." On 
an inspection of the signed paper it appeared that there were 
the names of some who were not at all interested because the 
examination in question was not in their course, yet their con- 
sent was needed to cancel or modify the pledge. In other 
words, orderly, hightoned students, successful in their studies, 
put themselves into the power not only of the careless, un- 
ambitious pupils, but even of men not in the class at all. 

This is, I think, the only conspiracy against a law of the 
University that I have known since the reopening. It ended 
so ridiculously that it will hardly be repeated. 

The practical jokes mentioned in my first volume were con- 
tinued, though seldom. One was managed so adroitly as to 
deceive President Battle. A mock furious quarrel was car- 
ried on in presence of a student, who fully believed that a 
fight in the woods with pistols was imminent. He was so 
frightened that he invoked the President's aid to prevent 
slaughter. The President repaired to the spot, ascertained that 
the affair was a hoax, but thought it best to put a stop to this 
playing with firearms. One of the combatants lay on the 
ground feigning death, but the sudden resurrection and rapid 
running away of the corpse when the President approached was 
amusing. He caught the other combatant and sequestered his 
pistol for the term. 

Afterwards a similar trick was attempted. The only person 
deceived was the Episcopal minister, who made a fruitless 
journey at 10 o'clock at night to the "Trysting Poplar" in Bat- 
tle Park. 

A college president has all sorts of trials and often has to 
make up his mind as to what course to pursue unaided by any 
precedent. One morning while recitations were going on I 
was shocked by the loud ringing of the bell. Inquiring into it 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 293 

I found that a very athletic and bright-minded student had 
become really insane. He was just then calling a meeting of 
the Dialectic Society in order to send delegates to an imaginary 
convention to be held in Raleigh to raise money for the Uni- 
versity. I instructed four of his friends to provide cords, to 
be used in confining his limbs if absolutely necessary only, and 
ordered a carriage to be at the door. I then provided myself 
with a blank telegraphic paper and repaired to the Dialectic 
Hall. He was in the presidential chair. Instead of his ordi- 
nary dignified conduct he was indulging in profane language, 
totally contrary to his normal habit. I arose with the fictitious 
telegram in my hand and gravely said, "Mr. President, I am 
told that a meeting is to be held in Raleigh this afternoon in 
the interests of the University. I move that you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, and Messrs. Dockery and three others be a committee 
to represent this society, and as you are interested, I put the 
motion myself." The motion was carried of course and before 
his mind had time to go off on another tack we had him in a 
carriage surrounded by his four friends. I telegraphed the 
Superintendent of the Hospital for the Insane, to meet him at 
the Raleigh station and he was lodged in the Asylum without 
trouble. But for the ruse I employed it would probably have 
been necessary to bind him hand and foot, and the injury to 
his brain from the fury into which this would have thrown 
him might have been a permanent injury. He recovered from 
this attack. 

One Saturday night a half dozen students concluded to 
bring back old customs. A venerable gentleman by invitation 
had made an address before the University. Even while he 
was speaking a mock alarm of fire was made which created 
some disturbance. After the exercises were over there was 
continuous bell ringing, explosions of gunpowder and shouting 
for hours. I sent word to the perpetrators and politely sug- 
gested that it was not right to disturb the rest of an aged guest. 
For the only time in my presidency the request was unheeded. 
I retired to my bed as usual but could not sleep. At three 
o'clock my patience was exhausted. I went to the buildings 
and recognized three of the rioters. I found that they had led 

294 History of University of North Carolina. 

and pushed a cow up to the third story of the South Building, 
on which was the belfry, and tied her horns to the bell rope.* 

The next day I had the ringleader before the Faculty. As 
in addition to the present offense, he had been neglecting his 
studies, an order was made that his father should withdraw 
him. A letter containing this sentence was actually mailed. I 
announced that the two other known offenders would be called 
up next day. Seeing that we were in earnest there was great 
consternation among the rioters, who did not know how many 
I had caught. One of the best students, now a United States 
Marshal, called on me to know what could be done to stop the 
prosecution. I said, "Mr. Dockery, if the gentlemen engaged 
in this business will authorize you to say that they will quit this 
rowdy behavior I think that the Faculty will grant a general 
amnesty." He went off to consult the offenders and I with- 
drew the letter of recall from the postofhce. In about an hour 
he and Z. B. Walser, also an exemplary student, returned and 
reported that the compromise was accepted. This ended the 
matter. There was some reluctance in giving the promise, 
which, by the way. was faithfully kept, not because there was 
any wish to continue this disorderly conduct, but simply from 
the uncomfortable feeling of being under a pledge. This feel- 
ing should be fostered, rather than by too frequent pledges 
impair their efficacy. Indeed the Faculty never proposed them, 
but sometimes accepted them when voluntarily offered. 

The practice of hazing gave much difficulty. It was at first 
sparingly done, but was revived by the Sophomores gradually 
learning the old customs. Even grave alumni at Commence- 
ment took a pride in narrating what was done in their day. 
The practice was popularized by the influx of boys from schools 
where hazing prevailed. There were two kinds, one for cause, 
where the manners of a Freshman were peculiarly obnoxious, 
and the other of all the Freshmen, well-behaved or not. The 
first was most severe and usually attended with some violence, 
the blacking being of the entire person. The other ranged from 
blacking the face down to compulsory singing and declama- 

*As there may be curiosity as to the behavior of a cow in such circumstances, I write 
that this particular cow was peacefully chewing her cud and not pulling the bell rope at all. 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 295 

tions. Occasionally the Freshmen were enticed into the forest 
at night on an alleged "snipe hunting" expedition and then 
abandoned in the darkness. Another form of hazing was "trot- 
ting," that is, compulsory running between two Sophs, each 
holding the arm of the Freshman. When the escorts became 
tired others would take their places. A student from the Indian 
Territory, one-fourth Indian, introduced a cowboy form of 
hazing which the good sense of the students caused them to 
abandon after one trial, as too dangerous. This was fastening 
by night a bull yearling by the horns to a tree with a rope thirty 
feet long, the Freshman being mounted upon him. Then the bul- 
lock was lashed into a run, tumbling over with his rider when 
he got to the end of his tether. A Freshman, now a learned 
Doctor of Divinity, received this treatment. His mentioning it 
in a letter to his father provoked a furious letter to me. "Bet- 
ter for the University to be buried in the earth than to be con- 
tinued with such outrages." I sought an interview with the 
boy. He admitted the truth of the story, said that he was 
thrown high into the air and came down with such force as to 
"knock the breath out of his body."' A tall Soph came up, 
put his hand into his bosom and said, "Freshman, are you 
dead?" The reply was, "Yes, I am killed." The Soph re- 
plied, "Freshman, you are lying; you will be all right in a 
minute." He was a plucky fellow. He said to me, "Father is 
making too much of this. Please let it drop." 

I thought at one time that I had "bagged game." While I 
was admiring the perfect quiet of the dormitories a student, 
usually orderly, afterwards a Representative in the Federal 
Congress, stepped out of his room and shouted, "Strick! have 
you got that bull ready?" I astonished him by stepping up at 
once, but found that he was joking. "Strick" was not even a 
student, only a visitor on his way to Philadelphia to attend 
Medical Lectures. 

One night soon after the beginning of the session I heard 
sounds which clearly showed that hazing was going on. I at 
once went to the scene of the operations and caught three of 
the guilty ones. They were duly dismissed from the Univer- 
sitv. Soon I was visited bv them and their friends seeking 

296 History of University of North Carolina. 

grounds for their reinstatement. The practice of hazing, being 
mostly in secret, is most difficult to suppress. When I was a 
Tutor in the University, i850-'54, the two literary societies 
very effectually controlled their members. In view of these 
facts I told the young men that, if the two societies would enter 
into an agreement to punish hazing by adequate fines or by ex- 
pulsion, I would advocate the rescinding of the decree of dis- 
missal. This was done with excellent effect. There was no 
hazing for four or five years, but in the course of time, when 
an entirely new body of members came in, the bargain was for- 
gotten and the law became practically obsolete. 

I appealed to the power of the societies in another instance 
and with still greater success. Two students ordered by ex- 
press a large quantity of lager beer for the purpose of giving 
an election treat. They forgot that the express book is sent to 
all receivers of packages and is practically a public document. 
The practice of treating to alcoholic beverages in order to get 
votes and afterwards to celebrate the triumph of those elected, 
was extremely pernicious in the old University. It led to loss 
of study, disorder, and drunkenness. When the dismissed stu- 
dents applied for restoration, with the consent of the Faculty 
I granted it on the condition that the societies would abolish 
treating. This was done and the law has been observed well. 
One of the young men involved is distinguished in political life 
and a warm friend of his Alma Mater. 

A peculiar hazing case occurred during this term. A Junior 
agreed in writing to vote for certain candidates. In other 
words he became a member of their "faction." He changed his 
mind, ceased to be a member of that party and joined another. 
This was regarded as "rank treason" and to be avenged. Some 
eight or ten went to his room when he and his roommate were 
asleep and gave him what was called "a good blacking." His 
roommate was of great spirit and physical strength and would 
have given the hazers trouble if he had not been overpowered 
before awaking. 

The Faculty learned their names, and as it was not an ordi- 
nary case of hazing, being a punishment of a Junior for fancied 
injury, and as nearly all were very good students, they gave 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 297 

them the option of pledging themselves not to engage in such 
work again or leaving the institution. They all signed the 
pledge, though some reluctantly. The roommate provided him- 
self with a pistol, avowing his intention of shooting any one 
who would renew the assault. I sent for him and told him 
plainly the consequence of such action, i. e., he would put to 
death a fellow being for so trivial an offense as rubbing a little 
lampblack on another ; second, he would inflict an awful pain 
on the father, mother, and other relatives of himself and his 
victim ; third, that he would go through life a marked man, per- 
haps always afflicted with remorse for the act; fourth, that he 
would have to stand trial in court and must heavily fee a law- 
yer, even if not convicted; and fifth, that his education would 
be interrupted, that the sums thus far spent on it by parents, 
who, I knew, could hardly spare them, would be mostly wasted. 
Lastly, as he was a member of the church, I brought him face 
to face with the commandment, "Thou shalt not kill." He was 
much affected, even to tears, and readily placed his pistol in my 
custody until the end of the session. It was ludicrously small. 
It was not impossible for a bullet from it to kill, but it was 
improbable. Certainly it could not, as a rule, have prevented 
one from committing much violence after receiving its bullet. 

There have been two cases of shooting in consequence of 
hazing. In one a Freshman of rather singular temperament 
and manners was walking in the Campus after night. It was 
quite dark and a Sophomore conceived the idea that it would 
be fun to jump from behind a tree and frighten him. Startled 
by the sudden movement the Freshman fired. It was generally 
thought that he did not know that he was shooting a student. 
The joker was severely wounded, but recovered. The Fresh- 
man voluntarily left the University. 

In another case the Freshman gave notice that he would not 
submit to hazing — that he would shoot if necessary to prevent 
it. Hearing of the coming of a blacking party he not only 
locked but barricaded his door and prepared his pistol. When 
the crowd came he fired through a lower panel of the door, as 
he was unwilling to kill. The ball entered the leg of one. who 
declared that he was a mere bvstander, who "had come to see 

298 History of University of North Carolina. 

the fun." The crowd then left, I think not because they were 
more cowardly than others, but, because If a fight should ensue 
they would be detected and mercilessly dismissed from the Uni- 
versity. In this case the man who fired was applauded ; the 
man wounded was ordered home. The Faculty did not believe 
his story, but even if true he was an accessory — an aider and 

It is commonly said that, just as a man can keep an intruder 
out of his dwelling house by force, even to the extent of taking 
his life, so a Freshman would be excusable for killing the Soph 
who breaks into his room in order to haze him. I doubt if 
this is good law. The Freshman knows that the intruder in- 
tends only boyish sport and it is awful doctrine, though we 
hear it often, even from the lips of thoughtful and high prin- 
cipled men, that the aggressor may be slain to prevent a mere 
prank which causes only temporary inconvenience. Death is 
too terrible a penalty for such an offense. It inflicts deepest 
suffering to the family of the slain. It is altogether probable 
that the whole course of life of the destroyer would be haunted 
by remorse for his fatal act, whereas in a very short while the 
memory of his hazing would pass away or even be a source of 
merriment. Some of the most dignified upper classmen have 
suffered the temporary annoyance and are none the worse for 
it. Possibly a jury might not convict the offender, but that does 
not prove that the law would excuse the slaying. 

Professor Gore and I were unmistakably circumvented on 
one occasion. He was Dean and was aiding in the discipline. 
The bell was rung furiously in the daytime while recitations 
were going on. We both repaired to the belfry, then in the 
attic of the South Building. The ringing ceased but the ringers 
could nowhere be seen. It was afterwards found that an open- 
ing had been made through the ceiling of the students' room 
beneath and the escape was by that route. There was no fur- 
ther annoyance. Probably the fright caused by being so near 
detection destroyed the fun of ringing. After the fastening 
of the cow to the bellrope, heretofore narrated, there has been 
very little, if any, ringing of the bell and none for the purpose 
of annoying the Faculty. 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 299 

The Faculty do not turn out to pursue the offenders, and for 
this reason the fun of making the noise is destroyed. The chief 
enjoyment in old times came from the knowledge that the 
Faculty were teased. The sport of the consequent race in the 
dark and danger of being caught was great fun. Stories were 
told with glee among the students and the ladies they visited 
listened with interest and applause. One, being pursued to the 
top of the South Building, lay undetected in foolhardy peril on 
the very edge of the eaves. Another climbed like a squirrel 
down the lightning rod. Another beat a Professor in a fair 
foot race, leaped over the stone wall and escaped. Another 
Professor, running in the dark, fell headlong, unmindful of a 
.projecting root, while the lucky fugitive laughed at his mishap. 
A student closely pursued rushed into his bed, full dressed, and 
successfully imitated the deep breathing of an innocent sleeper. 

Fights were not common, yet I was greatly startled at one 
conflict in my day. I had dismissed my class when I heard a 
shot underneath my window. I hurried down and saw a stu- 
dent on the ground and two others forcibly holding him. I 
found that they were taking away his weapon. The other an- 
tagonist was being held by the arms. It seems that he con- 
tended that he had been cheated by his antagonist in an election 
question and was determined to inflict punishment for the 
offense. In order to end the matter and also to prevent the 
parties being hauled to Orange Superior Court, I had them go 
before the Mayor of Chapel Hill and submit that they were 
guilty. The Mayor bound them over to keep the peace and in- 
flicted a small fine on each and the case ended. 

The rule of law is that when deadly weapons are used the 
case comes under the jurisdiction of the Superior Court. But 
the officers of the town of Chapel Hill generally carry out the 
wishes of the President of the University in regard to offenses 
of the students, and in this case the witnesses believed that the 
weapon was not loaded with lead. Having only a powder load 
it could not be called a "deadly weapon." 

In this year a student came to the University under the influ- 
ence of an intoxicant. He was refused permission to register. 
Twelve of his friends of their own motion proposed to the 

300 History of University of North Carolina. 

Faculty that they would sign a pledge not to drink any intoxi- 
cating liquor while at the University if their friend should be 
allowed to register. The offer was promptly declined, where- 
upon twenty-four repeated the offer. Their spokesman said, 
"Gentlemen, we offer the pledge, not of temperance men but of 
drinking men, that is of men who have no objection to taking a 
drink occasionally. In truth if you accept this offer we believe 
that there will be no drinking as long as the signers shall be in 
the institution. Of course, the applicant for registration will 
sign the pledge with the others." 

There was much division in the Faculty on this question. 
Seven of us, a majority, took the ground that the offer should 
be accepted. Three voted against it and three were silent. 
One of the opponents felt so strongly on the subject that he 
asked and obtained leave to enter a protest against the action 
of the majority. His points were, First, That the system of 
pledging had been carried to such excess as to injure the influ- 
ence of the Faculty. This was denied by the majority. There 
had been little pledging, and the influence of the Faculty was 
not at all impaired. The offer came from the students, the 
Faculty not having suggested it. 

The pledges were faithfully kept. The guilty man, the only 
child of a widow, was kept from ardent spirits for several years, 
whereas if he had been turned away he might have been ruined, 
and two dozen others were by their own actions and from loyal 
friendship compelled to absolute sobriety. The students gen- 
erally, who did not sign the pledge, were during the period of 
abstinence exceptionally free from dissipation. 

The second objection of the protest was, "That it is against 
the true interest of the University to have law keepers bound 
by the law breakers." This is begging the question and is de- 
nied by the majority. The law^ keepers were nearly all temper- 
ance men. The pledged men were almost the only non-temper- 
ance men. It was the true interest of the University to banish 
drinking from the Campus. It was the true interest to have 
the students happy, that they should realize that they had the 
sympathy of the Faculty. The rejection of one man would 
have been a small deterrent for his friends, irritated by the re- 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 301 

fusal of their offer. The result showed the wisdom of the ma- 
jority as the order afterwards was exceptionally good. The 
predicted evil of loss of respect for Faculty discipline proved to 
be a false prophecy. On the contrary the students were grate- 
ful for the concession and more friendly in consequence. The 
Faculty were regarded not as hard-hearted executioners, but as 
merciful judges, desirous of reformation of offenders. 

The third objection was that the Faculty having decided 
once, the second action had the appearance of a dicker, a trade, 
haggling, etc. All this was denied by the majority. Without 
any suggestion by the Faculty the offer was made and the pro- 
posal accepted. If the Faculty had said "twelve are not 
enough, get more," there might be ground for the charge. But 
the Faculty kept a dignified silence until the second offer was 

One of the student advocates of the measure said, "Mr. 
President, we have not picked out total abstainers. We offer 
on the pledge the names of drinking men." After the accept- 
ance one of the number came in great perturbation, saying, "I 
understand that the Faculty have been told that the signers are 
'drinking men.' That is not true in my case. I am, and always 
have been, entirely temperate. I do not desire to be considered 
as admitting to the contrary. What can I do about it?" I 
pacified him by writing his disclaimer at the foot of the paper. 

The plan of taking voluntary pledges was repeatedly followed 
afterwards. In one case fifty students came to the rescue of 
their fallen comrade. Sometimes their disapprobation was so 
great that there was no effort made to retain the offender, but 
wherever the Faculty approved the voluntary action of a re- 
spectable following of the guilty, the effect on the discipline of 
the institution was wholesome. The procedure reminds us of 
the mutual responsibility of towns, boroughs, and guilds in 
Anglo-Saxon times. 

On the night of an election in Chapel Hill in 1884 there 
was danger of a collision between the races. While the vote 
was being counted, the process going into the night, a young 
negro from the country attempted to trip a student, now 

302 History of University of North Carolina. 

a judge. Doubtless it was intended for a joke, but a white boy 
could not but consider it an affront to be instantly resented. 
The aggressor promptly ran, other negroes took his part, stu- 
dents began to collect filled with ire. There seemed danger of 
a conflict. But, though there, was blustering, little harm was 

Consequent on this row there was an amusing incident. 
There was a very black man named Eli, who waited on the 
occupants of the West Building. On the occasion above men- 
tioned, being full of whiskey, he lost his senses and cheered on 
the colored combatants, instead of standing by the students on 
whom he waited. They afterwards, as a good lesson, gave him 
a whipping. Knowing nothing of this I called him up with the 
intention of discharging him. I said, "Eli, I am told that in- 
stead of pacifying things at the row on election day, you tried 
to make them worse by stirring up the negroes." With a per- 
fectly cheerful voice and face, without the slightest intimation 
of shame or resentment, he replied as if it was a sufficient 
answer to my complaint, "Oh, sir, the students done settled 
with me for that." I felt compelled to allow this new sort of 
"receipt in full," and continued him in his position. But his 
addiction to strong drink continued to increase and it soon be- 
came necessary to discharge him. He afterwards committed 
forgery, served a term on the roads, returned and soon drank 
himself into the grave. 

Later a student considered himself wronged by a colored 
man and, finding him about the University building one night, 
gave him a flogging. A new student, quite raw, stood by and 
perhaps assisted. Whereupon some of his fellows frightened 
him with the story that the constable was after him with a 
warrant. He fled down the avenue and several pistol shots 
were fired near him. When the joke was carried far enough a 
squad of boys was sent to bring him in. They searched in vain. 
In three clays he appeared at his father's home in Richmond 
County and never returned to the University. Having no 
money he was forced to beg his way home, traveling on foot. 

These incidents ended in a much deplored tragedy. 

Of course I endeavored to infuse a better spirit into the stu- 

Breaches of Discipline, 1880-1890. 303 

dents and I warned them of the danger of such collisions. I 
told them that practically all young negroes carried pistols ; 
they think it a proof of their freedom. I warned them that 
some night a negro feeling himself protected from detection by 
the darkness would fire and run away. Besides, a brawl with 
them was an unseemly thing, unworthy of men seeking higher 
education at a great University, in which they could gain no 
glory but might be disgraced. 

My prediction proved unfortunately too true. A student, the 
same who flogged the colored man as above narrated, consider- 
ing himself insulted by a negro named Pat, procured two other 
students of great physical strength to join him in castigating 
the alleged offender. News of this was brought to me and I 
sought them out and ordered them to their rooms, which order 
was obeyed. Afterwards, about ten o'clock in the evening, a 
well known white man asked two students to aid him to his 
home as he was too drunk to walk. While on their way they 
passed a house where a number of negroes, Pat among them, 
had gathered to indulge in a carousal with blockade whiskey 
just brought from Chatham County. By that time the drunken 
man was sober enough to walk and requested his helpers to 
wait until he could get another drink. The negroes thought 
that he was an emissary of the students and threw stones at 
him. He retreated to his escort, and stones were thrown at the 
students, who thought this a disgrace which must be avenged. 
They repaired to the dormitories, roused those who had a feud 
with Pat and besieged the house where the frolic was going on. 
The negroes fired from the windows and killed one student, 
Freeze, by a bullet through the breast. Another received a bul- 
let through the clothes. As soon as they saw the dead body on 
the ground the negroes fled, scattering as they went. Three 
were captured and sentenced to the penitentiary, the leader, 
Pat, for seven years, and the others for five years. Pat soon 
escaped and has not been heard from. The tragedy was all the 
more sad because Freeze was an only child. 

Since this sad occurrence there has been no further trouble 
with the negroes. A more quiet set of students can not be 
found and the colored population is well-behaved. It may be 

304 History of University of North Carolina. 

that just such a lesson was inevitable to teach the races to have 
mutual forbearance. 

President Battle, seeing the evident approval by the people 
of the State of the annuity of $5,000 granted in 1881, de- 
termined to ask for a still further increase. After consultation 
with Faculty and Trustees, $15,000 additional was fixed on as 
the sum which would enable us to add important professorships 
and supply much needed apparatus. After deliberation and 
consultation a bill to add $15,000 to the annual income of the 
University was introduced in the General Assembly of 1885 
by Hon. Lee S. Overman, a graduate of Trinity College, now 
United States Senator. Besides the $15,000 per annum, it was 
thought best to ask for the payment of a debt of $12,000 re- 
cently incurred. I was in the lobby when the bill was read 
and saw in the faces of the Members a decided disapprobation. 
As there was adjournment until next day there was opportunity 
for consultation with the known friends of the measure. At 
my request Col. Paul B. Means called an informal meeting of 
them at his chambers in the Yarborough House. Gov. A. M. 
Scales, an alumnus of the Class of 1847, a warm friend of his 
Alma Mater, presided. After taking his seat he inquired of each 
present as to what was best to be done to make the bill accept- 
able. Lieutenant-Governor Robinson, of Macon County, Col. 
Samuel McD. Tate, Representative from Burke, and others, 
frankly informed him that the payment of the $12,000 debt must 
be eliminated, as the general opinion was that it would be a 
bad precedent for the State to pay the recent debts of the Uni- 
versity, or any other public institution. It would tend to make 
State officers careless. The Members present unanimously 
concurred with this view. Another objection to this paragraph 
swayed the minds of some. Nearly all of the $12,000 was de- 
signed to repay Mr. P. C. Cameron for his advances for finish- 
ing Memorial Hall and there was a general belief that he in- 
tended the amount as a gift. This was erroneous, but was 
strengthened by the rumor that he had sold the University 
lands bought at its bankrupt sale in order to save a debt at a 
large profit, much in excess of the debt. These facts and sur- 

Application for Increased Appropriation. 305 

mises, although totally irrelevant, were strong enough to carry 
votes, especially of Members who were doubtful whether their 
constituents favored State aid to the University. 

As Mr. Overman was compelled to be absent for a few days, 
Mr. Augustus Leazar, of Iredell County, an experienced and 
enlightened legislator, a graduate of Davidson College, by 
special request took charge of the bill. He performed the duty 
with exceptional ability. He was seconded by Col. Thomas 
M. Holt, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor and Governor, an 
alumnus of the University. He prefaced his remarks by the 
statement that he advocated the measure as a Trustee of Dav- 
idson College, as he felt sure that the impetus to higher edu- 
cation by the rise of the University would increase the numbers 
in the colleges. But the constitutional demands should be 
obeyed at all hazards. 

Mr. John D. Stanford, of Duplin, a Davidson College man 
and soon to be a Presbyterian minister, followed with similar 
a r guments. Mr. James H. Pou, of Johnston, spoke in oppo- 
sition, believing that he voiced the wishes of the people of his 
county. Mr. E. B. Jones, of Alexander, agreed with Mr. Pou, 
as did Mr. N. Y. Gulley, of Franklin. Mr. Richmond Pearson, 
of Buncombe, made a most eloquent speech for the bill, as did 
Mr. Thomas Dixon, of Cleveland, now a popular author. 
Col. John M. Galloway, of Rockingham, an alumnus of 1854, 
who had acquired the nickname of "Watch dog of the Treas- 
ury," ably supported the appropriation as just and proper for 
the good of the State by promoting education among all classes. 
Mr. J. A. Barringer, of Guilford, took the same ground, in 
behalf of his father's University. Mr. R. T. Waring, of Meck- 
lenburg, likewise spoke strongly in favor of the measure, as 
did Messrs. C. B. Green, of Durham ; T. B. Womack, of Chat- 
ham ; E. F. Lovell, of Watauga, and J. Y. Phillips, of Stokes, 
while Mr. Felton, of Tyrrell, opposed it. One of the most con- 
vincing arguments in the affirmative was by Rev. N. H. Harri- 
son, of Washington County, a Primitive Baptist preacher, who 
closed with an eloquent assertion of his love for his native 
State: "I want to see North Carolina on a high plane, and I 
want to do whatever I can to aid and benefit her whole people. 


306 History of University of North Carolina. 

Her welfare is my welfare and her people are my people, their 
interests are my interests. Where they live I want to live ; 
where they die I want to die ; where they are buried I want to 
be buried; and where they are resurrected I want to be resur- 
rected. I vote aye." 

The amendment of Mr. Jones, reducing the appropriation to 
$12,500, was lost by a vote of 44 to 53. The bill then was 
passed by an unexpected majority, 58 to 32. 

In the Senate the friends of the appropriation were relativelv 
more numerous than in the House. Mr. H. A. Gudger, of 
Buncombe, stated that the States of Virginia, Tennessee, and 
South Carolina gave larger sums than were asked here. En- 
larging the University will help the colleges. It must be the 
head of the public school system. Mr. H. G. Connor, of Wil- 
son, contended that there was a constitutional duty to pass the 
bill. Facilities should be given to every boy in North Carolina 
to make a man of himself. Mr. Sydenham B. Alexander, of 
Mecklenburg, said that it was impossible for the Professors 
with their present income to do all they should in order to 
make the University a first class institution. On business prin- 
ciples the Faculty should be increased. Mr. W. M. Bond, of 
Edenton, argued that we should carry out the progressive ideas 
of our forefathers as written in the first Constitution. The 
University should tower above the other institutions. Mr. 
R. S. Taylor, of Tarboro, a colored Senator, avowed his inten- 
tion to vote for the good of the State without regard to color 
or party. He was mindful too of the favorable action of the 
Senate in granting a charter to Zion-Wesley College. Dr. 
Cyrus Thompson, of Onslow, offered an amendment, which 
failed to pass, to strike out the provision of one free student for 
each county — was willing to increase the appropriation if this 
should be done. Mr. Paul B. Means, of Cabarrus, stated that 
the commissioners in his county had acted fairly. If there was 
any fault in other counties it lay with their officers. The insti- 
tution was built on the Constitution of 1776. Mr. J. C. Buxton, 
of Forsyth, said that he had been forced to go for an education 
to New England when the University was closed. The counties 
ought to have the right to send one student in compensation 

Appropriation Bill Passed, 1885. 307 

for the tax. Build up the University. Mr. A. W. Graham, 
of Hillsboro, asserted that every word spoken in behalf of the 
University was true. The charges against the county com- 
missioners for wrongly appointing rich boys as indigent stu- 
dents are untrue. They amount to charges of perjury against 
the appointees. Mr. Willis R. Williams, of Pitt, was opposed 
to the county student system, and would vote for the Thomp- 
son amendment, but favored the bill even if it was not adopted. 
He thought the partial free system was a hindrance. Mr. 
H. A. Gudger remarked that, as chairman of the Committee 
on Education, he had investigated the charges of perjury as 
to appointments of county beneficiaries and that the editor of 
the Biblical Recorder was absolutely and totally wrong in mak- 
ing such charges. Mr. R. F. Hackett, of Wilkes, expressed 
his disapproval of the efforts to take away free tuition from 
poor boys. Mr. W. C. Troy, of Cumberland, thought that, so 
far from abolishing the free student feature, the number should 
be doubled or trebled. 

The act is entitled "An Act for the Maintenance of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina," recites the constitutional power to 
maintain the institution, and the duty to establish as soon as 
practicable a Department of Agriculture, of Mechanics, of Min- 
ing and of Xormal instruction, and states that the income is 
insufficient to carry out these purposes and supply the educa- 
tional needs of the State. It was impossible to have an effi- 
cient system of public schools without competent teachers, and 
it is of supreme importance to the well being of the State that 
young men of all pursuits shall be able to receive the advantages 
of higher education within its own limits at moderate expense. 

Fifteen thousand dollars, payable quarterly, was appropriated 
and the two thousand dollars for the University Xormal School 
was placed at the disposal of the Board of Education for aid to 
other Xormal Schools. So that the increase to the University 
was only $13,000. 

The obligation on county students to teach was repealed. 
If there should be more than one applicant for the county 
appointment the County Superintendent of Schools must hold 
an examination and the Board of Commissioners shall appoint 

308 Historv of University of North Carolina. 

him who has stood the best examination, if otherwise qualified. 
The appropriation in 1881, $5,000, added to that under this 
act, made $20,000, while the interest on the Land Grant, 
$7,500, made $27,500. It will be seen that the latter item was 
taken away two years afterwards. 

The proposal to add $15,000 per annum to the support of 
the University met with violent opposition on the part of cer- 
tain friends of the denominational colleges outside the Legis- 
lature. As there was no proposal to enlarge the number of 
county students, the opposition was in reality to any State aid 
being given to the University. It may be useful to give some 
of the grounds of the attack. 

It was said that all the money that could be obtained should 
go to the support of the primary schools, — that the State should 
teach her children the "three R's," i. e., reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, and if they wished to go higher, they must do so 
at their own expense. Answer : In all civilized countries the 
people have decided against this low view of education. 
Trained men and women are needed as teachers for the schools, 
as leaders in the legislative halls, and in all professions and pur- 
suits. And the children of the State should not be driven from 
our borders, to the certain weakening of State pride, nor forced 
into colleges where the influence may be against their religious 
opinions and prejudices. 

It must not be understood that all the denominational colleges 
took ground against public aid to the University. Guilford 
College, Catawba College, Elon College, Mount Pleasant Col- 
lege, and others, were conspicuous exceptions. The great 
schools like Bingham's, Horner's, Oak Ridge, stood by the 
University, and very many friends of the colleges, whose lead- 
ers were adversary, refused to join in the opposition. 

Another argument against the appropriation was that the 
University was an "Episcopalian concern" on account of the 
President, with two of the Professors, being members of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church and many of the Trustees having 
like affiliations. When it was shown that the Trustees were 
elected by the General Assembly, one-fourth every two years, 
and that some of the best men of the leading denominations 

Increased Appropriation, 1885. 309 

were active members and participated in the choice of profes- 
sors, this charge made no serious impression. The members 
of the church criticized were only a small minority in the 
Faculty and never attempted to influence the students except 
generally in favor of Christianity. 

Then, again, it was charged that with so large an increase 
of annuity the Faculty would turn the University into a "great 
free school," and draw away patronage from other institutions. 
The answer to this was that the additional funds were to be 
used for the establishment of new professorships and addi- 
tional apparatus for instruction. The tuition money would be 
quite as much needed as theretofore. The question of a free 
University was not before the General Assembly, nor before 
the Trustees. 

Again, the University was sneered at because her standards 
of admission and grades of scholarship were said to be lower 
than those of Johns Hopkins University and the University 
of Virginia. Raise your standard, they said, to the level of 
these institutions and you will not compete for students with 
the colleges. 

To show how unintelligent was this criticism of our Uni- 
versity it must be observed, first, that Johns Hopkins is a 
heavily endowed institution, whose main object is instruction 
of graduates from other institutions, yet even with this advan- 
tage it was found necessary to adopt an undergraduate cur- 
riculum. A sufficient number of postgraduates could not 
otherwise be obtained. 

In the second place, although the University of Virginia was 
held up as a model for imitation by Xorth Carolina, and fears 
of impending ruin to the colleges were expressed, because our 
University might become a "big free school," at that very time 
students were admitted into the Virginia institution on more 
easy terms than into ours, and there was with them free tuition, 
but not with us. In other words, what was fought against 
vehemently had already been adopted in our sister State, and 
in other Southern States. What was pronounced to be a 
deadly poison in Xorth Carolina, was claimed to be "good 
medicine" in Virginia. 

310 History of University of North Carolina. 

The most elaborate attempt to prevent the General Assembly 
from voting an appropriation to the University was by a 
pamphlet by President Taylor, which endeavored to prove that 
the State should not give money to promote higher education. 
The people of the State had, however, concluded that it was 
certainly interested in equipping teachers with their mental 
furniture, that it is the duty of the State to provide for her 
young children — especially her poorer children — the means of 
making the most of their talents in pursuit of the various avo- 
cations of life, and that all should not be driven for their 
higher training to the denominational colleges. Moreover, it 
was noted that for years when the University was closed these 
colleges were only able to attract a few of those able to attend. 
It was seen to be certain that when, largely by the influence of 
the State University, the spirit of education should be aroused, 
all educational institutions would flourish. This has been the 
case in a marked degree and is the cause of the cessation of the 
feeling of jealousy and suspicion which once existed. 

I was harshly criticised for being what was called a "lobby 
member" when bills affecting the University were being con- 
sidered. I admit the charge. I thought and feel perfectly 
certain that if I had not been the bills would not have passed. 
My electioneering was nearly altogether with the friends of the 
measures. They needed to be informed. The members have 
so many things to engage their attention that they can not 
keep posted on all questions. An incident will illustrate this : 
The University bill was called : an able Senator, an alumnus, 
stepped out to me in the lobby and said hastily, "What is this 
about?" I replied, "I furnished all the members with a printed 
statement, telling all about it. You will find it in your desk." 
"Oh ! I have not had time to read it. Tell me about it." I did 
so and he made a good speech. 

At another time leading Trustees requested me to absent 
myself from the meeting of the Legislature because people 
said lobbying was undignified. When the University bill 
was read a Senator rose and said, "A professor told me that 
half that amount will suffice. I move to strike off one-half." 

Lobbying. 311 

The friends of the University knew nothing about the matter. 
The motion prevailed. The University lost $10,000. The mo- 
tion to amend would have been easily defeated if the lobby 
member had been present to explain it. 

Other instances showing the importance of having the 
course of legislation under the watchful care of a representa- 
tive of the University have been already mentioned, one when 
the bill to pay interest on the Land Scrip Fund was saved, 
the other when the defeat of the $15,000 measure was averted 
by a conference called by Senator Means. 

On one occasion the Superintendent of a State Asylum 
came to Raleigh, expressed his views to a friend of the appro- 
priation he desired, and returned dignifiedly to his home. In 
a day or two he received a telegram with the doleful news that 
his bill had been ruinously amended and he was forced to re- 
turn to Raleigh and enter on his usual lobby duties. 

These cases are given because there is much criticism of 
lobbying. The truth is, that if "lobby members" endeavor to 
carry their points by threats or bribery or treating or forming 
combinations, called logrolling, they are reprehensible. But 
if they lay information before Members, and aid the friends of 
measures, and win opponents, by fair arguments or removing 
misunderstandings, they really facilitate legislation. 

I recall an instance of lobbying which will illustrate my 
meaning. Miss Dorothy Dix, after traveling through the 
country and witnessing the horrible ways in which insane 
people were neglected and sometimes intentionally treated, was 
in 1848 interviewing members in favor of a bill to issue State 
bonds for building our first insane asylum, now called Hospital 
for the Insane. She was told that James C. Dobbin had more 
power in the Legislature than any other Member, but that he 
was secluding himself on account of the death of his wife, to 
whom he was extremely attached. Repairing to his hotel she 
eloquently and feelingly urged him to subordinate his private 
griefs to the relief of the unfortunate whom God had deprived 
of reason. He could not resist her appeal, championed her 
cause in a speech of rare strength, and the bill was passed. 
Ought such lobbyists to be greeted with censure or ridicule? 

312 History of University of North Carolina. 

The opponents of the University were, as a rule, courteous 
to its President. There was one exception. An editor printed 
an article against him, accusing him of the offense of "using all 
the arts of a lobbyist." This last was an arrant falsehood. He 
never spent one cent's worth or treated to the value of a glass 
of lemonade or a cigar, as has been said. 

The First Gymnasium. Commons. 

In the spring of 1885 there was a division among the stu- 
dents in regard to the Ball Managers. Two chiefs, Isaac H. 
Manning and Julius A. Little, and two sets of assistants, were 
chosen by their respective factions. Some Trustees belonging 
to churches opposed to the "modern dance," had urged the 
Board to prohibit it on the University grounds, not on their own 
account but to satisfy the scruples of large numbers in whose 
opinion it was injurious to morals. I took no part in the dis- 
cussion, but was glad of the prohibition because I wished Smith 
Hall to be a real library, filled with alcoves. It was impossible 
to clear the floor and use it as a dance hall and have a decent 
library the rest of the year. It therefore seemed that although 
we had officers galore we could have no ball, as there was no 
room in Chapel Hill suitable for the purpose. 

To meet this difficulty one set of managers proposed to have 
their ball in Raleigh, a proceeding to which I was much op- 
posed. I was then in Raleigh for some weeks, endeavoring 
to persuade the General Assembly to add $15,000 annually 
to our appropriation. I wrote to both sets of managers and 
pledged myself to provide a suitable hall, provided that they 
would unite and give up the Raleigh plan. They took me at 
my word. Isaac Hall Manning was made chief; John P. 
Crump, Julian A. Little, Pierre B. Cox, William R. Tucker, 
St. Clair Hester, John H. J. Leigh, Herbert W. Jackson, and 
Ellison L. Gilmer, were assistants. 

On my return to Chapel Hill I had only three months in 
which to carry out my promise and we worked with speed. 
My scheme was to procure from the Secretary of State a 
charter for a Gymnasium Association, the institution very 

The First Gymnasium, 1885. 313 

much needing a room large enough for gymnastic exercises 
and for social meetings, including dancing. 

A corporation with non-liability provision was chartered, 
shares $10 each, the building to be erected on its own land, 
and to be leased to the University during such parts of the year 
as should be agreed on. The plan was eminently successful. 
The charter was obtained by Richard H. Lewis (of Raleigh), 
Augustus W. Graham, Peter M. Wilson, David G. Worth, 
Robert Bingham, John W. Fries, James Henley, Alfred D. 
Jones, Frank B. Dancy, Julian S. Carr. The alumni subscribed 
for the stock with commendable liberality, and, by borrowing a 
small sum, a room was secured large enough for gymnasium 
purposes. It had, too, a floor with planks of best heart pine, 
sawed across the grain, made especially for dancing, greatly 
superior to Smith Hall, which was so uneven as to cause fre- 
quent falls. 

The President of the Association was Dr. Richard H. Lewis, 
of Raleigh. Except during Commencement weeks the build- 
ing was rented on easy terms to the University and the pro- 
ceeds used for finishing the building and keeping it in repair. 
The opponents of dancing were chagrined when they saw the 
outcome of their opposition, but the Gymnasium Association 
is not a part of the University and its building is not on Uni- 
versity land. The students who used it were those who were 
allowed to dance at home, countenanced by their parents. It 
can hardly be contended that this amusement should be pro- 
hibited by the Board of Trustees to all students everywhere. 

During President Winston's term of office, after the floor 
of Memorial Hall had been elevated, so that it could be used 
for gymnastic instruction, the Gymnasium was converted into 
a Commons Hall, where large numbers of students obtain their 
meals. Additions were made to the building by the liberality 
of Mrs. Baker, her son by her first husband, Harry Lake, being 
a student of the University. This did not hinder its being 
used for a ballroom, and for annual banquets. 

A full list of the subscribers to the old gymnasium (Com- 
mons Hall) will be found in the Appendix. The following 
were the largest : David G. Worth, Robert Bingham, Tulian S. 

314 History of University of North Carolina. 

Carr, $100 each; Wm, L. Saunders, J. A. Henley, John W. 
Fries, Richard H. Lewis (of Raleigh), Eugene Morehead, 
Alfred D. Jones, Robert R. Bridgers, George M. Maverick, 
Wm. H. Maverick, $50 each ; Frank B. Dancy, Bartholomew 
F. Moore, Junior, Frank P. Yenable, Ralph H. Graves, George 
T. Winston, Robert B. Peebles, Walter L. Steele, John W. 
Graham, Donald MacRae, J. DeB. Hooper, Paul C. Cameron 
(for three grandsons), $30 each; Mrs. Z. B. Vance, $25; Her- 
bert B. Battle, Thomas H. Battle, K. P. Battle, Jr., M. C. S. 
Xoble, Frank Wood, Peter M. Wilson, Van B. Moore, John 
Manning, Joseph A. Holmes, Augustus W. Graham, Charles 
A. Cook, Joshua W. Gore, $20 each. 

Mr. Paul C. Cameron took to heart the passage of the ordi- 
nance banishing dancing from Smith Hall and interdicting it 
in any University building. He said that the false charge that 
it encouraged licentiousness was an insult to his children and 
grandchildren. He refused to aid in building the Gymnasium, 
saying that it was a "surrender to the circuit riders," meaning 
the preachers, who had memorialized the Trustees to prohibit 
the annual ball. When he came to Commencement he was 
taken to the Gymnasium, where he found a room one-third 
larger and one-third wider than the library in Smith Hall, the 
old dance hall. He walked over and inspected it critically. 
The floor was firm and smooth, whereas the old hall had a floor 
which imitated the billows of the ocean, on which very recently 
a beautiful girl had slipped and lamed herself for many months 
and where hurtless falls were frequent. He came up to Presi- 
dent Battle and pulling out a roll of money said, "By blood! I 
believe I am glad the circuit riders ran us out of the Campus. 
I said I would not subscribe and I won't. But here is ten dol- 
lars for Paul Graham, ten dollars for George Graham, and ten 
dollars for George Collins" (his grandsons). "Here, Isaac !" 
calling up the Chief Ball Manager : "You haven't light enough. 
Here is fifteen dollars. Send to Raleigh and get some more 

Mr. Cameron was occasionally a talker in his sleep. Once 
when he was wrapped in slumber, pending the dance contro- 
versy, he was overheard to ejaculate with emphasis in the pe- 

Memorial Hall. 315 

culiar tone characteristic of somnambulists, "D — d if they shall 
drive me out of the Campus." It is pleasant to note that he 
continued to be reconciled to the new arrangement. It would 
have left a painful memory if he had died under the abiding 
sense of being wronged. 

As this was the first ball held off University grounds I give 
the description of it by the reporter : "The new, large and 
commodious Gymnasium Hall was a scene of gaiety and 
beauty. A bewildering mass of red, pink, blue, and white 
seemed floating around the ballroom, as the couples circled in 
and out under the delightful influence of Fasnicht's band. On, 
on went the dance till morning dawned, and then the merry 
throng began to break up to retire to sweet slumbers or to 
make ready to begin their journeys homeward." 

Memorial Hall. Tablets. 

I was sitting by Governor Jarvis on the rostrum in Gerrard 
Hall at the Commencement of 1883. The Hall was filled to its 
utmost capacity, and turning our eyes to the doors and windows 
we could see at least one-third more of good citizens, many of 
whom had ridden long distances, unable to enter the Hall. I 
said, "Governor, if you will promise the people that next year 
we will have a building large enough to accommodate every- 
body, I will show you where the money will come from." With 
great applause he made the promise and at the next meeting of 
the Board of Trustees I pointed out a fund which could be 
used for this purpose. I also stated that I had known of many 
good men who had gone to their homes dissatisfied because 
they were turned off from Gerrard Hall. They had probably 
become angry with the institution. The Governor warmly sec- 
onded the proposal, and promised to procure the sale to the 
University of bricks made at the State Penitentiary on ex- 
tremely favorable terms. The Board agreed to the enlarge- 
ment of Gerrard Hall and appointed Mr. P. C. Cameron chair- 
man of a committee to superintend the work. Mr. Samuel 
Sloan, of Philadelphia, was employed as the architect. 

About this time a movement was begun to erect a cenotaph 
to President Swain on the Campus, his body being in Oakwood 

316 History of University of North Carolina. 

Cemetery, Raleigh. A considerable sum was promised for this, 
on the belief that it would be similar to that of President Cald- 
well. Mr. Sloan proposed that a new auditorium should be 
erected, and that this should be the Swain monument. His 
suggestion was approved by all and he was directed to draw 
up the necessary plans. The subscriptions to the Swain mon- 
ument were turned over to the new memorial. 

The cost of the building thus planned was estimated by the 
architect at $20,000, but he successively raised the estimate to 
$25,000, $30,000, and $40,000, and the final cost was about $45,- 
000. It is evident that the architect, who died before its com- 
pletion, either was ignorant of the art of estimating cost, or, 
which is more likely, that he designedly planned .regardless 
of expense, trusting that the Trustees would be too proud to 
have an unfinished building on their hands. The Trustees 
relied implicitly on the chairman of the Building Committee, 
and on the character of the architect, which was high. 

The roof is supported by two great wooden arches one 
hundred and twenty-seven feet in diameter, lengthwise of the 
building. These were built on the ground and the raising 
them was a perilous task. The first attempt resulted in fail- 
ure, most mortifying to the foreman because there was a 
large company of witnesses, including the Visiting Commit- 
tee of the Trustees, and Bishop Green, of Mississippi, then on 
a visit to his Alma Mater. One of the arches was raised a few 
feet, the tackle gave way, and the ceremony was postponed. 

The next attempt was by an experienced house mover, Mr. 
O. R. Smith, to whom we paid $500, and was successful. As 
the long complicated ropes strained and pulleys creaked, and 
the network of heavy timbers slowly and steadily rose in the 
presence of interested onlookers, the scene was very exciting. 

But the question of money became pressing and it was nec- 
essary to raise more. I conceived the idea of turning the build- 
ing into a general Memorial Hall, wherein should be tablets 
containing the facts of the lives of eminent alumni and offi- 
cers of the University. I wrote with my own hand near two 
hundred letters in carrying out this plan. The descendants 
and friends of these were invited to pay an amount larger 


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Memorial Hall 

Tablets in Memorial Hall. 317 

than the cost of preparing and inserting the tablets. The sug- 
gestion was favorably received and about $10,000 was raised, 
by the efforts of Professor Winston and myself, but when that 
was spent there was still an additional amount necessary. 

In this emergency Governor Jarvis, whose wise and patri- 
otic utterances always had great weight, appealed to Mr. 
Cameron to come forward and grant a loan for the purpose. 
The latter generously lent the sum of $6,000 and when 
that was found to be too small, $2,000 additional. It was 
truly a generous act because nothing could be collected from 
the University by law and no security was required. He lived 
six years after this and made no demand for either principal 
or interest. A request, without his knowledge, to the General 
Assembly to repay him met with no favor. After his death in 
1891 his heirs proposed to accept scholarships for the amount, 
$1,000 each. The Trustees agreed and the debt was thus liqui- 
dated. The interest and principal on the sum lent amounted to 
$10,000, so that there are ten "Cameron Scholarships," each of 
the group of heirs having one, and being entitled to appoint a 
student free of charge for tuition. Whenever the nomination 
of one unable to pay tuition is made it is a clear gain to the 

In locating the tablets, those to President Caldwell, Dr. 
Mitchell, and Dr. James Phillips, erected at the expense of the 
University, are to the right and left of President Swain's, 
which is above the rostrum in the centre of the space. This 
left one place vacant. After six years the Paul C. Cameron 
tablet completed the number of the niches above the rostrum. 

The tablets to the "Confederate Dead" are below that of 
President Swain. The names were procured by the intelli- 
gent perseverance of the Secretary-Treasurer, Colonel Saun- 
ders. They are two hundred and sixty in number and are a 
pathetic reminder of the ardor with which our students rushed 
to the front. 

The other tablets, to the number of ninety-eight, were in- 
serted to the right and left of the rostrum, according to the 
dates of death of those commemorated. This rule was depart- 
ed from, by accident, in two instances — that is, in the cases of 

318 History of University of North Carolina. 

ex-Governor Graham and Michael Hoke. These two eminent 
competitors for the governorship, who carried on, in 1844, one 
of the most hightoned canvasses ever known in the State, 
by two accidents have their tablets adjoining one another. 
Since these tablets were inserted, various others have been 
placed, mostly of those who have since died. Their location 
has been governed by convenience. Fronting the rostrum are 
the names of the donors of the lands on which the University 
is located and on the east side the names of its women bene- 
factors. There is Cornelia Phillips Spencer, whose personal 
influence and eloquent pen were in prosperity and direst ad- 
versity exerted in behalf of the institution she loved. And 
then we have female benefactors all of the name of Mary, 
namely, Mary Ann Smith, Mary Elizabeth Mason, Mary Ruf- 
fin Smith, and Mary Bryan Speight. To these could be added 
the names of Mary Ker, the wife of Dr. David Ker, the first 
Professor, the first lady resident in Chapel Hill, and Mary, wife 
of Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, the first lady who ever 
attended a Commencement. 

The officers and alumni in Memorial Hall illustrate every 
period of our State history, and many that of the United 
States. The Provisional Government of 177 $-'76 I s illus- 
trated by Samuel Johnston, the Member at Large of the Pro- 
visional Council ; by Archibald Maclaine of the Committee of 
Safety of Wilmington, and by Waightstill Avery, one of the 
authors of the Mecklenburg Declaration of May, 1775. 

The Constitution of 1776 and the War of the Revolution 
are called to mind by the three above named, of whom Avery 
was the first Attorney-General of the State, and with Maclaine 
was on the committee which reported the Constitution to the 
Convention. Besides these are Benjamin Hawkins, aid de 
camp to Washington ; William Richardson Davie, William 
Lenior, Joseph Winston, Joseph Graham, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, the elder, likewise a soldier but more famous as a 
Delegate to the Continental Congress, and James Kenan, a 
Revolutionary Colonel of Militia. 

The adoption of the Constitution of the United States is 
illustrated by Spaight and Davie, Members of the Conven- 

Tablets in Memorial Hall. 319 

tion ; by Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, the first 
Federal Senators from North Carolina ; by William Lenoir, 
a Member of the State Conventions of 1788 and 1789, which 
passed upon it, and by Charles Johnson, President of the State 
Senate, 1790. 

The threatened French War is called to mind by Davie, 
appointed a General in the army proposed for waging it, and 
a Commissioner to France for averting it. 

The foundation of the University is illustrated by Davie, 
its "Father"; by Charles Johnson, who presided over the first 
meeting of the Board of Trustees ; by William Lenoir, the 
first President of the Board ; by Joseph Caldwell, the first 
President of the University ; by Richard Dobbs Spaight, as 
Governor, present at the opening in 1795; David Stone, on 
the committee of location and of the first curricula ; Samuel 
Johnston, the first named of the Charter Trustees ; Archibald 
Maclaine, Joseph Graham, Benjamin Hawkins, James Kenan, 
and Bishop-elect Charles Pettigrew, all early Trustees, and by 
Treasurer John Haywood, who was on the committee to select 
the site of the University. 

The War of 1812 is commemorated by William Hawkins, 
Governor, and Duncan Cameron, one of his aids ; by Joseph 
Graham appointed a General against the Creeks ; by David 
Stone, United States Senator i8i3-'i4, and William Gaston, 
Representative in Congress i8i3-'i7. 

The acquisition of Florida is called to mind by William D. 
Mosely, Governor of the Territory. 

The inauguration of internal improvements is especially 
noted by Archibald D. Murphey and Rev. Dr. Joseph Cald- 
well, the first and most earnest advocates of canal and rail- 
road building. 

The great Eastern and Western agitation, leading to the 
Convention of 1835, is brought to mind by the names of 
William Gaston, David L. Swain, John Owen, Bartlett Yancey, 
Duncan Cameron, Willie P. Mangum, Calvin Graves, James 
W. Bryan, James Mebane, William B. Shepard. 

The hot controversies of Jackson's time are peculiarly com- 

320 History of University of North Carolina. 

memorated by James K. Polk, Bedford Brown, Willie P. 
Mangum, John Owen, William B. Shepard and others. 

The important period of the acquisition of Texas and the 
Mexican War is revived by the tablets of James K. Polk, 
President; William A. Graham, Governor ;. Michael Hoke, 
George E. Badger, Willie P. Mangum, Bedford Brown, 
Daniel M. Barringer, John M. Morehead, Burton Craige, 
Romulus M. Saunders, and the three brothers, William B., 
Charles B., and James B. Shepard. 

The internal improvement era is called up by the names of 
John M. Morehead, Governor ; Calvin Graves, Haywood W. 
Guion, William A. Graham, William Waightstill Avery, Rom- 
ulus M. Saunders, Jonathan Worth, John D. Hawkins, Dr. 
Joseph W. Hawkins, and later by W'illiam Johnston, William 
J. Hawkins, and R. R. Bridgers. 

The Compromises of 1850 and the period preceding the Civil 
War are called to mind by Graham, Badger, Morehead, W. 
W. Avery, R. M. Saunders, Jacob Thompson, Lewis Thomp- 
son, Patrick H. W'inston, Sr. 

Secession and the Civil War are largely represented on the 
walls by civilians as Avell as soldiers, prominent in council or 
field. Among the civilians are Thomas Ruffin, Senior, 
Graham, Worth, William W. Avery, Governor Henry T. 
Clark, Walter F. Leak, Burton Craige, Jacob Thompson, Pat- 
rick H. Winston, Senior, Rufus L. Patterson. 

Of the military are General Bryan Grimes, General James 
Johnston Pettigrew, General and Governor A. M. Scales, Gen- 
eral George B. Anderson, Colonel W. W. Avery, Colonel Clark 
M. Avery, Colonel Isaac E. Avery, Colonel William L. Saun- 
ders, Major Joseph A. Engelhard, Major Joseph H. Saunders, 
Surgeon E. Burke Haywood, Colonel John L. Bridgers, Lieu- 
tenant William Preston Mangum, and the long list of the 
"Confederate Dead." 

The period of Reconstruction is commemorated by Gover- 
nor Jonathan W 7 orth, Governor Tod R. Caldwell, Lewis 
Thompson, Patrick H. Winston, Senior, Judge Matthias E. 
Manly, Samuel F. Phillips. 

The Judicial history can be almost read from the tablets. 

Tablets in Memorial Hall. 321 

It begins with Samuel Johnston, a Judge before the organiza- 
tion of the Supreme Court under the Act of 1818. 

Of the Supreme Court there are tablets to four Chief Jus- 
tices, Leonard Henderson, Thomas Ruffin, Frederick Nash, 
and Richmond M. Pearson, and to Associate Justices William 
Gaston, Archibald Murphey (temporary), William H. Battle, 
Matthias E. Manly, Thomas Ruffin, Jr. Of the Superior 
Court Judges are David Stone, Samuel Johnston, Archibald 
D. Murphey, John R. Donnell, Willie P. Mangum, Duncan 
Cameron, George E. Badger, David L. Swain, James Iredell, 
John M. Dick, R. M. Pearson, W. H. Battle, M. E. 
Manly, David F. Caldwell, James W. Osborne, Jesse G. 
Shepherd; James Grant, of Iowa. 

Of the Federal Judges are Judge John A. Cameron, of the 
District Court of Florida; Thomas C. Fuller (Mexican Land 

There is a long list of Governors represented, beginning with 
Samuel Johnston, first named of the Provincial Council in 
1775, and Governor in 1787/90. Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., 
i792-'95; William Richardson Davie, 1798; David Stone, 
i8o8-'io; William Hawkins, i8n-'i4; John Owen, i828-'3o; 
David L. Swain, i832-'35; Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., 1835; 
John M. Morehead, 1840- '44; William A. Graham, i844-'48; 
Henry T. Clark, i86i-'63; Jonathan Worth, i866-'68; Tod 
R. Caldwell, i87o-'74; Alfred M. Scales, Thomas M. Holt, 
James K. Polk (Tennessee), W. D. Mosely (Florida). 

The National Congress, before the adoption of the Consti- 
tution, has Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., Samuel Johnston, 
Benjamin Hawkins, and William R. Davie. 

Senators of the United States are Samuel Johnston, Ben- 
jamin Hawkins, David Stone, Willie P. Mangum, William R. 
King, William A. Graham, George E. Badger, M. E. Manly, 
(the latter was elected but not allowed to take his seat), and 
Z. B. Vance. 

Representatives in Congress are Joseph Winston, Richard 
Dobbs Spaight, Sr., Alexander Mebane, David Stone, Wil- 
liam Gaston, James S. Smith, John H. Bryan, John Owen, 
Bartlett Yancey, R. D. Spaight, Jr., William B. Shepard, 


322 History of University of North Carolina. 

Charles B. Shepard, Ebenezer Pettigrew, James K. Polk, D. 
M. Barringer, R. M. Saunders, Richard S. Donnell, Jacob 
Thompson, Walter L. Steele, and Alfred M. Scales. 

Solicitor-General of United States, Samuel F. Phillips. 

Ministers to foreign nations are William R. Davie, D. M. 
Barringer, R. M. Saunders, William R. King, John H. 

Attorney-Generals of North Carolina are Waightstill Avery, 
Sr., R. M. Saunders, Bartholomew F. Moore, and William A. 

The financial history of the State is illustrated by Thomas 
Ruffin and Duncan Cameron, presidents of the leading banks; 
by Samuel Johnston, John Haywood, and Jonathan Worth, 
State Treasurers, and Eugene Morehead, a bank president in 
recent days. 

The teachers are largely represented. There are Presidents 
Joseph Caldwell and David L. Swain ; Professors A. D. Mur- 
phey, William Bingham the elder, William J. Bingham, and 
William Bingham the third, William Hooper, Elisha Mitchell, 
James Phillips, J. DeBerniere Hooper, Ralph H. Graves 
the elder, Carey D. Grandy ; William M. Green, Professor in 
the University of North Carolina, Bishop of Mississippi and 
Chancellor of the University of the South; James H. Horner, 
Charles Phillips, A. W. Mangum, and Ralph H. Graves, the 

The medical profession is honored by Simmons J. Baker, 
John B. Baker, James H. Dickson, James S. Smith, Joseph W. 
Hawkins, Frederick D. Lente, E. Burke Haywood. 

Of the legal profession many have already been named, 
such as the Judges and Attorneys-General. I name others 
who devoted themselves mainly to the practice of law : B. F. 
Moore, Francis L. Dancy, James W. Bryan, Haywood W. 
Guion, Michael Hoke, Robert Strange the elder, Patrick H. 
Winston, of Bertie, Richard S. Donnell, William F. Dancy. 
To these should be added Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, Reporter 
of our Supreme Court, for a few years a lawyer. 

Authors and scientists are slimly though ably represented 
by Lewis von Schweinitz, botanist ; Francis L. Hawks, Joseph 

Naming of Memorial Hall. 323 

Caldwell, Elisha [Mitchell, David L. Swain, William A. Gra- 
ham, and Haywood W. Guion ; Washington C. Kerr, State 
Geologist, Colonel William L. Saunders, John H. Wheeler, 
and Mrs. C. P. Spencer. 

The great schools are represented by William Bingham, 
William J. Bingham, his son, and Colonel William Bingham, 
his grandson ; Alexander Wilson, Ralph H. Graves the elder, 
William Hooper, J. De Berniere Hooper, and Thomas B. 
Slade, the pioneer of higher female education in Georgia. 

The clergy has able representation, beginning with Charles 
Pettigrew. first elected Bishop of Xorth Carolina, though not 
consecrated. Then came William Hooper, William M. 
Green, Elisha Mitchell, Alexander Wilson, James Phillips, 
James Morrison, Francis L. Hawks. Joseph H. Saunders the 
elder, William Barringer, Charles Phillips, A. W. Man gum. 

Mr. Paul C. Cameron, who was a personal friend of Gov- 
ernor Swain and was of singularly tenacious purpose, insisted 
on the original plan of calling the building Swain Hall, while I 
and others thought this unjust to those who had contributed so 
largelv to its erection. Colonel W. L. Saunders proposed a 
compromise, which was accepted, that the name should be 
Memorial Hall, that the tablet to President Swain should have 
the highest place and on it should be inscribed the following: 


Born 1801. Died 1868. 

Member House of Commons: 1824-1829. 

State Solicitor: 1827. 

Judge of Superior Court: 1830. 

Governor: 1832-1835. 

Member of Constitutional Convention: 1835. 

President University: 1835-1868. 

The Trustees axd Alumxi have erected this hall 
in grateful recognition of the wisdom and fidelity 
of the services of david lowry swain. for thirty- 
THREE years President of the University; 

In proud and loving remembrance of her heroic sons 
who fell in the service of the confederate states j 

and a memorial to all others connected with the 
University, who by honorable living in civil or mili- 

324 History of University of North Carolina. 

It is an interesting fact that the inscription on Bishop 
Green's tablet was written by himself and found in his drawer 
after his death. 

The Hall was dedicated June 3rd, 1885. The proceedings 
began with a hymn (adapted) read by the Rev. A. W. Man- 
gum. D.D. 

Almighty God! Thou only great! 
To Thee this great house we dedicate; 
Here shall Thy wondrous works be shown, 
And here Thy sovereign will made known. 

Science and revelation here 
In perfect harmony appear, — 
Guiding young feet along the road, 
Thro' grace and nature up to God. 

Help us, O Lord, with faith to lay 
This temple at Thy feet today; 
O, let Thy work to us appear, 
Thy glory be exalted here. 

Praise God from whom all blessings flow, 
Praise Him all creatures here below, 
Praise Him above, ye heavenly host, 
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

A devout prayer was then offered by the Rev. Dr. Charles 
Phillips. He closed with the petition, "May the memories of 
Thy servants who have spread virtue and science and liberty 
throughout this commonwealth, be always strong in the hearts 
of the people, to keep them from the path of the destroyer.'' 

Mr. Paul C. Cameron, chairman of the Building Committee, 
in behalf of himself and his associates of the committee 
(Messrs. K. P. Battle and John Manning), then delivered an 
excellent address. He told of having inherited affection for 
the University. He paid a loving and admiring tribute to the 
old President, Dr. Caldwell. He warmly praised Governor 
Scales for his efficient aid in securing an increased annual 
appropriation ; Governor Jarvis, then Minister to Rio Jan.- 
eiro, for his active friendship and particularly for his furnish- 
ing many thousand bricks from the penitentiary on easy terms, 
thereby enabling us to lay the corner stone on September 25, 

Dedication of Memorial Hall. 325 

1883. Credit was given to President Battle and Professor 
Winston for their procuring funds by the insertion of tablets 
in the walls. The speaker then paid a tribute to the Revo- 
lutionary fathers of the University and to President Swain, 
who with Caldwell guided its fortunes for seventy years. He 
then grouped those commemorated on the tablets. They are : 
One President of the United States, twelve Governors of 
North Carolina and one of Florida, four Justices of the Su- 
preme Court and four Associate Justices, eleven Justices of 
the Superior Courts and one of the United States District 
Court of Florida, four members of the Revolutionary Con- 
gress before the Constitution, six United States Senators after 
the Constitution, fifteen members of the United States House 
of Representatives, three Ministers to foreign courts, four 
Attorneys-General of the State, two Presidents and nine Pro- 
fessors of the University, six distinguished chiefs of classi- 
cal schools, nine officers of the Confederate States Army. 
Mr. Cameron added, "In mind and merit, in manly fortitude 
and patriotic purpose, these field marshals of Xorth Carolina 
were the equals of those of the great Xapoleon." To the above 
we can add six leading lawyers, not politicians, six eminent 
physicians, and of successful enlightened business men, not 
politicians nor in official life, eleven. 

The speaker then commemorated the donors of the site of 
the University and others ; William Richardson Davie, the 
Father of the University, an officer of the Revolution, Gov- 
ernor and Minister to France ; General William Lenoir, 
wounded at King's Mountain and President of the Senate ; 
William Alexander Graham, of whom he says, "from the 
cradle to the grave, his was a stainless name, * * * He 
was a model. * * * With him the proprieties of life 
associated with youth or old age, seemed to attain a perfection 
and maturity that made it pleasant to look on at all times, 
even in the repose of death." 

The speaker then eulogized B. F. Moore, the great lawyer, 
who had given the University $5,000 by will for scholarships, 
He expressed his regret at the absence of a tablet to Colonel 
William Polk, a Revolutionarv hero, President of the Board 

326 History of University of North Carolina. 

of Trustees in the early days of the University, "the con- 
temporary and personal friend of Andrew Jackson, not less 
heroic in war, and quite as sagacious, and more successful in 
private life than he." 

Samuel Sloan, the architect, was likewise mentioned in 
terms of praise, who died from exposure to our summer sun. 
He also praised John Dougherty, master builder, and Captain 
Richards, the chief brick mason. 

Mr. Cameron continued, "Thomas Jefferson reported to the 
Governor, James Pleasants, in November, 1804, that there 
were to be instituted eight professorships, or schools, for the 
University of Virginia, namely : (1) Ancient Languages, (2) 
Modern Languages, (3) Mathematics, (4) Natural Philoso- 
phy, (5) Natural History, (6) Anatomy and Medicine, (7) 
Moral Philosophy, (.8) Law. Our University has as extended 
a curriculum as this. Let us seek to make it more of the 
useful than the ornamental, not by wide but deep and exact 
learning, promising us the richest fruitage, with good material 
in the hands of thorough masters. * * * And from this 
rostrum the young leaders of this Southern land, brave in 
their own self-reliance, with their wing upon the wind and 
their eye upon the sun, upward and onward and true to the 
line, will seek the best aims of human life and share the rich- 
est rewards of human ambition." 

The address met with universal commendation and was re- 
garded in the light of the last words of a loving friend of the 
LJniversity. He lived, however, to occupy the rostrum again, 
and for five years longer to grace our annual festivals. 

The building was accepted by the President of the Board 
of Trustees, Governor Alfred Moore Scales, whose Christian 
name recalls a learned Judge of the Federal Supreme Court, 
one of the Committee of Location in 1792. He belonged to the 
Class of 1847, Dllt did not remain to graduate. He began by 
lauding the patriotic conduct of Mr. Cameron in lending the 
money ($8,000) for the completion of Memorial Hall. He 
then gave a most feeling and intelligent history of the services 
of President Swain. Among other things he mentioned an 
amusing tradition that when vouner David L. Swain entered 

The Services of Governor Jarvis. 327 

the University, in 1823, some old students gathered around him 
and clamored for a speech. After some hesitation he gave them 
a discourse on the text, "Why stand ye here all the day idle?" 
He pressed upon them the dangers and losses of idleness. The 
auditors one by one slunk away, whereupon he shouted, "Go ! 
go ! in the name of our common Creator, I bid you to work in 
His vineyard. He promises a penny a day each and to my 
certain knowledge not one of you is worth half the money." 

The Governor then spoke feelingly of the tablets to the 
"Confederate Dead," beginning with Bishop General Leon- 
idas Polk, saying "upon his brow all the gods had set their 
seals, to give assurance to the world that he was a man." 
He then paid a tribute to his classmate, General James Johns- 
ton Pettigrew, stating that he, John Pool, and General Mat- 
thew W. Ransom, were the three most brilliant members of 
the class. I fully concur with the following estimate, "I have 
no hesitation in saying, that in intellectual endowment and 
power of acquiring knowledge Pettigrew surpassed any man 
that I ever met. He was equally distinguished in all his 
classes, in his society, and on the playground." 

Dr. Eugene Grissom, chairman of the committee to pre- 
pare resolutions showing the appreciation of the Board of 
the valuable services rendered by Governor Thomas J. Jarvis, 
presented the following in substance : 

The Board gratefully acknowledged the Governor's effort 
throughout his term to extend the usefulness of the Univer- 
sity. In every message he made an earnest appeal for it. His 
wise counsels were never lacking at any meeting of the Board 
or Executive Committee, or at Commencement. For the ex- 
istence of Memorial Hall and lastly for efficient aid in secur- 
ing the first appropriation to the University his counsels and 
influence were potent. 

Colonel Paul B. Means seconded the resolutions. Speaking 
of Governor Jarvis, he said, "Such men are always great be- 
cause they are foremost among their fellows in the march of 
time ; because they have the intellect and soul to grasp and be 
inspired with the genius of society and their day ; because they 
fully comprehend their age and do not betray it ; because un- 

328 History of University of North Carolina. 

der the inspiration from their God and their people, they 
make the revolutions of progress march onward and orderly 
beneath the eagles. The public life of Governor Jarvis in 
every station in which he stood under the great eye of the pub- 
lic declares him such. His gubernatorial administration in the 
very much that he has said and done for the great causes of 
education, agriculture, internal improvements and the vital 
interests of North Carolina, proclaim him great." 

Mr. Fabius H. Busbee then presented the formal thanks of 
the Board of Trustees to Mr. Cameron for his timely loan 
without which the Hall could not have been finished.' Then 
was sung Mrs. Spencer's "University Ode" : 

Dear University! 
Thy sons right loyally 
Thy praises sing. 

The Benediction was by the Rev. Lennox B. Turnbull, of 
the Presbyterian Church of Durham. The presiding officer 
was Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, President of the Alumni 
Association. The music was furnished by two student organi- 
zations, the Glee Club and the Mandolin Club. 

It should be added that under the architect, Samuel Sloan, 
were his assistant, A. G. Bauer, the superintendent of ma- 
sonry, John Richards, and the master builder, J. B. Dougherty 
(pronounced Dokarty). Mr. Dougherty showed a business 
view of things when he pointed to a vacant niche and said, 
"Mr. Cameron, we are saving that for your tablet." In five 
years the statement was verified. Mr. Dougherty warned the 
bystanders that it was unsafe for any one to climb the flag- 
pole. Not knowing this Mr. William M. Walton, afterwards 
a Lieutenant in the United States Army, accepting an offer of 
five dollars, climbed the pole without cleats and adjusted the 
flagropes. It was pitiful that this plucky young man should 
lose his life from the terrible disease, tuberculosis. Two of the 
assistants, Bauer and Richards, in a few years died the death 
of suicides. 

After some years' trial the general verdict is that the 
acoustics of the Hall are not gfood. Part of the criticism 

Commencement of 1885. 3 2 9 

comes from its size, but undeniably on certain benches the 
reverberation of the speaker's voice is painfully apparent. 
President Winston attempted with indifferent success to cor- 
rect the evil by hanging muslin along the ceiling. He also by 
the advice of Rev. Air. Wing, who gave $500 for the purpose, 
elevated the floor so as to be horizontal instead of declining 
towards the rostrum. The floor was then used for athletic 
purposes until the erection of the Bynum Gymnasium. This 
did not escape criticism as a desecration of a memorial hall. 
but the defense was that the University was in no condition 
to have a structure so costly used only one day in the year. 
One time in the year the seats in the Hall are substantially 
filled, 2,400 in number, and nearly one hundred more on the 
rostrum, the people from all the country around and from 
distant cities and towns attending the ceremonies of Com- 
mencement Day. 

In order to heal an apparently irreconcilable difference in 
regard to the election of Marshals the Trustees took action. 
They gave the election to the Junior class out of their own 
members. The certificate of the President was made conclu- 
sive evidence of the fact of membership in the class. This 
plan has worked well for nearly twenty years. At present 
there is harmony about the selection of Representatives as they 
are chosen by committees of the alumni after hearing the can- 
didates deliver competitive orations. At one time they were 
elected by the societies with the inevitable result that the spirit 
of party sometimes caused men to be chosen who were not the 
best exponent of their culture. 

The program of the Commencement this year was slightly 
different in order from its predecessors, the sermon of Bishop 
A. W. Wilson being placed on Commencement Day. 

The dedication of Memorial Hall took place on Wednesday 
morning. In the afternoon the Hon. James W. Reid delivered 
the address before the two literary societies. He was intro- 
duced most felicitously by Mr. W. D. Pollock. His subject was 
"The True Glorv of Youno- Men." He earnestlv ur°:ed the cul- 

330 History of University of North Carolina. 

tivation of the intellect, moral courage, patriotism, belief in Di- 
vine revelation. Education and religion must go hand in hand 
to attain true success. 

At night the representatives chosen by the two societies 
competed for the prize. The first speaker was Malcolm McGil- 
vary Shields on "The Rubicon is Crossed" — the dark days for 
the South have passed. 

Gilbert Brown Patterson's subject was "The Architect," 
the benefit conferred on mankind through the ages by archi- 

Edward Fountain Strickland spoke on "The Windows that 
Exclude the Light," detailing some of the evils threatening the 

Then James Thomas described eloquently the character of 
the Pilgrim Fathers. 

Walter Seaton Dunston argued vehemently in the affirmative 
of his subject, "Let Our Industries Be Encouraged." 

Pierre Beauregard Manning vindicated the motives of 
the Invisible Empire (Ku Klux). 

The judges favored Mr. Thomas. 

Commencement Day, on June 4, witnessed the coming of at 
least two thousand people into Memorial Hall. The sermon to 
the graduating class by Right Reverend A. W. Wilson, Bishop 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was preached in the 
morning. His text was "Whether we be beside ourselves it is 
to God, whether we be sober it is to God." Without God's 
aid all our intellectual labor is worthless. The sermon was 
most able and searching. 

After a short intermission the ten members of the graduates 
entitled to speak, viz., three on account of scholarship and 
seven elected by competitive speaking, delivered orations. 

The first speaker was Alexander Jones Feild. His subject 
was "The Duty of Educated Men in a Republic." Our Gov- 
ernment should be rescued from the aristocracy into which, to 
a great degree, it has fallen. 

Berrie Chandler Mclver followed on the subject "Storm 

Commencement of 1885. 331 

Clouds in the Highlands," giving high praise to the courage 
and patriotism of the wearers of the tartan. 

A. D. Ward, next on the program, was unable to speak 
on account of temporary sickness. 

James Alexander Bryan, soon to be a minister of the Gos- 
pel, spoke on "The Victories of Christianity."' A bold, but we 
hope not a wild, prophecy was heralded. "Ere long Chris- 
tianity will have entirely substituted arbitration for force of 

Adolphus Hill Eller followed with a very practical discus- 
sion of "Higher Education in North Carolina." The State and 
denominational institutions must work in harmony. There is 
room for all. 

Ernest Preston Mangum discoursed on a grand subject, 
"The Trophies of a Noble Life." He contrasted the self- 
seeking of the wonderful genius Napoleon with the far more 
exceeding greatness of Washington, Lee, and Stonewall Jack- 
son, who fought for their country and not for their own glory. 

Then came Marion Butler on "The Heroes and Conquests 
of Invention." The captains of industry should be recognized 
as greater factors in their country's greatness than has been 

St. Leon Scull spoke on "The Cultivation of a National 
History." It is necessary in order to arouse patriotic feelings. 
North Carolina has been remiss in this regard. 

Jesse Felix West came next with a discourse on "The Dis- 
memberment of Virginia." Virginia has suffered more than 
any other State. Justice should be done. The public debt 
should be fairly apportioned. 

The Valedictorian, Solomon Cohen Weill, came last. It had 
gone out of fashion to have a real farewell to his Faculty, 
classmates and other fellow students. He handled ably "Na- 
tional Decay and Individual Character." The ideal of the 
Greek was beauty : of the Roman, the soldier ; of the American, 
the individual. We recognize no aristocracy but that of merit. 
To this is our strength and greatness due. 

The judges and audience favored the last speech as the best. 

332 History of University of North Carolina. 

Medals and prizes were awarded as follows : 

The Mangtjm Medal and the Valedictory Oration to S. C. 

The Classical Oration to B. C. Mclver. 

The Greek Medal for Scholarship to L. P. McGehee; for Im- 
provement, A. M. Simmons. 

The Phillips Mathematical Prize to L. P. McGehee. 

The Worth Prize to A. D. Ward (the Philosophical oration). 

The Chemistry Medal to Max Jackson. 

The Latin Prize to L. P. McGehee. 

The Representative Medal to James Thomas. 

The Academic degrees were : 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 11 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 9 

Bachelors of Science ( B.S. ) 3 

Bachelors of Law 2 

(See Appendix.) 

Mr. Emile Alexander de Schweinitz attained the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

Of the graduates Butler has been United States Senator; 
Eller, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Demo- 
cratic party. Mangum, Superintendent of Graded Schools 
of Wilson ; Mann, Superintendent of the State's Prison ; 
Mclver, Superintendent of Schools ; Monroe, very suc- 
cessful in the insurance business ; Riddick, Professor of Civil 
Engineering in North Carolina College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts ; Weill, who died early, in the Legislature of New 
York ; Goodman, a prominent lawyer ; Hill, Superintendent of 
Schools ; Howard, a prosperous merchant ; Jackson, a promi- 
nent physician ; Neal, a contractor and civil engineer ; New- 
man, a Professor and clergyman ; Ward, State Senator and 
able lawyer ; West, a prominent lawyer and Judge ; Bryan, a 
highly esteemed Presbyterian preacher ; Scull, a prominent 
lawyer, and De Schweinitz, a skillful chemist under the United 
States and Professor in a University at Washington. 

In the afternoon Col. W. L. Steele read the report of the 
Visiting Committee of the Trustees. It praised the Faculty 
for successful management and rejoiced that the recent gener- 

Election of New Professors, 1885. 333 

cms appropriation of the General Assembly will enable us to 
keep pace with the educational progress of the day. 

The General Assembly having increased the annuity to the 
University by $15,000, there were considerable Faculty addi- 
tions and readjustments in iS85-'86. Prof. A. W. Mangum 
became the head of the department of Moral and Mental Sci- 
ence. Professor Hooper's health gave way in the fall of 1885, 
causing his resignation. Sol. C. Weill was Acting Professor 
of the Greek Language and Literature during the second term. 
Dr. Eben Alexander was elected to fill the vacancy. Professor 
Winston was relieved of German and was confined to Latin 
Language and Literature. 

The Trustees concluded that the best plan for apprising the 
public of our educational needs was to advertise the creation 
of the new chairs and request applicants to send in their cre- 
dentials. This was done and several hundred applicants ex- 
pressed their willingness to serve the University. Mr. P. B. 
Manning was employed to classify them for the use of the 
Trustees, making an abstract of the qualifications and testi- 

The Trustees met by adjournment in June, 1885, in the Gov- 
ernors office. The number of candidates was so great that a 
committee was appointed, Col. W. L. Steele, chairman ; Col. 
James S. Amis, Maj. A. M. Lewis, Chief Justice W. T. Fair- 
cloth, and President Battle, to classify the applicants with their 
recommendations. Of course they were necessarily obliged to 
form opinions as to the superiority of some over others. Hence 
it was charged very unjustly by friends of those who failed, 
that there was favoritism. The holding the session in the Sen- 
ate Chamber, though perhaps necessary, had the evil effect of 
losing the atmosphere of secrecy and confidential deliberation, 
which usually prevailed in the meetings of the Board. The 
election was perfectly fair and the best men, in the opinion of 
the Board, were chosen by a decided majority. 

The new Professors were Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., LL.D., 
English Language and Literature. Dr. Hume is a native of 
Virginia; took A.M. at the University of Virginia; was for 
ten vears President of Norfolk Female College, and for fifteen 

334 History of University of North Carolina. 

years devoted himself to the successful study and teaching of 
the English Language. He had the strong endorsement of Dr. 
John A. Broadus, Prof. Noah K. Davis, Prof. Crawford Toy, 
of Harvard ; Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, Congressman Goode, 
Dr. J. L. M. Curry, and others. 

Prof. Nelson B. Henry was elected to the Chair of the 
Science and Art of Teaching. He graduated at a Normal Col- 
lege in Indiana. He had been for four years Professor of 
Methods of Teaching and School Management and also of 
English Language and Literature. He had passed through 
all the grades of teacher from principal of a public country 
school and city graded school to his present position. He had 
conducted Normal School institutes with ability, and was 
then president of the State Teachers' Association. He was 
associate editor of the Missouri School Journal. Private letters 
to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Methodist 
Bishop in Missouri and eight other leaders of all denomina- 
tions in Missouri elicited answers strongly endorsing him. He 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, a 
native and citizen of Missouri, about forty years of age. 

Prof. Walter Dallam Toy, a native of Norfolk, Virginia, 
chosen to the Chair of Modern Languages, is a brother of the 
learned Dr. Crawford H. Toy, Professor of Oriental Languages 
in Harvard Lniversity. He graduated with A.M. at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, with highest reputation for scholarship. 
He is especially eminent for his knowledge of classical and 
especially modern languages. He spent some time in study in 
Germany and France, his idiom being so excellent that in Ger- 
many he was taken for a German and in France for a French- 
man. He had taught several years with marked success. He 
was about twenty-nine years of age. 

Dr. William B. Phillips was elected to the Chair of Agri- 
cultural Chemistry and Mining, eldest son of Dr. Charles Phil- 
lips, long Professor of Mathematics in the University of North 
Carolina, from which Dr. William Phillips graduated with high 
honor in 1877. He obtained his postgraduate degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy in 1883. He served for several years as first 
assistant in the State Chemical Laboratorv under Drs. Ledoux 

William Cain 

Eben Alexander 

R. H. Whitehead 

H. H. Williams 

K. P. Harrington 

W. T. Patterson 

The New Professors, 1885. 335 

and Dabney, and acted for one year as State Geologist. For 
three years past he had been chemist-in-chief to the Navassa 
Gnano Company. 

Mr. James Lee Love, of Gastonia, received the Assistant 
Professorship of Pure Mathematics. He was one of the most 
able mathematicians graduated at the University since its re- 
opening — indeed his college reputation is excelled only by Pet- 
tigrew. He was the president of the Senior Class, which 
showed his influence among students. After graduating at the 
University in 1884, he took a year's course at Johns Hopkins 
University. He was highly recommended among others by his 
Professor, one of the ablest mathematicians of the country, 
Ralph H. Graves, the head of the department in which he was 
to teach. 

George F. Atkinson was elected Assistant Professor of 
Natural History. He was a native of Michigan and was then 
pursuing special studies in Botany and Zoology at Cornell Uni- 
versity, of which he was a graduate. He had taught for two 
years in a college in Alabama. He was strongly endorsed by 
Dr. Andrew D. White, President of Cornell University, Prof. 
Burt G. Wilder, and other eminent scientific men. They tes- 
tified to his remarkable success in his specialties. 

As there was sensitiveness in some quarters in regard to 
religious affiliations of members of the Faculty I state that 
Messrs. Hume and Toy were Baptists, Mr. Henry a Methodist, 
Phillips and Love Presbyterians, and Atkinson a Congrega- 
tionalist. But those facts were not known nor considered by 
the Trustees. 

As the University did not have the necessary appliances for 
instruction in the department of Agricultural Chemistry and 
Mining, and needed reinforcements in other directions, it was 
resolved to postpone the entrance of Dr. Phillips on his duties 
for a year. Likewise the election of a Professor of Natural 
History was postponed as there was then no eligible candidate. 

When the result of the election became known there began 
to flow a torrent of ill natured criticism, of a very trivial 
nature, mostly from those who had opposed the State appro- 
priation. One editor complained that while four Christian 

336 History of University of North Carolina. 

bodies were represented in the Faculty, and his smaller de- 
nomination not at all, it had offered a good man as a candidate 
and he was not chosen. This preference of another must have 
proceeded from favoritism, the successful candidate being a 
son-in-law of a lady long identified with the University. Presi- 
dent Battle was sharply criticised. The answer to this was, 
first, that it was impossible, as well as improper, to choose a 
professor to gratify a religious body, that if this rule should be 
adopted it would probably be at the sacrifice of efficiency; that 
there were many denominations whose claims were as strong 
as that now asking for recognition, and finally, that Mr. Love, 
in the opinion of the Board of Trustees as well as the Faculty, 
was the best man for the place. In stating facts showing this 
superiority President Battle did only what all college presidents 
habitually do and ought to do. 

Again, an ill natured attack was made on Dr. Phillips. It 
was charged that he was too young and not qualified for his 
chair, and that to remedy such disqualification, after his elec- 
tion, he would repair to Germany in order to supplement his 

This was all untrue. Dr. Phillips was a graduate of eigh- 
teen years standing, older by several years than Professors 
Winston, Venable, Gore, Holmes, Dr. James Phillips, Dr. 
Elisha Mitchell, were when elected. The University of Texas, 
on the recommendation of the classical professors of Harvard 
University chose a Professor of Greek six years younger than 
he. Men of established reputation could not be secured for 
our small salaries. There is not a University in the Union 
which has not had professors younger than he. 

As for his qualifications his training made him peculiarly an 
expert in his department. He had not only taken his degree 
in the Scientific course, but by studying two years in Chemis- 
try, Mining, and Geology had won the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy. He then, as above said, spent several years as first 
assistant under Dr. Ledoux in the State Chemical Laboratory. 
He had for years been the chemist in charge of the Navassa 
works, engaged in the manufacture of fertilizers. Moreover, 
Dr. Phillips is a very able man, a capable teacher and lecturer, 

Enlarged Facilities in 1885. 337 

very ambitious to be first in his line. When he found that his 
services would not be needed for twelve months, it was no con- 
fession of weakness but much to his credit to be willing at his 
own cost and charges to spend the time under the great masters 
in the laboratories of Germany. 

Such attacks as these show that the authors were blinded by 
prejudice, as all acquainted with the practice of electing pro- 
fessors in universities and colleges know well. In this case 
the attack was especially absurd because the officers criticised 
were beyond all question well qualified, and a strong commit- 
tee of Trustees, of which Col. Walter L. Steele was chairman, 
had, at the request of the Board, examined the credentials of 
all the candidates and unanimously recommended the selections, 
which met the approval of the Board. 

Circular Announcing Changes. 

The Faculty, through a committee (Messrs. Battle, Man- 
ning, Winston, Graves, and W. B. Phillips), issued a circular 
to the alumni and friends of the University, concerning the 
changes consequent on the enlarged appropriation, which is 
here condensed : 

First, Enlargement of the Faculty from nine to fifteen. 

Second, Full undergraduate instruction in all branches of 
Literature, Philosophy, and Science. Continuous instruction 
for four years in Latin, Greek, English, Modern Languages, 
and Mathematics. Enlarged facilities in laboratory and field, 
extending over longer periods. Increased instruction in Moral 

Third, Special opportunities in the branches relating to Agri- 
culture and the Mechanic Arts, in Engineering and Normal 

Fourth, Postgraduate courses leading to degrees of Master 
of Arts (A.M.), Master of Philosophy (Ph.M.), and the still 
further advanced degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). 
These courses open to graduates of any institution without 
tuition charges. The degree of Master of Arts was no longer 
granted, of course, to any graduate embracing a professional 
career for three years, as was the rule prior to 1875. 


338 History of University of North Carolina. 

Fifth, Additions to the Physical, Chemical, Mineralogical, 
Zoological, and Botanical Museums and Laboratories. 

Sixth, Memorial Hall, a grand auditorium, a testimonial to 
our Confederate dead and the great and good men of the Uni- 
versity; a new gymnasium, no by 45 feet, has been fitted up; 
a new Chemical Laboratory, 70 by 30 feet, is being constructed ; 
a Reading Room, supplied with leading periodicals, has been 
made free to all ; the libraries of the University and of the two 
societies, over 20,000 volumes, have been conveniently placed 
in alcoves in Smith Hall and are accessible every day. 

Seventh, In addition to the Deems Fund a large tract of 
land, about fifteen hundred acres, the Francis Jones Smith 
Fund, has been devised to the University, the income to aid the 
deserving poor. 

Eighth, There is here a strong spirit of economy. Board 
from $8 to $12.50 per month. Total expenses, excluding cloth- 
ing, traveling, furniture of room, pocket money, and society 
fees, range from $181.50 to $246 for the collegiate year, $60 to 
be deducted from these amounts in the case of those having 
free tuition. A young man now standing high as a physician, 
by hiring a cook to bring his meals to his room, lived on $100 
a year and always appeared well dressed. 

The University claims to take its proper place in the front 
rank of educational institutions, and asks its friends to make 
this fact known and appreciated. 

Postgraduate Course. 

A circular was likewise issued on the subject of Postgrad- 
uate Degrees. Master of Arts will be conferred on those who 
have taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and have pursued, 
with residence, a postgraduate course of one year in three de- 
partments. The degree of Master of Science is awarded to a 
graduate in the Philosophical course, and the study for one 
year in three departments of science. The degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy requires two years study in two or three depart- 
ments. For these degrees approved examinations must be had 
and approved theses submitted. 

The following- detailed statement mav be interestinsr : The 

Postgraduate Courses, 1885. 339 

Postgraduates in Constitutional Law must study the ori- 
gin and development of the unwritten English Constitution 
and the written Constitutions of the United States and of 
North Carolina, also of the Roman law. Such works as those 
of Hallam, Stubbs, Green, Bancroft, Curtis, Yon Hoist, 
Tucker, and the opinions of the Chief Justices and Justices 
of the Supreme Court are consulted. 

In Political Economy will be studied such authorities as 
Roscher, Mill, Bagehot, McLeod, Adam Smith, Fawcett and 
others. It will be the effort of the President to give the 
student material and teach him to form his own conclusions 
on the great questions of Constitutional Law and Economics. 

In the Classic Languages and Literature, there will be 
three lectures a week the first and second years, and one the 
third, in each language. No one admitted whose undergradu- 
ate scholarship was under 85, and no honors, diplomas, or 
certificates to one whose postgraduate rank is below 90. The 
general plan is to group together such authors as will best 
illustrate whatever subject the class is investigating. 

English Language and Literature: The four years un- 
dergraduate course includes work in Rhetoric, Essays and 
Orations, Historical Grammar and Philology, the study of 
Standard Authors, etc., with an elective course in Anglo- 
Saxon Languages and Literature. The postgraduate course 
may be in any one of the following groups : 

1. Grammar of Anglo-Saxon, Old English, Old English 

2. Fourteenth Century Studies, Chaucer, etc. 

3. Rise and Progress of the English Drama. 

4. English Bible Version from the Anglo-Saxon period. 

5. Lyric Poetry — Burns, Shakespeare's Sonnets, etc. 

6. Wordsworth, Carlyle. 

7. American Poetry and Humor. 

8. The older Morte d' Arthur Literature, Malory, Tenny- 

French. Two years course: History of French Literature. 
History of France, Literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, Introduction to studv of Historical French Grammar. 

34-0 History of University of North Carolina. 

German. One year course. History of German Litera- 
ture, History of Germany, German Literature 1760 to 1823. 

Tzl'o years course. History of German Literature, History 
of Germany, German Literature 1748 to present; Comparison 
of Luther's language with that of today. 

The student will be expected to have studied successfully 
the undergraduate courses in these languages and to read 
them on sight. In the periods designated only enough of the 
representatives required to understand the character of the 
times. The Professor will meet the students once a week. 

Mathematics. The studies to be selections from such sub- 
jects as Differential Equations, Higher Algebra, Modern 
Geometry, Quaternions, Analytic Mechanics, etc. 

Chemistry. A course of reading in Theoretical and Ap- 
plied Chemistry under direction of the Professor, with weekly 
reviews. Students will be required to tabulate all facts with 
regard to certain compounds, or series of compounds, and to 
compile monographs and bibliographies from general chemi- 
cal literature. 

Similar courses in Mineralogical and Metallurgical studies. 

In the Laboratory advanced analytical or research work, 
organic or inorganic, is assigned. 

Natural Philosophy. (i) Physics: Experimental in- 
struction, use of apparatus, physical manipulation, physical 
measurements with instruments of precision. Theoretical: 
Method of Least Squares, study of advanced work on selected 
portions of Physics. (2) Mechanics and Astronomy: The 
study of Mechanics and Physical Astronomy with the aid of 
Calculus. A fair acquaintance with Differential and Integral 
Calculus is essential. 

Geology, Botany, Zoology, etc. ( 1 ) Courses in General 
Geology, with the general principles of Dynamical, Structural, 
and Historical Geology. (2) Economic Geology, including its 
application to Mining, Agriculture, Architecture, etc. Special 
attention to the Geology of North Carolina. (3) Lithology 
and Field Geology, with microscopic study of rocks in geologic 

Botany — (1) Field and laboratory work on plants in the 

Teachers' Course and School of Law. 341 

Chapel Hill region. (2) Special on special groups — especially 
the grasses. (3) Economic and Systematic Botany, especially 
the uses of plants. 

Zoology — Courses in General and Systematic Zoology, Psy- 
chology, Anatomy and Physiology of Domesticated Animals, 
together with Principles of Breeding and Feeding. 

Entomology — General Entomology, including the preser- 
vation of insects for the Museum. Systematic Entomology, 
including the identification of a number of species, represent- 
ing the most important orders. Economic Entomology : The 
life history of insects injurious to vegetation, and remedies. 
Opportunities for practice in breeding insects useful to man. 

Connected with this circular was a notice that, as com- 
manded by the Constitution, the department of the Science 
and Art of Teaching, in other words a Normal Department 
had been inaugurated. 

Teachers' Course. The Teachers' Course included the or- 
ganization and management of Public Schools, the supervision 
of Graded and City Schools, methods of teaching the various 
branches, methods of cultivating the mental faculties, the his- 
tory of education and educators. 

The classes will meet once a week for examinations in the 
following subjects: Education as a Science, The True Order 
of Studies, Psychology in its Bearings on Education, Philos- 
ophy of Education, American State Universities, Educational 
Reports, and such current educational literature as the instruc- 
tor may suggest. 

School of Law. In addition to the studies required for 
obtaining license to practice law an extension of studies was 
offered leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws (B.L.). 
The course embraced new subjects, such as the changes in the 
Rights of Husband and Wife, and Exemption from Execution 
under the Constitution of 1868, together with a more extended 
acquaintance of the law of Real Property, Contracts, Torts, 
Equity, Jurisprudence, Constitutional Limitations, and Cor- 

Short Courses. The experience of the L'niversity showed 
that numbers of voting: men from lack of time, or monev, or 

342 History of University of North Carolina. 

previous preparation, were unable to complete one of the full 
four years courses of study. The Faculty grouped together 
in three short courses, extending over two years, such studies 
as are of especial importance to certain classes of men. 

I — Teachers' Course. In each spring a Teachers' Course of 
three months for the benefit of teachers who wish to pursue 
advanced work. The tuition in this course is free. 

II — Business Course. First year — Business Law (i hour 
a week), English (2), Mathematics (4), Physics (2), Phys- 
iology and Hygiene (3), History (1), Biological Labora- 
tory (2). 

Second year — Chemistry (3) or Geology and Mineralogy 
(3), English (1), Mathematics (4), Constitution of the United 
States and of North Carolina and Political Economy (3), 
English Literature (3), Mental and Moral Science (2). 

Ill — The Physicians' or Pharmacists' Course. First year — 
Chemistry (3), Chemical Laboratory (3), Biological Labora- 
tory (2), English (2). Latin (4), History (1). 

Second year — Physiology, Zoology, and Botany (3). In- 
dustrial Chemistry (3) or Quantitative Chemical Analysis (3), 
Constitution of the United States and of North Carolina, 
Political Economy (3), English Literature (3), Latin (4), 
or Greek (4), or French (3), or German (3), English (1), 
Physics (2), Business Law (1), Mental and Moral Science 
(2). Those completing either of these courses are entitled to a 
certificate of proficiency. 

Some of the courses were of much value for several years be- 
fore the increase of higher schools, where boys could be trained 
for the University. They were especially needed for the class 
of students entitled to admission under the Land Grant. When 
that was taken from the University they were abolished. 

Societies and Fraternities. 

In this year, 1885, the Faculty passed a law that all students 
except Medical and Law students, graduate and special stu- 
dents, and such as should be specially excused by the Faculty, 
should join the societies. Non-members not allowed to room in 

Societies and Fraternities, 1885. 343 

the University building except by special permission. If a 
member should resign from a society or be expelled, the case 
will be considered by the Faculty. It should be remembered 
that they have no right to delegate to the societies, or any other 
body, the right to dismiss a student. This is a judicial function. 
The Representatives and Marshals must be taken from the 
society members. Two Representatives for Commencement 
debate to be chosen from each society by a committee of the 

In the same year, on the petition of Alpha Tau Omega, 
Kappa Alpha and Phi Kappa Sigma, the Faculty recommended 
and the Trustees granted the admission of all fraternities or 
Greek Letter societies on condition that they would provide the 
Faculty with the names of their members and would pledge 
themselves not to use intoxicating liquors at any banquet given 
at Chapel Hill. 

This last provision is in accordance with the settled policy 
of the University for three-quarters of a century to enforce tem- 
perance in the University and in the village of Chapel Hill. 
The law provided that no such liquors could be sold at first for 
two miles and after 1876 four miles from the corporate limits. 
In its early years "grog shops" were licensed to carry on busi- 
ness in the village. They were found to be the sources of dis- 
sipation, rowdyism, and mischief. 

A similar law exists with regard to theatrical performances 
and circuses and similar caterers to amusement, but the Faculty 
or the President has the power to allow them. The knowledge 
of the difficulty of obtaining this permission, coupled with the 
want of a suitable hall, and the fact that Chapel Hill is not 
on the main line of travel, keeps away most of these perform- 
ances. So few are willing to overcome these disadvantages 
that the two societies and the Faculty unite through a joint 
committee in giving a guaranty to six entertainments annually, 
offering them the use of Gerrard Hall. Of course only those 
supposed to be of value in cultivating the intellectual or artistic 
taste of the students are invited. The societies, in considera- 
tion of such guaranty, have their members admitted without 

344 History of University of North Carolina. 

In 1885 died Washington Caruthers Kerr, State Geologist 
and Lecturer on Geology in the University. He graduated 
here in 1850, sharing the first honor with two others. He 
then took a course under Agassiz and others at Harvard, and 
was Professor of Geology at Davidson College. He was ap- 
pointed State Geologist in 1864, and made important publica- 
tions in regard to the mineral and other resources of the State. 
He was a man of decided talent, energy and probity. His suc- 
cessor, Joseph A. Holmes, delivered an address at Chapel 
Hill, reviewing his life and work. His University training was 
by the generosity of the Dialectic Society and when the Uni- 
versity was reorganized in 1875 ne made a handsome donation 
to its treasury. 

Miss Mary Ruffin Smith. 

In November of this year (1885) died a notable bene- 
factor of the University, Mary Ruffin Smith. She was daugh- 
ter of James S. Smith, M.D., who was an able physician and 
had represented his county (Orange) in the General Assem- 
bly and the Convention of 1835, and was for two terms a 
Representative in Congress of the United States. He was 
long a Trustee of the University, and an active one. Her 
mother was daughter of Lieutenant Francis Jones of the 
Revolution. She had two brothers, who died before her, un- 
married, and she inherited their property. She never mar- 

After some minor bequests to her former household slaves, 
she devised the bulk of her fortune to the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church in North Carolina, and a plantation of about fifteen 
hundred acres in Chatham County to the University to further 
the education of indigent students. She appointed President 
Battle executor. 

Miss Smith was one of the best of her sex. Of modest, 
unassuming manners, of superior intellect, of wide informa- 
tion, especially in medical botany, of deep piety, of boundless 
charity in deed and word, she tenderly nursed with patience 
and skill the dying sickness of mother, father, two brothers, 
and a devoted friend, her girlhood's teacher, Miss Maria Spear, 
and died the last of her race. 

Historic Dwelling Burned, 1885. 345 

It is a coincidence that she was akin to two other female 
benefactors of the University, Mary Ann Smith and Mary 
Elizabeth (Morgan) Mason, but these latter were not akin to 
one another. 

On Christmas morning- was burned the dwelling house 
built by Mrs. Wm. Hooper, born Helen Hogg, on a site a few 
feet to the east of that now occupied by the new house 
of President Yenable. She had settled in Chapel Hill in order 
to educate her boys, and soon afterwards married President 
Caldwell. He changed his residence from the President's 
house to the residence of his bride and occupied it until his 
death in 1835. As the arrangement of the rooms was unsuit- 
able for little children, President Swain chose the house next 
to the Episcopal Church, now ( 1912) occupied by Dr. Bain, 
and the Caldwell mansion was assigned to Prof. W. M. Green. 
When he accepted the bishopric of Mississippi in 1849 Presi- 
dent Swain adopted it as the President's house. Here he en- 
tertained three Presidents, Polk, Buchanan, and Johnson, the 
last two having slept under his roof. During the Pool admin- 
istration it was occupied by Professor Patrick. On the revival 
in 1875 the Chairman of the Faculty. Dr. Phillips, succeeded to 
the occupancy. On his retirement Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper 
adopted it as his residence until his resignation when it was as- 
signed to Rev. Dr. Hume. He moved into it with his family the 
day before Christmas. A quantity of goods boxes, straw and 
other combustible material was accumulated in an outhouse 
about ten feet from the main building and the negligence of a 
young negro servant girl set them in flames. It was about 
dinner time and the neighbors quickly gathered to fight the fire. 
But there was in Chapel Hill no fire engine. There was no 
hook and ladder company to tear down the outhouse, which was 
built of heartpine. Buckets of water proved insufficient to 
retard the spread of the flames, although there was no wind 
blowing, and soon the historic edifice was in ashes. 

Until 1876 the square was undivided and there was no 
street along its eastern border. In that year a short street 
bearing the name of Caldwell was laid off and accepted by the 

346 History of University of North Carolina. 

town commissioners and soon afterwards a lot next to it sold 
to James Lee Love, then Associate Professor of Mathematics. 
He built a residence on it and when he removed to Harvard 
University, it was purchased by Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, 
and on his removal to the University of Virginia, was sold 
to Mr. H. H. Patterson. In 1909 the handsome President's 
house was built on the western three-fourths of the lot. 

Lecture by Governor Vance. 

The students, Faculty, and villagers were greatly edified by 
hearing from Governor Vance his far-famed lecture on the 
"Scattered Nation." It was one of the ablest and most inter- 
esting ever heard from our rostrum. An incident connected 
with his "Scattered Nation" address is interesting. A num- 
ber of Hebrews, charmed with it, had combined to give him a 
handsome gold-headed cane, suitably engraved. While he was 
at dinner at Greensboro, the cane, left in the car, was stolen. 
Some time afterwards a Jew of New York purchased and 
returned it. 

Judge A. S. Merrimon, who had been elected to the Senate 
over Vance by a coalition of Republicans and a handful of 
Democrats, took umbrage at the remark of the student intro- 
ducing Vance. The introducer expressed the hope that this 
election would be reversed. The Senator complained to Presi- 
dent Battle because he did not rebuke the taking sides at a lit- 
erary gathering, but the President did not think that the en- 
thusiastic utterance of a student should be publicly noticed, 
although the remark was plainly "out of order." 

The students were not satisfied with the polished lecture, 
but called on Vance tumultuously at his lodgings at President 
Battle's residence. In bringing him out President Battle re- 
marked that he claimed the Governor as his own by right of 
"first discovery" — that in 1848, during his first visit to Ashe- 
ville he shook hands with a young man full of wit and humor. 
On closer acquaintance he discovered a remarkable familiarity 
with the Bible, Shakespeare, and Scott's novels. He reported 
to his friends that there was a young man beyond the Blue 
Ridge who would certainly become famous. He was the first 

Death of Dr. Thomas W. Harris, 1886. 347 

man who had predicted away from his mountain fastnesses the 
success of Zebulon Baird Vance. The Governor answered the 
call on him by a speech of unparalleled humor, wit, and elo- 

In 1886 there was a difficulty in regard to teaching History, 
Dr. Mangum's health requiring him to give up this part of his 
work. The result was that part was undertaken by President 
Battle and the rest assumed by Professors in the several 

In the same year Dr. Thomas YV. Harris resigned his Pro- 
fessorship of Anatomy and Materia Medica and removed with 
his family to Durham. He did not long survive, dying almost 
in the prime of life. He had distinguished himself as a Cap- 
tain of Cavalry in the Confederate Army, was a man of high- 
est character and purpose, of strong intellect, of large acquisi- 
tion in the realm of his profession, trained in this country and 
in Paris. As a citizen and as a physician he was deeply 

Resolution Against Hazing. 

In this year (1886) occurred a case of hazing, notable be- 
cause of the three engaged in it two had left the institution 
and received their letters of honorable dismission. These let- 
ters were ordered to be recalled and the sentence of dismission 
was passed upon the student who was still subject to the 
authority of the Faculty. 

In addition to the laws of the societies against hazing, which 
have been mentioned, the Senior Class passed a resolution to 
use their influence against it, bearing especially on the injury 
to the University by frightening off the timid. The Sophs, 
not to be outdone, agreed to refrain from the custom, but in 
language showing that in their judgment it was not wrong. 
They said, "We blot from our speech, and from the book of 
our remembrance, all preconceived ideas of blacking, trotting, 
bull riding, and spanking, and we submit ourselves wholly to 
the Faculty's fatherly guidance. 

"Second. That we exert ourselves to create sentiments of 

348 History of University of North Carolina. 

pity and affection for all youths who may come among us and 
we sympathize with those who rule over us. 

"Third. We will expel from our class, and treat with every 
indignity known to us, any one who shall hereafter use the 
word, the odious word, 'Fresh.' 

"Fourth. That we address new students as 'the gentlemen 
who recently arrived on the Hill/ that we treat them as friends 
and brothers, that we solve their problems, write their essays, 
loan them our textbooks, and endeavor in every way to make 
their stay in college one of continual happiness and uninter- 
rupted bliss." 

The persistence of the practice of hazing is difficult to under- 
stand by those who know that it is injurious to the reputation 
of the University, and diminishes its patronage, besides 
seriously detracting from the character of the participants as 
gentlemen. The argument is given for it in an editorial of the 
University Magazine, with the premise that a few of the old 
alumni also defend the practice : 

"Hazing, in professional phraseology, may be a relic of bar- 
barism and of a ruder age, but it also has a good side," says the 
editor. "We say, after a four years' experience as Fresh- 
man, Sophomore, Junior, and Senior, that judicious hazing 
serves to inculcate respect for college discipline. When a boy 
enters college he is without restraint, no longer fearing the 
rod, or if he be from a military school the guardroom, and 
reasonable hazing teaches him that his deportment must be in 
accord with the new world in which he has entered. 

"Again, if a Freshman meets with naught but courtesy, he 
attributes it to a lack of spirit in the older students, or to supe- 
riority in himself. The effect of the stipulation between the 
societies abolishing hazing three years before, made the subse- 
quent Freshmen classes intolerably conceited and cheeky. 

"A boy entering college is like a cockerel beginning to crow. 
He is considered brilliant at home. What better remedy for 
his arrogance than to force him to trot half a mile or make a 
speech to jeering auditors? 

"Hazing, then, is what a new student expects; it limits his 
admiration of himself; it keeps him in his room at night at 

Hazing Discussed. 349 

his studies ; it keeps quiet in the building in study hours ; it 
secures respect for the laws of the University and of the socie- 
ties ; it makes better students and makes them more respectful 
to professors, and teaches them to have regard to public 

"Look at the infants in the University. Fathers allowed 
them to leave the nursery because hazing was abolished. They 
are not of the age or experience to resist temptation. If haz- 
ing had been feared they would have been kept at home longer. 

"What student does not recall with pleasure those 'Fresh 
treats' of the olden time, when the air was thick with water- 
melon rinds, and village, campus, and surrounding hills echoed 
with the shouts of fleeing Fresh and pursuing Soph? What 
more harmless fun and more replete with incidents for happy 
recollection in after years? 

"We recall our Freshman experience with genuine pleasure. 
We are rather proud of it for the rich fund of anecdote it left 
us. Terrific falls from the back of the cow, which had reached 
her end of a rope tied to a tree ; trotting barefoot over gravel 
walks, with an escort of three; pulled from the bed by the 
heel at midnight, and compelled to recite 'Mary had a little 
lamb,' have no terrors for us now, but carry us back to our 
first cup at the Pierian spring and furnish us with materials for 
stories more real and wonderful than usually fall to the lot of 
alumni of our Alma Mater." 

These reasons have very little relation to the facts of col- 
lege life. Surely if a new student shows, in the language of 
cant, "bumptiousness," the older students could "take him 
down" by dignity of manner or quiet sarcasm, rather than 
descend to the level of the blacking brush. Moreover every 
one knows that the hazing is not inflicted for reformation of 
offenders. Like the rain it falls on good and bad indifferently. 
Indeed the victims are often inoffensive and well-behaved. 
One of the most brutal features of the practice is the fre- 
quency with which some quiet young man is tormented merely 
because of his known nonresistance, his want of friends among 
upper classmen, or the accessibility of his room. The state- 
ment that the absence of hazing induces parents to send to the 

350 History of University of North Carolina. 

University immature children is totally without foundation — 
is absurd. No application of philosophical whitewash can 
explain away or excuse this crime against the University. 

First, It is wrong because it is a breach of University law. 
Obedience to law is a sacred duty. 

Second, It is wrong because it is at night by disguised men. 
It is "sneaking." How can a gentleman engage in it? 

Third, It is wrong because it is cowardly. Many assail one. 

Fourth, It is violative of the rights of others. It not only 
infringes the golden rule, but it is a crime against the State 
and should be punished as such. It is an assault and battery — 
punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both. 

Fifth, It is an unauthorized obstruction of the time of 
another and therefore a plain act of dishonesty, of the same 
nature as taking his books or money. 

Sixth, It is in the highest degree ungentlemanly. A true 
gentleman treats his neighbors with courtesy and kindness. 
He endeavors to diffuse happiness around him. The hazers 
treat their juniors with rudeness and study to add to their 

Seventh, The true gentleman is especially kind to strangers 
and those unfamiliar with their surroundings. The hazers 
unfeelingly and purposely select newcomers as victims of their 
diabolical annoyances. 

Eighth, The hazers are stabbing the University by injuring 
its patronage. Other institutions boast that hazing does not 
exist in their walls and divert students from us. 

Ninth, The intentional stabbing of their Alma Mater is all 
the more inexcusable as the payments by the students are less 
than half the reimbursement for the expenditures in their 

Tenth, It is difficult to suppose that beneficiaries proper, 
who receive the benefits of the University freely, should be so 
lost to all sense of decency and honor as to break her laws 
established by the legal guardians, and inflict serious injury on 
the institution which is their benefactor. If such there be, 
which God forbid, they are guilty of base ingratitude as well 
as crime. 

Chapter VI. 

Industrial School Controversy. 

In January and February, 1886, President Battle was unex- 
pectedly involved in a controversy which some thought would 
injure the University, but which he could not avoid. The 
General Assembly authorized the establishment of an Industrial 
School on the following plan: "The Board of Agriculture is 
ordered to seek proposals for the establishment of an Industrial 
School, and when any city or town shall donate in lands, build- 
ings, machinery, or other materials, or money, an amount ade- 
quate in the judgment of the said Board for the establishment 
of such Industrial School, it shall be their duty to locate the 
same at such pla-ce. And if there be more than one city or town 
making such proposal, it shall be the duty of the Board to locate 
it at the place offering the greatest inducement.'' 

The character of the school was set forth in another section. 
"Instruction shall be provided in this school in wood working, 
mining, metallurgy, practical agriculture, and such other 
branches of industrial education as may be deemed expedient." 

The second section enacts that "the Board of Agriculture 
shall direct the organization and equipment, and shall manage 
and control the same in conjunction with the Board of three 
Directors, appointed by the Board of Aldermen of the city or 
town whose proposal is accepted." 

The fourth section directs that "the Board of Agriculture 
shall apply to the establishment and maintenance of said school 
such part of their fund as is not required to conduct the regu- 
lar work of their department, provided that not more than 
$5,000 of their funds shall be applied to the establishment of 
the school in any one year." 

The scheme seemed to the President to be substantiallv as 
follows : Five thousand dollars annually is the interest on 
$83,333.33 and the proposal of the State was: "If the city or 
town shall subscribe a sufficient amount to establish such a 

352 History of University of North Carolina. 

school as is described above, the agent of the State shall set 
apart $83,333.33, i. e., $5,000 a year, and give the subscribing 
city an equal share in the management. This is fair if the 
donation is adequate, i. e., substantially and in good faith, to 
the establishment of the school, and shall approach in value that 
offered by the State, but grossly unfair if the offer is only one- 
tenth in amount or other small sum. The State, owning nine- 
tenths, would share in the management with its partner owning 
one-tenth. The State has never given away its funds as reck- 
lessly as this. She has always placed the management of its 
funds in the charge of its own officers. The Asylum, the Uni- 
versity, and all other State institutions are examples of this. 

As directed by law the Board of Agriculture advertised for 
proposals. Special notices were sent to the Mayors and Com- 
missioners of all the leading towns and cities in the State. 
On opening the bids it was found that Charlotte subscribed 
$5,000 and a site; Kinston $10,000 conditionally and a site; 
Raleigh $5,000, an acre of ground in the northern part of the 
city as a site, and the exposition building on the fair grounds. 
This building was not lathed and plastered, had a felt covering, 
and was at least two miles from the aforesaid acre. It could 
only be utilized by tearing it down and using the material for 
the erection of a new building. The sanguine friends of Ra- 
leigh estimated the value at $3,000. This was probably exces- 
sive, but conceding it the offer of Raleigh did not exceed 
$8,000. The authorities of the fair grounds also agreed that 
a part of their land might be used for experimental purposes, 
but that did not add to the value of the donation. 

After reading these proposals Governor Scales, President 
Battle and others, two-thirds of the Board, voted that the act 
had not been complied with, that neither of the three towns had 
offered an amount "adequate to the establishment of the 
school." The question was postponed for three months and 
new proposals were invited. 

This decision caused much criticism in Raleigh. It was 
expected to capture an important public institution, begin- 
ning with $5,000 a year, probably to be largely increased 
hereafter, to have an equal voice in the management, for 

Industrial School Controversy,, 1886. 353 

$6,000 or $7,000, i. c, $300 or $400 a year. A target was looked 
for and President Battle selected, although Governor Scales 
led off in opposition to the immediate location and Battle only 
followed. An able and ordinarily fair writer for the press 
charged that Battle was solely responsible for the defeat of 
this most useful measure. He of course answered the attack, 
declared his friendship for the school, and gave the reason for 
his vote, that Raleigh had not earned the location. Then cer- 
tain Raleigh editors joined in the criticism of President Battle's 
course, followed by an ex-Judge of the Supreme Court and 
by an able metropolitan lawyer. Battle was kept busy for some 
time answering these attacks. He was satisfied with the out- 
come. His construction of the act was sustained by the 
Attorney-General (Davidson). 

At the next meeting of the Board, three months only after 
the adversary vote was given, which an adversary mistakenly 
said was for "indefinite continuance," the question was again 
taken up and, owing to the pressure from without, a majority 
of the Board accepted the offer. Finding that the proffered 
acre was not eligible as a site they proceeded to purchase two 
or three acres in or near the northwest corner of the city. The 
purchase money was about one-half of the donation, $5,000, 
which the Board voted to be "adequate to the establishment of 
the school." Here the matter rested until the success of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, when the Industrial 
School was merged in the College. Thus ended the strange 
experiment of establishing a woodworking-mining-metallurgy- 
practical-agricultural-and-other-branches Industrial School on 
$5,000 and a lot of second hand lumber, the State appropria- 
tion being only for maintenance. The promised acre in Raleigh 
is not added to the $5,000 because it was given only as a site, 
and found not to be eligible. The other site, being remote 
from that of the college, was sold. 

Death of Professor J. DeBerniere Hooper. 

John DeBerniere Hooper, Professor of Greek, passed out 
of life on January 23, 1886. He was a remarkable man. 
His father was Archibald Maclaine Hooper, son of George 


354 History of University of North Carolina. 

Hooper, who was a brother of William Hooper, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. His mother was a de- 
scendant of a noble Huguenot family, the DeBernieres. 
His grandmother was daughter of the sturdy patriot, Archi- 
bald Maclaine. 

Professor Hooper graduated with first honor in the Class 
of 1 83 1 and then was successively Tutor, teacher in the Epis- 
copal School at Raleigh, and Tutor again in the University ; 
then in i836-'38 and i843~'48 Professor of French, and 
i838-'48, of Latin. 

In 1848 he left the University and took charge of a school 
for boys in Warren County, then was principal of a school 
for girls in Fayetteville, then in Wilson. On the reorganiza- 
tion in 1875 he was elected Professor of Greek and French and 
taught these languages until 1885, when he was confined to 
Greek. His health failing, he resigned the same year, and 
serenely awaited the end. 

Professor DeBerniere Hooper, as he was usually called, was 
singularly pure and steadfast in his principles, mild in manner 
but firm as the everlasting granite, modest but of winning- 
courtesy, an unswerving and undoubting member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, content with the old dogmas, un- 
shaken by modern theories. As a scholar he was accurate and 
widely read, but unambitious to exploit himself or illumine the 
world. He never wrote or published a book or pamphlet but 
no draft was ever made on his store of learning that was not 
honored. His teaching could not be said to arouse enthusiasm, 
but was exhaustive and accurate. He was noted for his felici- 
tous use of the English language but always refused to make 
addresses, even when tendered the great compliment of deliver- 
ing the Annual Address at Commencement. 

Professor Hooper had, in his highest Greek class, a student 
of Hebrew lineage who had remarkable talent — Solomon C. 
Weill. At the request of the Faculty he took charge of Pro- 
fessor Hooper's classes most acceptably until the arrival of Dr. 
Alexander. He subsequently made a brilliant beginning at the 
bar in Wilmington, removed to New York Citv, where he was 

Annual Convention of Y. M. C. A. 355 

soon elected to the Legislature and was accidentally killed by a 
street car. 

The annual convention of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation was held in 1886 in Chapel Hill, March nth to 14th. 
It was very successful. Rev. Dr. A. W. Mangum conducted 
the religious exercises of the opening. There was an address 
of welcome by Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., which was responded 
to by G. INI. Smithdeal. Mr. L. D. Wishard, of the Inter- 
national Committee, made a general talk in Gerrard Hall on 
the work of the Association. At the close he sang most feel- 
ingly the "Mother's Goodbye to Her Boy." 

Prof. J. W. Gore was made permanent President; K. A. 
McLeod, of Davidson College, First Vice-President; D. P. 
Coleman, of Bingham School, Second Vice-President ; Rev. 
W. D. Akers, of Asheville, Secretary, with Mr. Stephen B. 
Weeks, of the University, Assistant Secretary. Reports from 
the several organizations in the State were read. The Boys' 
Work was discussed by Mr. W. H. G. Belt, of Baltimore. 

At the evening meeting in Gerrard Hall the singing was led 
by Messrs. Garrett, Akers, Smith, and Harris. The address 
was delivered by Mr. E. W. Watkins, of New York, who 
showed the marvelous growth of the International work since 
the organization of the Association, June 4. 1844, in London. 
Dr. Hume, President. Professor Gore, Secretary, and S. B. 
Weeks, Treasurer, were elected officers of the Executive Com- 
mittee of twelve members. The Convention then, in Gerrard 
Hall, heard an able address by Col. Robert Bingham on the 
"Armor of God." 

In the afternoon and night the exercises were conducted by 
E. L. Harris and L. D. W'ishard. There was a large congre- 
gation to hear Mr. Wishard's talk on "Bible Training Classes." 

The Sunday meetings were uncommonly interesting. At 
8 130 o'clock Mr. Wishard spoke on "The Power of the Holy 
Spirit." At eleven Mr. E. W. Watkins, of the Methodist 
Church, spoke of the growth of the influence of the Bible. In 
the afternoon Mr. Watkins addressed the citizens of Chapel 
Hill in the Baptist Church, and in the Y. M. C. A. Hall Mr. 

356 History of University of North Carolina. 

Wishard earnestly pressed the irrefutable claims of Christ on 
young men. 

At night, there being no service in the village, Mr. Wishard 
conducted the services in Gerrard Hall, speaking of missions 
and their claims. 

The students generally were greatly interested and additions 
were made to the membership. The members experienced an 
awakening and their enthusiasm was kindled. 

Consolidation of Libraries. 

In 1886. March 18, the two literary societies came to an 
understanding with the Faculty whereby their libraries were 
united to that of the University. The vote was nearly unani- 
mous in the Philanthropic, and forty-two to. thirty in the Dia- 
lectic Society. The minority with justice thought that the 
movement would diminish the prestige of the societies, but the 
argument in favor of the move prevailed — that the doors of 
the library should be open every day, that the books would be 
in one room, that money would not be wasted in the purchase of 
duplicates. There were very many duplicates. Wherever pos- 
sible these were sold or exchanged. Where this could not be 
done those remaining over were given to schools and other 
institutions. The official title of the joint Library to be 
"Library of the University of North Carolina endowed by the 
Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies." 

The following rules were agreed on. The library was to be 
open three hours every work day except Saturdays, five hours 
on Saturday, and afterwards on Sunday also. 

The books were to be borrowed under society rules. The 
University paid the expenses and $200 per annum to buy 
books, each societv giving $150 for this purpose, the books 
to be selected by committees of each of the parties. Each 
society could withdraw on giving six months' notice and retake 
its own books at its own expense. Each society to elect a 
Librarian and to pay him $75 a year. Fines for violating rules 
to go to the societies. 

Professor Winston, to whom is due the chief credit for the 
movement, as chairman of a committee, met the representatives 

Consolidation of Libraries, 1886. 357 

of the societies in carrying the project into effect. It was 
agreed that the society books should be kept separate so far as 
possible. It was reported that the library, after discarding 
duplicates and depositing in another room books not of general 
utility, without new alcoves, would hold 20,000 volumes. 

The consolidation of the libraries has proved of signal ad- 
vantage to all branches of the University, especially to stu- 
dents seeking information throwing light on queries under 
debate. Prof. James Lee Love was representative for the 
University in the transfer of books. Wm. J. Battle acted for 
the Dialectic Society and Claude F. Smith for the Philan- 
thropic. The partition between two rooms at the end of the 
Library Building (Smith Hall) was knocked down and the 
larger apartment thus made was converted into a reading room 
in which the leading magazines and newspapers were kept 
for use of students and Faculty. 

Mr. Love was paid a small salary and received a special 
vote of thanks by the Faculty for his arduous services. The 
substantial benefits of the change made the arguments for it 
irresistible. The keeping the library open for consultation 
all day and every day, instead of an hour or two once or twice 
a week, as had been the custom, the systematization so as to 
buy no duplicates, the having a Professor on the purchasing 
committee, were reasons for removal which overbalanced those 
against it. 

In order to conciliate society pride the Dialectic books were 
placed on the south side and the Philanthropic on the north. 
Of course this could hardly be kept up indefinitely, and is 
ignored in the new Library Building, the gift of Andrew Car- 
negie. The benefits derived from the union of the Libraries 
have been found so great that all dissatisfaction has ceased. 

There has been a marked increase year by year. The 
number borrowed of the old University Library did not amount 
to one hundred annually. No effort was made to make it 
useful or agreeable to the students. A different policy has been 
adopted since the consolidation. An annual appropriation is 
expended under the direction of a committee of the Faculty, 
and valuable donations have been received. 

358 History of University of North Carolina. 

The following statistics show the immediate value of the 
consolidation : 


Number of books borrowed of the Philanthropic Library 1,900 

Number of books borrowed of the Dialectic Library 1,759 

Total borrowed in one year 3,657 

Number borrowed of the consolidated Library 4,761 

First year's increase 1,102 

Class Day of 1886. 
Dr. Stephen B. Weeks was the Historian of the Class of 
1 886. The Class Day was on April 30th. The speech of Dr. 
Weeks was remarkably well done and had the luminous style 
which he has shown since in many an historical production. 
Here is his account of an institution, since forbidden by the 
Faculty: "Then came that relic of barbarism, known in Col- 
lege slang as the 'Fresh treat,' more properly called 'the 
Freshman's Re-treat.' It was held in the New West Build- 
ing. The Fresh were invited to 'walk up and help themselves' 
to the luscious melons. They walked up and were helped. They 
did not walk away. Their gait was something faster than a 
run. In five minutes there was not a Freshman to be seen. 
They had taken to themselves wings and were seeking rest. 

"What a throng of sweet memories come floating back as 
we turn and pause and turn again. How memory swells at 
our breast and turns the past to pain, when we remember that 
this is our last meeting. Well has the poet-priest written, 

'When hands are linked, 

That dread to part, 

And heart is met by throbbing heart, 

Oh bitter, bitter is the smart 

Of them that bid farewell.' " 

The class during its four years' course had one hundred 
and four members and graduated twentv-six. There were fif- 

Class Day of 1886. 359 

teen Di's and nine Phi's, two belonging to neither society. 
Six came in as Sophomores and two as Juniors. One died 
after he left the University — George Wimberly Arrington. 

The Class Poem was by Wm. A. Self. I give a few lines 
as specimens of the whole. The poet in wandering through 
our forests finds in a rocky cave an old hermit — a former 
student — who disappeared from Chapel Hill ninety years be- 
fore. He tells how he was carried off and condemned to live 
in solitude. 

'Twas in the Old East, as it now is called, 

A youth, half dreaming, by his chimney fire 

Sat reading some dark legend of the times 

When our brave forefathers with dauntless hand 

Beat back the red man and the howling beast 

Into their wooded thickets and their caves. 

He was aroused by hearing all at once 

The sounding of his name in accents quaint — 

So muffled, so unearthly did it seem, 

That he scarce knew that it was his own name — 

But he arose and left his quiet room. 

And no one ever knew where he had gone. 
No one has ever dreamed of how those fiends, 
Lawless and conscienceless, bore him away, 
And made him swear by all the universe, 
That if they spared his life he would consent 
To dwell in a dingy, dusky cave. 

But life is not a sadness, even to him. 
Fate had decreed that as a sweet solace 
Unto his soul, a strange power, supernal, 
Should be — to gain full knowledge of the world 
Through blessed spirits — they whose winged thoughts 
Float on the whispering breezes — on the winds 
Which sigh and moan at midnight. 

My stringed companion then he took 

From off the granite floor. A look 

Of joy was on his face, and much 

I wondered. Then with such a touch — 

With such perfection of chord and tone — 

He drew the notes of "Home, Sweet Home," 

360 History of University of North Carolina. 

That well I knew that no mortal hand 
Did e'er such wondrous power command. 
I looked around. No longer shone 
The dim light, and the spirit was gone. 

Commencement in 1886. 

The Commencement of 1886 was a bright and happy one. 
The devotional exercises were conducted by Prof. N. B. 
Henry. President Battle gave a history of the University 
since 1875, when the exercises were resumed. Tuesday night 
was given up to the two literary societies, short addresses being 
made by old members, and diplomas and prize medals pre- 

Wednesday morning witnessed the address before the two 
societies by Hon. Augustus Van Wyck, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New York, and afterwards as Democratic 
candidate for Governor, coming near defeating Roosevelt for 
that high office. Judge Van Wyck left the University as an 
honor graduate in 1864 and at once joined the army. He has 
always been a loyal son to his Alma Mater and captivated the 
audience by his tribute to her and to her sons. His eulogy 
of President Swain was peculiarly hearty and happy. He was 
strong and exhaustive in urging the points that popular educa- 
tion and free agency are the rock foundation of the best gov- 
ernment. "Let our motto be Intellectual Culture and Liberty." 
The arguments and illustrations used to enforce this great 
truth were eloquent and cogent. 

The Alumni Association held a business meeting after the 
address and elected Mr. Paul C. Cameron as President, Wil- 
liam L. Saunders, Secretary, and Edward B. Engelhard, 
Treasurer. It was resolved to hold a meeting in Raleigh in 
January or February of the following year, with an orator 
chosen by the Executive Committee, but this order was subse- 
quently repealed. 

In the afternoon the Baccalaureate Sermon was preached by 
Rev. Charles H. Hall, D.D., of Brooklyn, N. Y. Prayer was 
offered by Rev. Dr. Thomas E. Skinner, of the Class of 
1847, an< J a hymn sung. Dr. Hall then gave his text, "Why 

Commencement of 1886. 361 

stand ye here all the day idle ?" The reporter described the ser- 
mon as "great in its subject matter, great in its directness and 
simplicity, great in its practical application, great in its un- 
affected delivery, great in the eloquence of its diction, great 
in everything that goes to make up a great sermon." The. 
auditors concurred with this estimate. 

His topic was education, such as qualifies a person for the 
duties of life. He touched upon country and climate as affect- 
ing mind and body, and predicted that Western Xorth Carolina 
would ere long be the nursery of high mental and moral cul- 
ture. He concluded with a picture of a "party standing at the 
grave of Dr. Mitchell on the highest peak of the Black Moun- 
tain at nightfall to witness the beauty of the rising moon. 
The majestic Roan in its grandeur looming up in the dis- 
tance ; Old Craggy with its rugged sides, crouching to the left, 
and in the rear Guyot's Peak, Hairy Bear, and other subor- 
dinate peaks dotting the foreground. The evening breeze 
was sighing a mournful dirge through the waving boughs of 
the fir trees, while all at once the plaintive requiem ceased and 
all was a calm and ominous hush. And presently a sound, or 
sounds, from the superincumbent elements were heard, whence 
no one could tell — a weird sound. Look in this or the other 
direction, no one could tell whence it proceeded. It was the 
commingling and hum of the rivulets descending the dell, 
with the roar of the cataract pouring its water into the baptis- 
mal font, whence the spirit of Dr. Mitchell took its flight tc 

The speeches of the society representatives at night were un- 
usually fine. The first was by Claudius Dockery, of Richmond 
County, on "The South." Then came Jacob C. Johnson, of 
Pitt County, on "The Fourth Estate" — the Press. Then Wil- 
liam E. Edmundson, of Morganton, on "National Education." 
He was followed by Albert M. Simmons, of Hyde County, 
on the "Truths of Fiction." William S. Wilkinson, of Tar- 
boro, spoke on "Utopia," and then came Samuel E. Gidney, 
of Shelby, on "Industrial Education in the South." The Rep- 
resentative Medal was won bv Mr. Dockerv. Messrs. Dock- 

362 History of University of North Carolina. 

ery, Edmundson and Gidney were Di's, and Johnson, Sim- 
mons and Wilkinson Phi's. 

Thursday was Commencement Day. Memorial Hall was 
filled with visitors while the Campus to the south of it was 
covered with the vehicles of the good people of the country. 
Those were the days of many speakers, of all graduates who 
wished to air their oratorical powers, some being ambitious to 
compete for the Mangum medal. There was an advantage 
in this. The fathers and mothers, aunts, uncles, and cousins, 
and the inevitable sweethearts, were in the audience listening 
delightedly to their rising kinsmen. Their intensely interested 
faces were goodly to look on. There were eleven speakers in 
the morning. They were : 

Joseph John Jenkins, Jr., of Chatham County, on "National 

Charles Taylor Grandy, Camden County, on "Home Rule 
and National Unity in America." 

Pierre B. Manning. Gates County, on "Prohibition or Pub- 
lic Sentiment in America." 

Frank Dixon, Shelby, "The Labor Problem." 
Malcolm M. Shields, Carthage, "Misplaced Garlands." 
Luther B. Grandy, Oxford, on "American Humor." 
Walter S. Dunston, Creswell, "Literature and Public Life." 
Frank M. Little, Wadesboro, "Destiny and Duty." 
John F. Schenck. Cleveland Mills, "Three Great Waves." 
Wm. A. Self, Newton, on "Emerson." 

Wm. H. Carroll, Magnolia, "American Influence in Foreign 

In the afternoon the first speaker was Stephen B. Weeks 
of Elizabeth City. His subject was "Cedant Arma Togce." 
This was the oration awarded to the student who made the 
highest average next to the Valedictorian. The speech was 
not in Latin, the day for Latin, Greek, and French speeches 
having passed away. 

The next speaker was James Thomas, New Bern, on the 
"Citizen's True Ideal." He was followed by Samuel Spencer 
Jackson, Pittsboro, on "Circumstance." Oliver Clegg Bynum, 
on "The Heroic Instinct" ; Edward B. Cline, Hickory, "The 

Commencement of 1886. 363 

Drama and National Life." N. H. D. Wilson, Greensboro, 
"The Cost of Culture.'' Mr. Wilson was the Valedictorian, 
having attained the highest average during a four years' 
course. He departed from the old fashioned valedictory, and 
closed his oration on culture with a few words of exhortation 
to his classmates, of thanks to the Faculty and of farewell to 
his fellow students. 

The Mangum medal was awarded to Mr. Schenck. 

The speakers in the afternoon were at a great disadvantage. 
A storm was raging, owners of vehicles were rushing from 
the hall to care for their teams, wagons were rattling, while 
squalling babies added to the tumult. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on a learned lawyer of Oxford, Marcus V. Lanier, and 
on two eminent botanists of South Carolina, A. W. Chapman 
and Henry W. Ravenel. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred 
upon Rev. John R. Brooks, of Wilson ; Rev. Luther McKinnon, 
President of Davidson College ; Rev. John L. Carroll, of 
Asheville, a graduate of 1863, and Rev. Daniel A. Long, 
President of Antioch College, Ohio, student of i886-'87. 

The following degrees were conferred : 

Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) 15 

Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 7 

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 3 

Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) 1 

Total graduating class 26 

(See names in Appendix.) 

The following graduates of 1886 presented theses which 
were approved but not publicly read : Lewis J. Battle, Raleigh, 
"Landlordism in America" ; Pierre Bayard Cox, Raleigh, "The 
Critic's Relation to Literary Progress" ; Herbert Worth Jack- 
son, Asheboro, "The Crisis at Hastings"; John Motley More- 
head, Kinston, "Political Education" ; George L. Patrick, 
Kinston, "Man and Nature" ; Henry W. Rice, Raleigh, "A 
Needless War" ; Kirby S. L T zzell, Seven Springs, "The New 
South" ; Robert Lee L T zzell, Seven Springs, "A Cavalier Poet." 


364 History of University of North Carolina. 

After passing an examination on a prescribed course and 
submitting an approved thesis the degree of Master of Arts 
was won by Ernest Preston Mangum, an A.B. graduate of 
1885. The subject of his thesis was "The Feudal System." 

Special Certificates: 

In Chemistry — D. S. Carraway. 

In Mathematics — R. T. Burwell and William S. Wilkinson. 

In Greek — H. H. Ransom and M. M. Shields. 

In Natural Philosophy — E. B. Cline and F. M. Little. 

In Pharmacy — J. W. Beasom. 

Honor Roll: 

Messrs. Gulick, Simmons and Weeks were present at every 
rollcall at Prayers and lectures during the year. 

Medals and Prizes: 

Valedictory Oration, as the best in the class — Nathan Hunt, 

Daniel Wilson, Jr. 
Classical Oration — Stephen Beauregard Weeks. 
Representative Medal (for Oratory) —Claudius Dockery. 
Mangum Medal (for Oratory) — John Frank Schenck. 

The Chief Marshal was from the Philanthropic Society, 
Claude F. Smith, of Pitt. His associates were Benjamin F. 
Tyson, Greenville ; Malvern H. Palmer, of Warren ; Francis 
M. Harper, Kinston, and Archibald Braswell, of Edgecombe, 
Philanthropies ; Wm. H. McDonald, Raleigh ; Henry F. 
Shaffner, Salem ; George W. Bethel, Danville, Virginia, and 
Benjamin E. Kell, of Mecklenburg, Dialectics. 

The Ball Managers were John C. Engelhard, Chief ; J. W . 
Atkinson, Jr., Robert L. Holt, E. B. Borden, and L. M. 

The class has been, as a rule, very successful in life. A few 
have crossed the dark waters. Arrington died at home before 
graduation and after graduation P. B. Cox, L. B. Grandy, F. 
M. Little, P. B. Manning, G. L. Patrick, H. W. Rice, and K. 
S. Uzzell. John M. Morehead and Gilbert B. Patterson be- 
came Representatives in Congress ; Dr. Weeks has published 
historical volumes of great merit ; Battle is a skilled physician 
in Washington City ; Cline is a Superior Court Judge ; Herbert 
Jackson a trusted and safe financier; S. S. Jackson stands high 

University Activities. 365 

in insurance circles ; Jenkins is a highly regarded bank presi- 
dent ; Schenck is a manufacturer ; Shields, Thomas, Dixon, and 
Wilson are prominent preachers ; Self, Wright, and Carroll 
able lawyers. 

The University in i886-'87. 

The Faculty from time to time attacked the difficult ques- 
tion of cleanliness in the rooms and about the buildings. They 
resolved to have the highest standard of neatness and purity. 
It is needless to say that this could not be attained until the 
inauguration of waterworks. Water closets were introduced in 
1887. An important step towards securing good results was a 
course of lectures twice a week on Hygiene. It was resolved 
to heat the chapel (Gerrard Hall J when used for preaching or 
other purposes. The custom of attending on these occasions in 
all kinds of weather, good or bad, hot or cold, which had been 
handed down from the opening in 1795, was not in accordance 
with modern ideas. 

The great earthquake, so destructive to Charleston August 
31, 1886, was distinctly felt at Chapel Hill. Some windows 
were violently rattled and bottles were moved on the shelves 
of the Chemical Laboratory, but no damage was done. Some 
students in the New East Building perceived, or thought they 
perceived the walls threateningly shaking and fled to a safe 
locality. One, who had a pistol in his room, aroused from sleep 
suddenly by the clamor, secured his weapon and dared the fan- 
cied robber to invade his apartment. 

In 1886 the custom was begun of the Faculty choosing a 
preacher once a month to deliver a sermon on Sunday night in 
Gerrard Hall, the University paying his expenses. Of course 
care was taken to invite men from the leading denominations of 
Christians. The plan has been very successful. Not only has 
there been a succession of able and hightoned men with strong 
and instructive discourses, but the University has been made 
known to influential, representative men, not previously per- 
sonally cognizant of its workings. The marked diminution of 
hostility to it has been in part due to this policy. 

366 History of University of North Carolina. 

The University Day exercises of 1886 were held at night. A 
most interesting historical address was delivered by Mr. Edwin 
Anderson Alderman. He was specially eloquent and touching 
in his description of the extinct town of Brunswick and of the 
notable men who once made its habitations famous for hospi- 

In 1886 was begun the policy of leasing land on Franklin 
Street and its continuation eastward to officers of the Uni- 
versity for residences. The Circuit Court of the United States 
had decided, as has been narrated, that, as this is a State Uni- 
versity, such property as is essential to its existence could not 
be alienated. The court laid off about 600 acres in one body, 
including the Campus and three residences of Professors, as 
inalienable. Believing that, although this land could not be 
sold in fee, leases for years could be made, a valuable parcel 
was granted to Air. James Lee Love for fifty years on payment 
of a moderate annual rent. It was stipulated that at the end of 
that time the lease should be renewable, but if not, the Trustees 
should have the option to buy the tenements at an appraised 
value, but if they should not wish to do this the lessee might 
remove the buildings. The object was to provide that the 
land should not go permanently from the Lmiversity. Subse- 
quently a similar lease was made to Dr. Charles Baskerville 
and Dr. Francis K. Ball. Later the lawyer on the Executive 
Committee advised that sales could be made practically in fee, 
and under this advice parcels were sold to Dr. George Howe, 
Dr. Joseph H. Pratt, Dr. A. W. Wheeler, and Mr. Geo. F. 
McKie, and the fee of the Love, Baskerville, and Ball lots 
was also sold. Afterwards a lot on Caldwell Street was sold 
to Mr. Edward K. Graham. On the same principle the authori- 
ties of the new Methodist Church were authorized to make 
brick for the building out of Lniversity land, and a lot on 
Pittsboro Street was sold for the village school. 

On Thanksgiving Day the first of the series of gymnastic 
contests was held. While Dr. Venable called out the contest- 
ants, five students were appointed as judges. On the hori- 
zontal bar John W. Atkinson and E. P. Mangum competed, 

Christmas at the University. 367 

the winner being Atkinson. On the parallel bars, John W. 
Atkinson won over R. L. Smith. On the ladders E. P. Man- 
gum won over John W. Atkinson, R. L. Smith, and Geo. L. 
Patrick. In wielding Indian clubs R. S. Woodson was de- 
feated by J. D. Hedrick. The contest on swings showed ex- 
ceptionally daring feats. There were six entries, L. M. Bourne 
being adjudged the best. The half mile race was run by Hed- 
rick and Patrick, Patrick being the winner. The next event 
was the "fools' race'' between J. H. Baker (very small and 
therefore called the "giant"), R. L. Cooper (a giant in height 
and therefore called the "runt''), and Wm. R. ("Buck") 
Tucker, dressed in tights. Next came the "tug of war" be- 
tween nine on one side and eight on the other. The victory 
was to the "heaviest battalion," the larger number. In the 
running high jump Patrick made four feet four inches and 
was declared victor, Smith falling not far behind him. The 
last run was one-tenth of a mile dash. Patrick made it in 
twenty-two seconds, Hedrick in twenty-one. 

The mode of spending Christmas vacation by the students 
who remained on the Hill depended on the taste of the partici- 
pants. In 1886 there was an enjoyable time, especially as 
there were six or eight visiting ladies. The weather more 
nearly resembled spring than winter, with no ice, or sleet, or 
snow. The turkeys were fat, the confections and cake deli- 
cious, the presents appropriate, the boys gallant, the girls 
lovely. The first event was a grand bonfire by President Bat- 
tle in Battle Park, the flames rising above the tall trees and 
giving peculiar weird effects in the forest. In the midst a 
group of wild looking young men rushed with a whoop through 
the undergrowth, reminding one of the stories of painted In- 
dians assailing a peaceful company. After they had gazed at 
the flames for a season, the red light reflected curiously from 
their eyes and rosy cheeks, a shriek was heard and they dis- 
appeared as they had come. The next night the "boys" got 
up a bonfire of their own. Brushwood, kerosene barrels, goods 
boxes, were piled high on the athletic field, saturated with oil 
and ignited. When the flames were at their height, rockets 

368 History of University of Xorth Carolina. 

and Roman candles enlivened the scene, while the students 
joined in gay impromptu dances, found in no Terpsichorean 

Then at the dwelling of Airs. Thompson a masquerade party 
was held the last night of the old year. The ladies wore sheets 
enveloping the body, pillow slips covering the face and tied in 
a knot over the top of the head, and white stockings over their 
shoes. The gentlemen were similarly dressed, so that mis- 
takes were numerous and amusing. 

A mock court trial was had in order to banish dull care. 
President Battle presided. H. W. Rice was sheriff, Claudius 
Dockery clerk ; Riddle, assisted by Edmund Alexander and W. 
Reece, appeared for the State ; Sol. Weill and C. Johnston for 
the defendants. R. L. Cooper and G. B. Patterson were the 
defendants, charged with making hideous noises with a brass 
band on the night of December 31st. They pleaded not guilty, 
of course. The witnesses were Professor Gore, on the theory 
of music ; Dr. Kluttz, as a medical expert on the effects of 
horrible noises on the human system ; Professor Atkinson, who 
was then courting the lady whom he afterwards married, on 
the effects of a baneful serenade, when the lover is "popping 
the question" ; another witness told of the removal of an 
opossum from the Zoological Garden of the University, prob- 
ably by the defendants. The lawyers then made their speeches. 
Those for the defense admitted the presence of the prisoners 
in the noise but claimed that there was no "criminal intent," 
that the intent was to please the ladies. They were found 
guilty and fined a penny and costs. The audience was well 
pleased with the efforts of the young disciples of Themis. 

As a rule the students behaved at their boarding houses as 
gentlemen should. People who came in contact with them 
praised them highly. Occasionally one w r ould forget himself. 
We had a stalwart landlady as strong as a man. Once a stu- 
dent jocularly threw a biscuit at another; she deliberately 
walked to his seat, gave him a box on the ear, and ordered him 
to leave the room ; he obeyed, but afterwards begged her pardon 
and was readmitted. The same lady applied to Professor Win- 

A Case of Kleptomania. 369 

ston, whom on account of the disparity of their ages she called 
by his Christian name, to write for her a letter of recommenda- 
tion for the position of postmistress. With great gravity he 
wrote the President to the effect that the dignity of the United 
States demanded that decency and order should be observed in 
public offices, and that he knew of no one more capable of ex- 
cluding violence and bad conduct than this lady, with much 
more of similar import, but not a word showing her capacity 
for the office. He read to her what he had written. She was im- 
mensely pleased. She did not see that he was laughing at her. 
Looking at him with admiring eyes, with coy deprecation, she 
said, "Now ! George, you know I ain't all that." Thus George 
got out of his difficulty with flying colors. She was the identi- 
cal lady whom he escorted to the ball supper twenty years be- 
fore, one hundred and ninety pounds protected by one hundred 
pounds ! 

In 1886 there was at the University a remarkable case of 
kleptomania, or at any rate of wholesale stealing. I call the 
thief Latro, though he was not a latro but a fur. He was an 
elderly student, probably thirty years old. Although his last 
residence was in a distant State, he was a native of North 
Carolina, and brought a certificate from the commissioners of 
the county in which he lived until past maturity that his char- 
acter was good and that he was entitled to free tuition. He 
stated that he had accumulated some hundreds of dollars by 
teaching and that he would pursue an elective course, as long 
as he had funds with which to board and clothe himself. 

For three years his conduct seemed exemplary and he was 
called by the students "Father Latro." He read good books — 
at any rate he accumulated them — by borrowing or purloining 
from the library or individuals. The studies he elected were 
of a philosophical or political nature. His class standing was 
good but he stood no examinations, stating that he was not 
an applicant for a degree. His attendance on religious duties 
was frequent and devout. He attached himself to the Presby- 
terian Church, becoming a regular communicant. This did 
not prevent his attendance on other churches. He gained 


37° History of University of North Carolina. 

credit for extraordinary piety by asking the Baptist minister 
for his benefit to change the evening of his prayer meeting, 
so as not to conflict with other religious duties. Finding a 
vacant room in the Old East near his own he made it into a 
rough closet into which he never permitted any one to look. 
The first suspicion of his honesty came from his helping 
himself to peaches near the wall of a Professor at night. A 
student gave a bogus alarm and Latro tumbled from the wall, 
gaining a sprained ankle in the effort to escape from threatened 
pistol balls. One of the students wrote for the University 
Magazine a neat poetical narrative of this episode : 

But yesterday I surveyed him well, 

A meekness in his deep gray eyes did dwell; 

A gentle innocence did around him play, 

His cheeks did yield to modest blushes' sway. 

Thought I, sooner would the rose be foul, 
The nightingale sing like the owl, 
The swan adorn his wings with mud, 
The fig tree full with thistles bud, 
Than that this model man would do 
A thing 'twould prove his looks untrue. 

This morning vacant was his seat; 
Not in chapel nor on the street. 
"Where is L.? Where can he be?" 
Was asked by many curiously. 
# * * * 

I saw his noble brow cast down, 
On that bright face I saw a frown. 

A conscience hurt, an ankle sprained, 
A good "rep" lost, a bad "rep" gained. 
"What cruel fate, if fates there be, 

Hath heaped this injury on thee?" 
"I blush to tell the tale," quoth he, 
"For all the blame doth lie on me. 

Ask that little imp of evil, 

That little grandson of the devil, 

That whispered in my ear the thought 

'Peaches stolen are better than bought.' 

Ask of the tree, the high peach tree, 

A Case of Kleptomania, 1886. 371 

Whose luscious fruit so tempted me. 

Ask of the ground, hard stony ground, 
Where my impression may be found. 

These will tell you better than I, 
How, and when, and where, and why, 
I was so afflicted by 
This terrible calamity." 

This incident, however, did not ruin his character, as many 
students have a liberal definition of larceny as applied to fruit, 
especially growing in a Professor's garden. But soon a more 
grievous matter was made known. Twelve months before a 
Professor had lost a coat. A man who has once brushed a 
coat is apt to know it intimately henceforth and forever. And 
it so happened that the Professor's waiter saw the lamented 
garment on the person of the philosophical Latro. About the 
same time a student from a distant county lost all the money 
he had provided to enable him to graduate, over sixty dollars. 
It was stolen from his room. The loss was ruinous. It ex- 
cited him greatly, but left him reason enough to argue that 
the man who had stolen a coat could also appropriate money. 
With fire in his eye he burst upon Latro and recovered his 

The news coming to the President he asked two members of 
the Faculty to accompany him to Latro's room, make him dis- 
gorge all stolen articles and let him run away. They declined 
to go without a search warrant and a constable. One who had 
lost goods was easily induced to swear out a warrant. The 
search was begun during the dinner hour. Latro made no 
resistance. If the matter had not been so serious, if the sight 
of a student of this great L niversity held for larceny had not 
been so pathetic and horrifying, it would have been ludicrous. 
In a few minutes the students came flocking in to claim their 
lost property, like the birds in the fable claiming their feathers. 
One found an overcoat, long lamented, three others pounced 
upon much prized watches which had mysteriously disap- 
peared, and so came owners of umbrellas, shoes, pants, note- 
books, pens, coats, vests, and other articles used by students. 

372 History of University of North Carolina. 

man)- of no value to the thief, besides books of the University 
and Professors. There were secured from him some sums of 
money besides the sixty dollars above mentioned. The Mayor, 
not having jurisdiction over cases of larceny, bound him over 
to the Superior Court in a bond of one hundred and twenty- 
five dollars, which he promptly paid in money to the Mayor. 
Forty dollars of the amount the latter lost out of his pocket, 
which led to the unsupported story that Latro abstracted it. 
This is improbable. There being no other charges against 
him, he was allowed to leave. As he was very uneasy for fear 
of punishment by the students, the President procured a 
policeman to escort him to the railroad station. He preferred 
to walk two miles from the station and board the cars there. 
His slinking away under the escort of an officer of the law 
was a sad sight. 

The President was blamed, even by certain newspapers, for 
not taking steps for having him sent to the penitentiary. His 
reply was that the University should not prosecute students 
confided to her charge, except in extreme cases for offenses 
against herself, that every opportunity was given to those in- 
jured, and that it was not for her interest to have one of her 
sons in the State's Prison. The University had her own pun- 
ishment and that would be promptly inflicted. This punish- 
ment was expulsion, which requires the ratification of the 

To show that the President's position was right, when the 
case came before the Trustees two of the best lawyers averred 
that Latro, in a jury trial, would have been acquitted on the 
plea of insanity or kleptomania. The Trustees, however, voted 
his expulsion and ordered his name to be stricken from the 
roll. To support the theory of kleptomania, it should be noted 
that many articles stolen were utterly valueless, like old ball 
tickets, and he had two vacations, with very few living in the 
dormitories, when he might have shipped his stealings to a 
distant market for sale. 

He wrote to the Presbyterian minister, Rev. Mr. Wilhelm, 
an account of his fall. A year or two before the discovery he 
saw Mr. Woodward's watch on his table, the room empty and 

A Case of Kleptomania, 1886. 373 

the door open. The tempter entered into his head and sug- 
gested, "How uneven is the distribution of things in this 
world. Here I am barely able to live, while before me is a 
gold watch owned by a man so abounding in riches that he 
carelessly left this valuable article to be picked up by the first 
passerby. Then, too, I am desirous of marrying and have 
found a girl willing to marry me, but lack the means. After 
reflection of an hour I took the watch, hid it in a hollow stump 
until matters quieted down, then finding myself unsuspected, 
I brought it to my room. The security that I enjoyed led me 
to take other things and so I went down to ruin." 

He further stated that after leaving Chapel Hill he was so 
overwhelmed with remorse that his one idea was to get as 
far as possible from the scene of his crime. He remembered 
passing through Cincinnati and St. Louis, no other cities. Find- 
ing himself in Nebraska he realized that his clothing was too 
thin for the latitude and that his money was nearly spent, so 
he bought a ticket to Memphis. In Arkansas, while the train 
stopped at a sawmill station, he alighted in order to stretch 
his limbs. He was so abstracted by his mental torment that 
he allowed the train to leave him. He hired himself to the 
lumberman for a week to begin on Monday, that being Satur- 
day. Next day he went to his landlady to borrow a Bible. 
She searched her trunk and found one at the bottom, stating 
that it reposed there unopened for six months after she moved 
out from New England. Walking to the river bank, in a se- 
cluded place, he spent the Lord's day reading His Holy Word 
and writing to his pastor on the back of an advertising poster. 
He added that his future movements would be such that none 
who then knew him would be able to trace him. 

One of our graduates traveling through a distant city two 
or three years afterwards, thought that he recognized Latro, 
pick in hand, working on the street. He says that he spoke 
to him and is confident that it was the champion thief of the 
University of North Carolina. Later the news came that he 
died suddenly in bed in a North Carolina town, to which he 
had come as a traveler. About $500 was found on his person, 
not a large sum to accumulate in eighteen vears. 

374 History of University of North Carolina. 

Attacks on the University in 1887. The Campaign for 
a Separate A. and M. College. 

After the appropriation to the University was increased to 
$20,000 annually, the yearly Normal School appropriation of 
$2,000 being diverted to four other places in the State, there 
was a determined effort to induce the General Assembly of 1887 
to repeal or reduce the amount. Certain friends of the denomi- 
national colleges renewed the charge that means were placed 
in the hands of the University Trustees to establish a "big 
free school" and draw away all the patronage of the colleges. 
They clamored that the people in their impoverished state could 
not afford so great an addition to the taxes ; that all money 
which could be spared should be devoted to lengthening the 
term of the public schools ; that a State institution was neces- 
sarily irreligious, some said godless. An effort was made to 
force the candidates for the Legislature to pledge themselves 
for repeal or modification. In some few counties this move 
met with success. 

At the same time a formidable crusade was made, mainly 
by the eloquence of Colonel Leonidas L. Polk, former Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, to take from the University the 
$7,500 Land Grant and give it to a new institution organized 
for the more practical education of the sons of farmers and 
mechanics than could be given at the University. Colonel Polk 
was possessed of a style of speaking very acceptable to his 
hearers and he had plausible ground for a new move. It was 
generally known that many States had concluded that cattle 
breeding, garden and orchard culture and the like could 
not well be gained in institutions like Harvard, Princeton, the 
Universities of North Carolina and Virginia, and had estab- 
lished separate colleges. Of course in his speeches he mini- 
mized unjustly the laboratory work of the University, but there 
was enough truth in his position to make the movement irre- 

In order to bring pressure on the Legislature a public meet- 
ing of farmers was called, composed of all whose chief in- 
come was from the soil, the call being- issued by the Board of 

Campaign for Separate A. and M. College. 375 

Agriculture, of which President Battle was a member ex officio, 
that is, as president of the institution holding the Land Grant. 
The Board requested Governor Scales and him to explain to 
the Convention its policy, its work in the past and intentions 
in the future. They did so, and were accorded a respectful 
hearing, with one ill-mannered interruption by a delegate, al- 
though it was evident that the friends of Colonel Polk were 
present by concert, and were in the majority. Later in the 
meeting President Battle was allowed to answer some stric- 
tures on the scientific teaching at the University. It was evi- 
dent, however, that the members had come together with a 
prejudgment in favor of a separate institution, and that at 

An adjourned meeting was held in the City Hall. Presi- 
dent Battle was fully persuaded that the movement would be 
successful and that ultimately it would be best for the Uni- 
versity to surrender the fund rather than have an endless 
wrangle on the subject. At his instance his friends induced 
the Convention to ask the General Assembly to appropriate 
$7,500 a year to replace what was taken away. This, how- 
ever, did not obtain the approval of the law makers. 

What made the new movement so readily successful was 
the fact that a citizen of Raleigh offered land for the estab- 
lishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College and 
the Board of Agriculture, by means of the tax on fertilizers, 
had ample funds to aid in the erection of buildings. More- 
over the necessary bricks and labor were ordered to be fur- 
nished by the Penitentiary free of charge, the cost of which 
was not perceived by the taxpayer. Of course large sums have 
been appropriated since from the public treasury to the new in- 
stitution, but in 1887 Members of the Legislature did not 
foresee this, nor was it revealed to them by those who were 
pushing the measure. 

After the passage of the bill reducing our income from the 
State from $27,500 to $20,000 the warfare on the University 
by no means ceased. A bill was offered in the House to reduce 
the appropriation to $12,500. A motion by Mr. R. A. Dough- 
ton, of Alleghany, to lay it on the table failed by a decided vote 

376 History of University of North Carolina. 

and the question was postponed till next day. Mr. Doughton 
spent the evening in interviewing some of the more liberal 
members of the opposition. He also reminded the leaders 
among the colored Members that the University Members had 
supported bills in which they were interested. The result was 
that the renewal of the motion to table was triumphantly car- 
ried by a flattering majority. 

The county student obligation was repealed, thus ending a 
twelve-year strife with the friends of the colleges. The Uni- 
versity, however, was required to grant tuition to those af- 
flicted with bodily infirmity, to ministers, candidates for the 
ministry, and sons of ministers, and to those preparing to be 
teachers, and accept secured notes from the truly indigent. 
Then the kind heart of the legislators was shown, validating 
the usage of the University, by the proviso that no indigent 
worthy youth should be denied admittance in consequence of 
inability to pay or give security. As has been shown in part 
and will be hereafter more fully, benefactors of the University 
and of the poor have provided free tuition for as many needy 
students as are likely to show themselves worthy of it. 

The tabling of the bill, aimed to reduce our appropriation, 
by a decisive majority in the House of Representatives was 
very important, although the Senate would have killed it by a 
much larger proportionate majority. The agitation against 
the University would have been stimulated to renewed exer- 
tion if the popular branch of the General Assembly had re- 
corded its condemnation. As it was, the question of further 
reduction was never dangerously discussed afterwards. 

The attitude of Colonel Polk was clearly shown by his 
exultation at the creation of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College. He was overheard saying to a friend in the lobby, 
"Now we will let Battle alone !" He kept his promise. It 
was not long before death claimed him. It is not thought 
that he had special animosity against the University, 
although in the heat of oratory he may have criticised 
harshly its practical interpretation of the Land Grant Act. In 
the opinion of many, if not most, judicious persons he was 
right in the contention that the Land Grant college should be 

Loss of Land Scrip Fund in 1887. 377 

separate. President Battle was and is of this opinion, but to 
the best of his ability he carried out the will of his Trustees in 
endeavoring to retain the fund. His task was a delicate one, 
but he managed to keep his reputation as a man of truth, al- 
though in his heart convinced that the University could never 
satisfy the demand for hand work and keep up its reputation 
for theoretical training. The difficult position in which he was 
placed rendered this the most unhappy time of his presidency. 
Although he had cause for gratulation that the determined 
effort to reduce the appropriation to $12,500 signally failed, 
in such manner as to cause all further attacks to be harmless, 
yet the diversion of the $7,500 Land Grant gave the appear- 
ance of defeat and caused the loss of two full professors and 
one associate professor. 

Governor Jarvis once, when the Board of Agriculture was 
assembling, complimented President Battle on his power of 
persuasion. A very influential Member remarked dryly, "He 
will need all his powers to prevent the cutting down of that 
$20,000. The people are dead against it."' Mr. James Cheek, 
of Orange, when asked about the prospects, himself of course 
being for the University, said, "They are going to beat you." 
Then he waved his arm toward the eastern half of the .House 
(Representatives), "All these men are against you." In truth, 
although we lost the Land Grant, the University came out of 
the conflict victorious. There is no doubt, however, that 
when the General Assembly first met, the mind of a large 
majority of the House at least was set on cutting down the 
appropriation to $12,500, if not less. 

What was the effect of the legislation in regard to the Uni- 
versity? The loss of $7,500 a year was a serious matter but 
it had its compensations, (a) It relieved us of the charge that 
we were defrauding the farmers and mechanics, thereby cre- 
ating much odium against us. (b) It enabled us to avoid the 
scandal of having a low standard of admission, which was 
necessary for those intending to pursue the "branches of learn- 
ing relating to agriculture and mechanic arts." Our critics 
used this to support the charge that we did not have a true 

378 History of University of North Carolina. 

University, (c) It enabled us to develop the institution along 
the lines of the most approved universities — Harvard, Yale, 
Columbia, Princeton, without being- embarrassed by the con- 
stant demand to build stables and work shops, buy prize cattle 
and modern machinery, (d) It relieved us of the almost im- 
possible task of governing in harmony bodies of students of 
diverse training, modes of work, aims in life, (e) It left us 
in secure possession of $20,000 a year by way of a compro- 
mise — a wonderful gain when it is remembered that the State 
had never granted any annuity until 1881, and then only $5,000. 
Increase of the annuity was bound to come, when the good 
work of the University became known. 

In order to counteract the notion that the University was 
seriously crippled, Governor A. M. Scales, as Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees, and Secretary of State Wm. L. Saunders, 
as Secretary-Treasurer of the University, issued a circular to 
the people of the State. A few extracts follow : 

"It had been demonstrated by experience that there was little 
demand among our people for instruction in certain depart- 
ments of the University, notwithstanding their importance and 
the efficiency and the real worth manifested by the professors 
in charge, and it was evidently the desire of the Legislature 
that certain other studies be taught at the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College instead of at the University. Hence in 
the readjustment of the work of the University the authorities 
have omitted the following special branches of study: Peda- 
gogics, Ornithology, Metallurgy, Mining Engineering, Feed- 
ing and Breeding of Animals, and Practical Horticulture. 

"No diminution nor change has been made in any of the 
regular courses of study. * * * There are fifteen Pro- 
fessors and assistants. 

"A course of studv extending through two years has been 
arranged for the special benefit of students who are unable to 
complete a full course ; and a special course of three months 
is offered, each spring, to teachers who desire to extend their 

"The general studies of special benefit to farmers, mer- 
chants, manufacturers, and other business men have been 

Condition of University in 1887. 379 

grouped into a short course of two years for the benefit of stu- 
dents who are unable to complete a full course.'' 

President Battle likewise issued circulars, one giving in de- 
tail these shorter courses, another a four-page circular of in- 
formation concerning the general work of the institution. As 
his office of member of the Board of Agriculture was on ac- 
count of his being president of the institution holding the 
Land Grant, of course his membership expired with the trans- 
fer of the fund to the new college. On this result he greatly 
rejoiced, because of the suspicions and even open accusations 
that his votes in the Board of Agriculture were influenced by 
his desire to help the University. As a matter of fact it is ab- 
solutely-certain that the part of the work of the Board at 
Chapel Hill under his immediate supervision, by Drs. Ledoux 
and Dabney, the Agricultural Experiment Station, was con- 
ducted with energy, wisdom and economy. Its removal to 
Raleigh in 1881 was for the convenience of having the work 
of the Board in the building which was the home of the de- 

The President's Report of 1887 to the Trustees. 

President Battle's report made to the Trustees in 1887 was 
deemed by them of such importance that they ordered it 
printed and widely distributed. A synopsis of it follows : 

The President attributes the small number of students, being 
about the same as in 1886, a little over two hundred, to the 
failure of crops for three successive years, to the discontinu- 
ance of instruction in primary Latin and Greek, which had 
been adopted for the benefit of the Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal students, and to the persistent agitation for the partial re- 
peal of the appropriation, making the growth of the Univer- 
sity a matter of doubt. 

The behavior of the students has been on the whole excellent. 
Their refraining from threats of lynch law to avenge the killing 
of a fellow student by a negro is emphatic evidence of their 
respect for law. 

380 History of University of North Carolina. 

Attention is then called to the increase of the Faculty and 
extension of the courses of instruction, and additions to the 
Chemical, Physical, Mineralogical, Zoological, and Botanical 
Laboratories, as well as to the museums. A Reading Room, 
supplied with the leading periodicals, has been thrown open 
for the students. A combination of the libraries of the two 
societies with that of the University has been effected, making 
a total of over 20,000 volumes, accessible every day. The 
Mitchell Society gives opportunity for original scientific re- 
search ; the Shakespeare Club stimulates the study of English 
Literature, and the Historical Society the investigation into 
North Carolina history. 

In spite of financial depression the Lmiversity has obtained 
an attendance of over two hundred students, larger than it had 
from its opening in 1795 to 185 1. It has educated over five 
hundred poor boys and furnished hundreds of teachers. It is 
the parent of the Summer Normal School and led to the in- 
auguration of graded schools in many of our towns. It has 
saved the State hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

The appropriation, $20,000, calls for a property tax of only 
five or six cents on the $1,000 value. 

For some years prior to 1861 the University brought into the 
State from abroad about one hundred and eighty students each 
year, who spent at least $100,000 annually. It kept from going 
into other States for higher education students who would 
have carried out $150,000 annually, and would have returned 
with a notable loss of State pride. The University of Virginia, 
on account of its famed law and medical schools, attracts from 
other States one hundred and forty-seven students each year, 
spending at least $90,000 annually. Princeton brings into New 
Jersey three hundred and fifty-eight extra-State students, 
spending $250,000; Yale into Connecticut seven hundred and 
forty-four students, spending about $600,000 ; Harvard into 
Massachusetts seven hundred and ninety-one, spending about 
$600,000. These figures have been largely increased since 1877. 
While we may not regain all our Southern patronage because 
of the superiority of the universities of Southern States to 
those prior to the Civil War, yet, if our University is allowed 

Land Grant Act Complied With. 381 

to build up a reputation for scholarship and high moral train- 
ing, which it will do if properly supported, it will undoubtedly 
attract foreign patronage, as do the institutions named. 

Moreover, persons with large fortunes are never generous 
to decaying institutions. They wish to connect their names 
with the prosperous. Already about $60,000 have been added 
from private sources to the property of the State at Chapel 

Dr. Battle then quotes the Land Grant Act of 1862 and the 
State Act of 1867, donating the scrip to the University, and 
shows that it has been faithfully complied with. The interest 
under these laws is to be used not for farm experiments nor 
building barns and silos, not for erecting workshops or pur- 
chase of stock and machinery, but for teaching (1) the classics, 
(2) scientific studies generally, (3) military tactics, (4) 
branches relating to Agriculture, (5) branches relating to the 
Mechanic Arts : that is, not ploughing and hoeing, nor plan- 
ing and sawing, but the scientific principles leading to the 
trades, not the trades themselves. After the student has 
mastered the branches of learning leading to all the pursuits of 
life then let him on farm or in workshop, as in a great poly- 
technic school, learn the skill of hand and practical details of 
his chosen business. This construction is that put upon the 
Act by Commissioner of Education, Hon. John Eaton, and by 
Senator Justin S. Morrill, who drew and championed the Act 
of 1862.* 

The Board of Trustees of the South Carolina College re- 
ported to the General Assembly the number of hours devoted 
to the study of the branches relating to Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arts by the colleges of Kansas, Michigan, and Mis- 

*The Trustees of our Agricultural and Mechanical College found themselves totally 
unable to do more with 87,500 a year than theoretical teaching, and have obtained from 
the State and the Board of Agriculture many tens of thousands of dollars to erect build- 
ings and supply equipment for their practical work. Not a dollar was given the Univer- 
sity for such purposes. 

The University Trustees acted with conspicuous good faith in regard to this matter. 
As has been said, they sent President Battle to leading Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
leges north of us, and on his return adopted the program which has been described. This 
program he explained at all the Agricultural Fairs in this State and during court weeks in 
as many as eighteen counties. In answer to the State Grange he replied, explaining the 
action adopted to carry out the will of Congress and the General Assembly. He sent 
copies of this letter to every member of the latter body. He afterwards, on the invitation 
of leading Members of the Assembly, delivered an address unfolding our construction of 
che Act. No adverse criticism was ever made by any legislator or officer. 

382 History of University of North Carolina. 

sissippi, viz., General Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Ana- 
lytical Chemistry, Agricultural Chemistry, Botany, Physiology, 
Zoology, Entomology, Anatomy, Geology, Mineralogy, 
Physics, Meteorology. Mechanics, Horticulture, Economic En- 
tomology, Agriculture, Political Economy, Business Law. 
These colleges were chosen because they were not connected 
with any other institution and are regarded as being success- 
ful. Yet the University of North Carolina had 1,840 hours 
for each session devoted to the foregoing studies, while Kan- 
sas had 1,115, Michigan 1,463, and Mississippi 1,295. North 
Carolina gave nearly fifty per cent more instruction in Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical branches each year than Mississippi, 
about twenty-five per cent more than Michigan, about sixty 
per cent more than Kansas. 

The University has been able to give signal benefit to poor 
young men. We have at least one hundred with hands brown 
with toil — some cooking for themselves, others hiring their own 
cooks but furnishing their own provisions, some having county 
appointments free of tuition, others giving notes — with thread- 
bare clothes, in the coldest weather without greatcoats, hover- 
ing over scanty fires, but with the flames of noble resolution 
burning in their breasts. There is one whose left arm was 
withered in infancy, who left his mother's roof at twenty years 
of age as a farm laborer at six dollars per month, then taught 
an humble school and, hearing of the kindness of the Univer- 
sity to the poor, made his way to Chapel Hill. He was entitled 
to free tuition from bodily infirmity. Amid great privations 
he spent a few months in hard study. When the spring sun 
rose he started on his travels on foot on the thankless, but most 
honorable, business of a book agent. He returned in the fall 
with his hard earned gains. He is still at his studies, support- 
ing himself by vacation work. He authorized his name to be 
given, L. W. Lynch, of Rutherford. 

Another case is that of a young man of Burke County, W. 
G. Randall, whose graduating speech at the University met 
with unusual applause. Bishop Lyman, being struck with the 
merit of his drawings, procured admission for him in the New 

President's Report of 1887. 383 

York Academy of Design. He won rapid promition and was 
appointed instructor of drawing in a city school. 

Dr. Winston told the Teachers' Assembly at Black Mountain 
that an honored teacher then present, Mr. Bonner, of Beau- 
fort, had lived at Chapel Hill on four dollars per month. Mr. 
Bonner arose and said, "I am sorry to correct my former 
teacher, but he is mistaken. I lived on three dollars and forty 
cents a month." 

Mr. Turlington, an excellent citizen of Johnston County, 
father of the Johnston County Superintendent of Schools, who 
was then one of our students, came to President Battle one 
Saturday afternoon when the sun was about two hours high 
and said, "I have come by private conveyance to get a teacher 
for our school at Elevation. I must start home by sunset. You 
must get me a teacher." Dr. Battle took him to the Methodist 
Church where a very worthy student was sweeping out the 
church, of which he was sexton. He said, "I can not go, as 
I wish to graduate, but perhaps you can get Bonner." "Where 
can Bonner be found?" "This being Saturday afternoon, you 
will probably find him at work in the Chemical Laboratory." 
So it proved, and in five minutes a bargain was struck and on 
Monday Bonner was on his way to his new field of labor. This 
young man, thus at work at a time usually given up to sport, 
was the teacher who interrupted Dr. Winston at the Teachers' 

The student who on Saturday afternoon, instead of shouting 
on the baseball ground, was sweeping out the Methodist 
Church, was William A. Betts, who a year or two after gradu- 
ation repaid his Deems' Fund loan with interest and added a 
sum, large for a young preacher, to help other borrowers. 
He is now an honored preacher in the Methodist Church in 

In order to show that neither party nor poverty are hin- 
drances at the University President Battle states that once, on 
visiting the Dialectic Society, of the seven officers in sight the 
president and four others were Republicans, although the 
Democrats were in a large majority. 

When the Land Scrip Act of 1862 was passed twenty-four 

384 History of University of North Carolina. 

States donated their share to universities and colleges already 
in existence, as North Carolina did. Fourteen States estab- 
lished separate institutions but either States, counties, towns 
or individuals gave large sums as conditions precedent. A 
few instances are given : Alabama gave $75,000, Arkansas 
$170,000, Iowa $500,000, Kentucky $110,000, Maryland $100,- 
000, Massachusetts $656,000, Texas $212,000, Virginia $100,- 
000, and North Carolina gave nothing except the site of the 
University, not a dollar for equipment. And yet we were blamed 
for not giving practical instruction in farming and mechanics ! 

The Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College is held 
up as an instance of great success, and justly so, but not on the 
lines of the University. An inspection of their catalogues 
shows that the majority of its students are boys and girls pur- 
suing ordinary school studies. Of the remainder, more than 
half are Freshmen whose studies are far lower than those of 
the corresponding class in our University. The tuition is free 
except to nonresidents, and they pay only twenty-five dollars 
yearly. The college allows the students eight cents an hour 
for their work, the State thus paying much of their board. The 
Legislature, as stated, gave the college $207,000 for buying 
lands, erecting buildings, etc., and pays the college $30,000 per 
annum and all receipts of the farm. 

Again, it was mentioned in a newspaper to the disadvantage 
of this institution that the University of Arkansas had much 
larger numbers. An inspection of the catalogue shows that 
there had been counted the upper classes of the graded school 
of Fayetteville, about twenty girls studying what was called 
"art," residents of the town, and about two hundred negro 
medical students in a college over a hundred miles away. There 
were but one hundred and twenty-five real students in the list. 

If this institution had adopted similar standards and pur- 
sued similar policies it could have boasted of numbers. No 
reflection is intended. The college is doing a useful and valu- 
able work, but is not doing the work of the University of North 
Carolina. This University is doing a most useful and valuable 
work but it ought not to confine itself to agricultural and me- 
chanical teaching. 

Commencement of 1887. 385 

The Commencement of 1887, after the non-public society 
meetings on Tuesday night, was ushered in by the address of 
Hon. John Goode, of Norfolk, Virginia, chosen by the Philan- 
thropic Society. He was introduced by one of the members, 
Robert F. Burwell. Mr. Goode spoke eloquently of the great- 
ness of the age. Daniel Webster said that he lived longer than 
Methuselah, because he had seen more. What immense prog- 
ress since Webster died ! While emphasizing our loyalty to 
the Union, we should be proud of our past. Have no sym- 
pathy with those who would exalt the "New South," as it is 
flippantly called, by detracting from the just fame of the old 

The orator was strong in his praise of Industrial Education. 
"The achievements of the inventor are permanent. * * * 
They flow on in a perennial and an undying stream, and in- 
fluence the most distant posterity. The humblest millwright 
has done more than all the kings that lie in the catacombs of 
Egypt. The invention of the reaper is more a blessing to man- 
kind than the achievements of the warriors." He also pressed 
the importance of high character in public and private life. 

The Baccalaureate Sermon was preached by Rev. Joseph R. 
Wilson, D.D., Professor of Theology of the Southwestern 
Presbyterian University at Clarksville, Tennessee, father of 
Dr. Woodrow Wilson, late President of Princeton University. 
It was a sermon "full of meat," the subject being "True Great- 
ness." He drew a picture of the truly great man. The great- 
est man is he whose reliance on truth is most unfaltering. No 
life is the highest that conveys no blessings to other lives. 
Christ is the king and kinsman, the benefactor and brother of 
all. The preacher knew a man in the mountains of Virginia 
who lived for others, totally unselfish, Godlike. Contrast his 
life with that of Lord Byron, brilliant but vicious, egotistical. 
Lasting greatness is only goodness. 

On Wednesday night the representatives of the societies de- 
livered original speeches. Lee Crowell's subject was "The 
Utility of Beauty"; Hansen M. Murphy spoke on "Leadership 
in America"; Logan Douglass Howell on "The Spirit of the 
Age" ; Junius R. Parker on "Rebounds" ; O. D. Batchelor on 

386 History of University of Xorth Carolina. 

"The Reformer" ; and John A. Hendricks on 'The Death 

The Representative Medal, given by the two societies, was 
awarded by a committee to Air. Batchelor. 

The Trustees had met in the afternoon. They decided to 
give an assistant to Professors Hume and Winston, to teach 
some of the lower classes and to correct exercises, to be ap- 
pointed by the Professor in charge and the President. 

Of the Visiting Committee Messrs. J. L. Stewart, J. S. Carr, 
and William H. Chadbourn were present, but made no official 
report at that time. 

Speeches of Graduates. 

Nearly all of Thursday was occupied by the speeches of 
graduates. The program runs : "The Mystery of Nature," by 
D. Tate Wilson; ''Russia's Position in Europe," by W. S. 
Wilkinson; "Bismarck," by H. F. Shaffner ; "The Merit Sys- 
tem Versus Spoils," by W. H. McDonald; "The Ideal Teacher 
and His Social Influence," by Claude F. Smith; "Our Social 
Dangers and Their Remedies," by A. M. Simmons ; "American 
Citizenship," by Claudius Dockery, the Philosophical Oration; 
"Progress in Conservatism," by Louis M. Bourne; "Individu- 
ality," by J. F. Alclver; "The Influence of Ideals," by Richard 
N. Hackett ; "The Slavery of Freedom," by Robert G. Gris- 
som, the Scientific Oration ; "The Failure of Republics," by W. 
H. [McNeill ; "The Foreign Element in American Life," by 
Jacob C. Johnson; "The Makers of Our State," by Vernon W. 
Long; "The Transition Period," by Henry R. Starbuck; "The 
Scientific Spirit," by Lucius P. McGehee : "Our Best Inheri- 
tance," by Haywood Parker. 

Of the above Mr. Starbuck was absent on account of the 
death of his father. Besides these, five candidates for the 
Bachelor's degree were allowed to submit theses without speak- 
ing, viz., Joseph H. Baker, Jr., on "Ancient Speculations in 
Natural Science" ; Robert T. Burwell on "Hear the Other 
Side" ; Joseph A. Morris on "Petrovich in America" ; James 
McGuire on "The Rights of Labor and of Capital" ; and Wil- 
liam R. Tucker on "The Spirit of British Eloquence." 

Commencement of 1887. 387 

Lucius Polk McGehee was declared to be Valedictorian, at- 
taining an average in all his studies of over ninety-five. 
Claudius Dockery attained the highest general average in the 
Ph.B. course, which was above ninety, and was voted the 
Philosophical Oration. Robert G. Grissom attained the high- 
est general average in the Scientific course, which was above 
ninety, and was voted the Scientific Oration. 

For the degree of Master of Arts, Samuel B. Turrentine 
passed the requisite studies and submitted an approved thesis 
on "Affiliation of Roman and Greek History." Stephen 
Beauregard Weeks also fulfilled the requirements and pre- 
sented a treatise on the "Chester Mysteries." 

Herbert Bemerton Battle attained the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy (Ph.D.). His subject was "Agricultural Chemis- 
try and Geology." 

The Mangum Medal for Oratory was awarded to Louis M. 
Bourne, his subject being, as said, "Progress in Conservatism." 
The ideal standard of government can only be reached through 
liberal conservatism. Our recent war was the result of ex- 
treme Southern conservatism, not the result of rashness. 

The Bachelor of Arts graduates were in number thirteen, 
the Bachelor of Philosophy graduates were eight, there was 
one Bachelor of Science, a total of twenty-two. 

Bourne, Burwell, Johnson, Long, McDonald, Mclver, Mor- 
ris, Parker, Shaffner, Simmons, Smith, Starbuck, Wilkinson, 
and Wilson graduated cum laude. Dockery and Grissom 
magna cum laude, and McGehee maxima cum laude. Medals 
and prizes were won as follows : 

Mathematical Prize — William M. Little. 
Greek Prize — William James Battle. 
Chemistry Medal — Robert Gilliam Grissom. 
Worth Prize — Lucius Polk McGehee. 
Magazine Medal — M. W. Egerton. 

388 History of University of Korth Carolina. 

Special Certificates : 

In Mathematics to William Myers Little, Lucius Polk 

McGehee, Delonza Tate Wilson. 
In Latin to Lucius Polk McGehee. 
In Chemistry to Robert Gilliam Grissom, Henry Fries Shaff- 

In Natural Philosophy to Robert Turnbull Burwell, Claudius 

Dockery, Robert Gilliam Grissom. Lucius Polk McGehee. 

Some of the graduates of 1887 have achieved notable success 
in life. Bourne has a large practice as a lawyer in Asheville, 
as has his partner, Parker. McGehee has written a law book 
of great merit, and was co-editor of a Law Encyclopaedia. 
He is an able Professor of Law in this University, and Dean 
of the department. Morris is a skillful physician; Grissom 
an able man of business; Simmons lost his eyesight, but con- 
tinued his law practice and published a book of merit; Smith 
stands high as an Episcopal clergyman ; Starbuck has been a 
much esteemed Judge, and is an able lawyer ; Wilkinson is a 
successful insurance agent ; Burwell a prosperous man in New 
Orleans ; Dockery is United States Marshal ; Shaffner, cashier 
of a bank and trust company. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was 
granted to Rev. John Backus, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Rev. L. 
C. Yass, of New Bern, eminent divines, the first of the Baptist 
and the second of the Presbyterian Church. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Lazvs (LL.D.) was 
granted to Hon. Joseph J. Davis, a Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the State ; to Morris H. Henry, M.D., an eminent 
physician of New York ; to the Right Reverend Theodore B. 
Lyman, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in North 
Carolina, and to Hunter McGuire, distinguished surgeon, of 
Richmond, Yirginia. 

William M. Little was Chief Marshal. 

The Ball was pronounced to be the best conducted and most 
orderly of any on record. The credit for this was given to the 
tact and firmness of the chief manager, Frank M. Parker, Jr. 

In i886-'87 the changes in the Faculty were few. Eben 
Alexander, Ph.D., a graduate of Yale, Professor of Greek and 
Chairman of the Faculty of the University of Tennessee, be- 

University Day in 1887. 389 

came Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. James 
Lee Love, in addition to his other duties, became Librarian 
and Secretary of the Faculty. Professor Gore retained the 
Registrarship. Joseph A. Morris and John F. Mclver were 
Student Librarians. 

Events of i887-'88. 

An effort was made to place the University Magazine on a 
safe basis, the subscription list having dwindled to insignifi- 
cance. The cause of this was in part irregular management, 
sometimes whole issues not being distributed. The new plan 
was to make the journal independent of subscriptions. There 
were two editors, from each of the literary societies, and two 
from the Faculty, who were to be chiefs of staff. The societies 
and the University were to receive one hundred copies each 
gratis. The University and the societies contributed to the 
cost $100 each. There were to be six issues per annum and the 
price was one dollar a copy. 

On University Day, October 12th, there was a scholarly 
historical address on the career of William Richardson Davie, 
the Father of the University, by Hon. Alfred D. Jones, of 
the Class of 1878. He dwelt especially on the services rendered 
by Davie in casting the vote of North Carolina, then one of the 
large States, to give the small States equal weight in the Sen- 
ate. He was likewise a signal benefactor to his country in 
1798, as one of the Commissioners to France, in averting a 
war with that country. 

President Battle followed by reading to the audience the 
last letter written by Davie before repairing to his home in 
South Carolina. It was his parting advice to the Trustees of 
the University in regard to its management and contains many 
wise precepts. He was especially severe in commenting on the 
"uppishness," (to use a word of modern coinage), of young 
men under age adopting the slang engendered by the French 
Revolutionary times, and prating about the rights of man, the 
inalienable right of resistance to tyranny, and such "bigotv" 

Mr. Jones' career after the triumph of this day was brief and 

39° History of University of North Carolina. 

deplorable. After being appointed Consul to Shanghai in 1893 
it was his sad fate to die in that distant city before actively 
entering on his duties. The State lost an excellent citizen and 
the University a cherished son. He was a descendant of one 
of the early Trustees and Senators of Wake, Nathaniel Jones, 
of "White Plains." and of Daniel W. Courts, A.B., 1823, long 
State Treasurer. His father, Wesley Jones, was United States 
Marshal and State Senator and Commoner, while he himself 
was a leader in the Legislature. 

Col. Alfred Moore Waddell, by invitation, in October 
read an interesting paper before the Mitchell Society on the 
probable settlement of our coasts by the Norsemen prior to the 
sailing of Columbus. His essay was bright and plausible and 
his delivery graceful and in excellent taste. 

Later Colonel Waddell read in his usual charming 
manner a paper on Shakespeare's knowledge of law as shown 
in numberless passages. Although some may conclude that 
the great poet knew of law about as much as any intelligent 
man in our days can pick up from the newspaper accounts of 
court proceedings, serving on juries, and conversation with 
members of the bar, we were forced to admit the skill with 
which the speaker handled his authorities. 

On the 22d of February, 1888, Henry Johnston, of Tar- 
boro, delivered the oration. It won for him the reputation of 
a large brain and rare literary powers. 

Professor Toy having been severely injured by a fall from 
a runaway horse, Mr. Hans Schmidt- Wartenburg was elected 
to take temporary charge of French and German. He proved 
to be remarkably well versed in the studies of his department 
and very acceptable to his classes. There was general regret 
that the state of our finances did not justify us in retaining him 
by the offer of another chair. 

The thanks of the Faculty were voted to Dr. Wm, B. Phil- 
lips for rearranging and relabelling the Vienna collection of 
minerals, and for his generously adding to the collection from 
his private hoards. 

Class Day of 1888. 391 

The Senior Class of 1888 held its Class Day exercises on 
April 24. At the opening of the fall term of the preceding 
year there was a meeting for organization. Wm. Myers Little 
was chosen President, Malvern Hill Palmer, Secretary, and 
Francis Marion Harper, Treasurer. Gold headed canes and 
silk hats were adopted, the class cup decided upon, and a com- 
mittee appointed to procure a class tree. Mr. W. J. Armfield, 
president of the National Bank of High Point, saved the com- 
mittee the trouble of investigation by presenting to the class 
a Norway spruce (Picea Excelsa). The donor's letter was 
gracefully expressed. Two sentences are quoted. "This 
species of tree illustrates an excellent type by which to fashion 
your career in life. A bro,ad base, with wide extending, sym- 
metrical branches, towering majestically, its foliage ever fresh 
and green and flourishing, when nurtured 'neath sunny skies, 
or where nature presents herself in more rugged and repellant 
form." A vote of thanks was given to the donor. It is sad to 
note that this tree, beginning its Chapel Hill life under such 
auspices, lingered for several years and then succumbed to its 
natural enemies. 

At one o'clock on the 24th, the class, with the President and 
Marshal in front, entered Memorial Hall to a spirited march 
rendered by the Raleigh String Band. This program inter- 
spersed with music was duly rendered : 

I. Oration by Oliver D. Batchelor. 

II. History by William James Battle. 

III. Poem by Charles G. Foust. 

IV. Prophecies by St. Clair Hester. 

V. Address by President William M. Little. 

An anecdote told by the historian, W. J. Battle, and a few 
statements from his history may be of interest. Professor 
Winston gave the class an extended written entrance examina- 
tion in Latin. One of his questions was, "What are the princi- 
pal parts of capio? Ditto, tango?" One bright youth wrote 
capio, cap ere, cepi, captum. Ditto, dittare, dittavi, dittatum. 

In the Freshman year the class numbered eighty. Of these 
all but thirteen left during their course, but six were added 
after the first year, so that there were nineteen graduates. 

392 History of University of North Carolina. 

Of the class there were ten Dialectics and nine Philan- 
thropies. In church preferences there were eleven Methodists, 
five Episcopalians, one Presbyterian, one Disciple, and one un- 
decided. One minister, five lawyers, two physicians, two 
journalists, two teachers, one banker, one chemist, one farmer, 
and four undecided made up the future professions of the 
class. The ages of the members ranged from seventeen to 
twenty-six ; the weight from one hundred and twenty-eight 
to one hundred and eighty-five pounds. Of those who left the 
University before graduation eleven were teachers. The rest 
were doing well. Several of those who left joined lower 

The class poem, by Charles G. Foust, had real merit. It 
was the story of a girl in Randolph County, Naomi Wise, who 
was enamored of Nathan Lewis, betrayed under promise of 
immediate marriage, and drowned by her lover in Deep River. 
He was pursued, carried to Naomi's side and, losing his reason, 
killed himself. An extract is given : 

With measured step he neared her side; 
His brow grew swarthy, wild his eye. 
As down he bent and stroked her brow, 
Swift furies around him closed 

And laughed with murderous glee. 
A deep black scowl, a maniac's howl, 

His earthly end shall be. 

Down, down the side of the chasm wide, 

He took the awful leap. 
But ne'er was drowned the maniac sound 

Of that last piercing shriek; 
The cry long rings on whirling winds, 

Then dies into a moan, 
To tell that crime in every clime 

Has only death for its own. 

The prophecies by St. Clair Hester were droll and piquant. 
They were intended to amuse the students and succeeded ad- 

Class Day of 1888. 393 

The President in his speech called attention to the oppor- 
tunities and responsibilities of his classmates : 

We are living, we are dwelling, 

In a grand and awful time, 
In an age or ages telling — 

To be living is sublime. 

Our opportunities have been greater than are those of the ma- 
jority. May we all meet them fairly and honestly — in view 
of our responsibility to ourselves, to our country and our God. 
The exercises closed with a beautiful ode by Mrs. C. P. 
Spencer, written expressly for the class, to the tune of "Annie 

Fair sbines the rosy morning, 

And fairer omens wait 
To bless with cheerful warning 

The boys of "eighty-eight." 

All hail to eighty-eight, 

And hail our festal day, 
Whose memories, sweet and tender. 

Will fill our hearts for aye. 

This gray old haunt of sages, 

With generous, open door, 
And bright, illumined pages, 

Will know us soon no more. 

Will see us here no more. 

But for many and many a day, 
May her light be brightly burning, 

And her name renowned for aye. 

Brothers! we part tomorrow, 

Each to his duty's call, 
Each to the joy or sorrow 

Our Father sends to all. 

Whate'er He sends to all, 

Let naught the march delay; 
The path grows clear and clearer 

That leads us home for aye. 

394 History of University of North Carolina. 

Clasp hands, dear friends, at parting, 

In Faith, and Hope and Love; 
Press back the teardrop starting, 

Adieu to Hill and Grove. 

Adieu to Hill and Grove, 

Where yet we fain would stay, 
Where our sweetest thoughts will linger 

And our love remains for aye. 

After the class exercises came an amusing presentation 
of bogus medals, such as the "Ugly Man's," the "Dude's," the 
recipients selected generally on the principle of Incus a non 
lucendo, though sometimes real sarcasm was intended. All 
was taken in good humor. 

At night there was a dance in the Gymnasium, at which 
were present many of the belles of the State. 

Commencement of 1888. 

The Commencement of 1888 was the ninety-second. The 
weather was lovely and the attendance was very good. The 
number of alumni at the society meetings was unusually large. 

On Wednesday morning Chief Justice Walter Clark deliv- 
ered the Annual Address, having been chosen by the Philan- 
thropic Society. Since then he has been elected Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of this State. He gave counsel of inesti- 
mable value, describing the great possibilities before young men 
and their corresponding duties. He then mentioned some of 
the great questions which must be rightly solved or our civili- 
zation will be destroyed — the accumulation of enormous wealth, 
the immense power that this wealth gives, the formation of 
trusts and the nullifying the laws of supply and demand, the 
control of elections, the creation of communists and anarchists. 
But the Judge believed that the people would find a remedy. 

In closing he exhorted the young men to imitate the great 
men of the University. One class has four in consecutive order, 
Pettigrew, Pool, Ransom, and Scales. The alumni are a long 
array of men worthy to be revered and followed. "By faithful, 
complete and perfect performance of duty, you can be useful 

Commencement of 1888. 395 

in your day and generation and shall conquer from the eternal 
silence something that shall last and which will speak for you 
when your lips are dumb — the memory and influence of a life 
nobly spent in the faithful performance of duty." 

After the address the Alumni Association was called to- 
gether by Hon. P. C. Cameron, who gave way to the new 
President, Col. Walter L. Steele. Mr. Josephus Daniels was 
elected Secretary, Mr. Robert G. Grissom, Treasurer, and 
five vice-presidents were chosen. Committees were appointed 
to arrange for reunions at the charter centennial in 1889, and 
to effect local organizations throughout the country, wherever 
the alumni were sufficiently numerous. 

The sermon of Rev. Dr. Wayland Hoyt, pastor of the Me- 
morial Baptist Church of Philadelphia, was in the afternoon. 
The text was "Have Salt in Yourselves," and the sermon was 
filled with sound instruction, eloquently and feelingly con- 
veyed. His theme was "The Right Uses of the Salt of Cul- 
ture." "To win great success continuous and religious work 
through life is necessary. True culture is Godward." 

The exercises of Wednesday night were, as usual, interest- 
ing, being original speeches by representatives chosen by the 
societies locally known as the "Representative speaking." Their 
names and subjects are as follows: "Grido di Dolore," by 
George S. Wills; "Poetry and Progress," by John S. Hill; 
"Truth in History," by W. T. Whitsett; "North Carolina's 
Need of a History," by S. M. Blount; "Art in Relation to 
Character," by Hunter L. Harris ; "The Status of Southern 
Women," by Thomas A. Cox ; "Life Out of Death," by M. W. 
Egerton, and "Heroism," by Daniel J. Currie. Messrs. Wills, 
Blount, Harris, and Cox were Philanthropies, the others Dia- 
lectics. The committee of alumni awarded the medal to Mr. 

Thursday was the great day. It was Commencement proper. 
The citizens of the county came in numbers so great that their 
horses and vehicles covered the part of the Campus south of 
Memorial Hall. At ten o'clock a long procession of officers, 
alumni, students, and eminent visitors marched to the Chapel, 

396 Histofy of University of North Carolina. 

uncovering their heads as they passed the Caldwell Monu- 
ment. Then came music by the band and the opening prayer. 
Original speeches by the graduates followed. Eugene 
Morehead Armfield spoke on "Southern Literature" ; Henry 
Watson Lewis on "Faith and Freedom" ; Thomas J. Eskridge 
on "Rome in America"; William E. Headen on "The Cost of 
Culture"; Francis M. Harper on "The Revolution of 
Thought," this being the Philosophical Oration; Robert Lee 
Smith on "The Crisis of English Freedom" ; Hayne Davis on 
"The Idol of Our Age" ; William James Battle on "The Early 
Settlers of North Carolina — a Vindication," this being the 
Classical Oration ; St. Clair Hester on "Religious Liberalism" ; 
Charles G. Foust on "The Failure of Success" ; W. J. B. Dail 
on "The Balance Sheet of North Carolina" ; Oliver Douglas 
Batchelor on "Social Ideals"; Malvern Hill Palmer on "The 
Citizen of the World"; William Myers Little (Valedictorian) 
on "The Young Man's Problem" ; E. P. Withers on "The 
Coming Revolution." 

The following theses were submitted but not read publicly : 
A. Braswell, Jr., on "North Carolina — Her Material Advan- 
tages"; Luther Bell Edwards on "The Netherlands and Their 
Leader" ; Maxcy L. John on "The Danger of an Unrestricted 
Press"; Benoni Thorp on "Raleigh and American Coloniza- 
tion." There was one thesis by a candidate for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, Stephen Beauregard Weeks, on "The 
Maid of France and Schiller Versus Shakespeare." 

The committee on the speaking awarded the Mangum Medal 
to Mr. Batchelor. They also especially commended St. Clair 
Hester, E. P. Withers, F. M. Harper, and T. J. Eskridge. 

The names of those obtaining Degrees in Course may be 
found in the Appendix. 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 9 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 6 

Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 4 

Bachelor of Law 1 

Total 20 

Commencement of 1888. 397 

The members of this class have had a good average of suc- 
cess. Armfield died in 1909, after having been a thriving 
banker, and after giving $5,000 to the University for scholar- 
ships ; Batchelor is a successful lawyer in Virginia ; Battle is 
Dean of the University of Texas and Professor of Greek; 
Davis has been secretary of the American Branch of the Inter- 
national Arbitration Tribunal, and is a lawyer in New York ; 
Edwards is a Superintendent of Graded Schools of repute ; 
Foust is a thriving lumberman in Texas ; Harper is Superin- 
tendent of the Graded Schools of Raleigh, very prominent as an 
educator ; John is a successful lawyer ; Smith was a prominent 
teacher, has been in the Legislature from Stanly, and is now a 
lawyer; Withers has a high reputation as a lawyer and As- 
semblyman in Virginia ; Dail is a teacher ; Eskridge is a Metho- 
dist minister in Tennessee ; Drew an able lawyer in Florida ; 
Hester is rector of one of the principal Episcopal Churches in 
Brooklyn, New York ; Headen a leading physician in Beaufort ; 
H. W. Lewis a successful lawyer and business man in New 
Jersey; Little has been Consul to a Central American city and 
is a lawyer of repute. Thorp and Palmer died early. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was con- 
ferred on Theodore B. Kingsbury, alumnus of 1848, editor of 
the Wilmington Star and afterwards of the Messenger, an au- 
thor and an accomplished scholar ; on Bishop E. R. Hendricks 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Judge Robert P. 
Dick, late of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, then Judge 
of the United States District Court, a graduate of 1841. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred on 
Rev. Samuel Rothrock, of the Lutheran Church. 

In the Bachelor of Arts course W. M. Little graduated 
maxima cum laude. Those magna cum laude were O. D. 
Batchelor, W. J. Battle, and Hayne Davis. Those cum laude 
were E. M. Armfield, L. B. Edwards, St. Clair Hester, H. W. 
Lewis, and W. E. Headen. Those in the Bachelor of Phil- 
osophy course were F. M. Harper and E. P. Withers magna 
cum laude; Charles G. Foust, Malvern H. Palmer, and Robert 
L. Smith cum laude. Those obtaining Bachelor of Science 

398 History of University of North Carolina. 

(B.S.) were A. Braswell, Jr., W. J. B. Dail, Thomas J. Esk- 
ridge, and Benoni Thorp, all cum laude. There was one 
Bachelor of Laws (B.L.), Frank Drew. 

Special mention was made of Robert Lee Uzzell, who had 
pursued a two years postgraduate course in English and the 
Modern Languages. The Worth prize went to E. P. Withers ; 
the Greek prize to G. P. Howell ; the Mathematical prize to 
Alexander Mclver, Jr. ; the Chemistry medal to Benoni Thorp ; 
the prize for an essay on Education in North Carolina to John 
S. Hill ; the winners of the Mangum and Representative 
medals have been mentioned. 

Special Certificates were granted as follows : 

Latin — E. M. Armfield, Wm. J. Battle, Hayne Davis, L. D. 

Howell, W. S. Roberson, T. W. Valentine, C. A. Webb. 
Greek— W. J. Battle, St. Clair Hester, C. A. Webb. 
English — St. Clair Hester. 
Chemistry — Benoni Thorp. 

Natural Philosophy — T. J. Eskridge, W. M. Little. 
Normal Course — W. T. Whitsett. 
Course in Agriculture — J. S. Holmes. 
Normal Instruction — W. T. Whitsett. 

The Honors: 

Valedictory Oration — William Myers Little. 
Classical Oration — William James Battle. 
Philosophical Oration — Francis Marion Harper. 
Latin Prize — George Pierce Howell. 
Greek Prize — Alexander Mclver, Jr. 
Mathematical Medal — Daniel Johnson Currie. 
Chemistry Medal — Benoni Thorp. 
Worth Prize — Eugene Percival Withers. 
Representative Medal — Montraville Walker Egerton. 
Mangum Medal — Oliver Douglas Batchelor. 

At the private meeting of the two societies in the Philan- 
thropic Hall the debater's medal was won by Logan D. How- 
ell, the essayist's by H. G. Wood, the declaimer's by Shepard 
Bryan. In the Dialectic the debater's medal was won by E. P. 
Withers, the essayist's by D. J. Currie, and the declaimer's by 
J. Spottswood Taylor. 

In i887-'88 Professor Love's title was changed to Associate 

Death of Rev. Charles Phillips. 399 

Professor. Claudius Dockery, Ph.B., was made the Instructor 
in Latin, and Stephen B. Weeks, A.M., Instructor in English. 
Victor S. Bryant and St. Clair Hester were Society Librarians. 

Death of Dr. Phillips. 

On April 10, 1889, occurred a death full of pathos. Rev. 
Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., ten years before, as has been 
told, felt that it was his duty to resign active work in the Uni- 
versity, and was made Professor Emeritus. When his father, 
Dr. James Phillips, came from Harlem in New York to fill 
the Chair of Mathematics, Charles was a boy four years old. 
He grew up under the shadow of the University and gradu- 
ated one of the first honor men of his class in 1841. Many 
of his friends regretted that he did not confine his studies to 
Mathematics. He would have become a renowned specialist 
in that line. While none of his sons inherited his mathe- 
matical talent and taste, one, Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, is Director 
of the University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, 
another, Rev. Dr. Alexander L. Phillips, is General Agent of 
the Presbyterian Church, South, for the conduct of Sunday 
Schools. Dr. Charles Phillips' sister, Mrs. Cornelia Phillips 
Spencer, attained much reputation as a writer of letters and 
lyrics, and his brother, Samuel Field Phillips, was one of 
the ablest lawyers of the country and was for twelve 
years Solicitor-General of the United States. His father, 
Rev. Dr. James Phillips, long Professor of Mathematics 
in this University, has already been described. One of his 
daughters, Mrs. Lucy Phillips Russell, has been Dean of the 
Presbyterian College (for girls) at Charlotte. He is buried 
in the Chapel Hill Cemetery. A marble slab in the Presby- 
terian Church commemorates his successful labors in pro- 
curing its erection. 

Commencement of 1889. 

The Commencement of 1889 is distinguished as being the 
centennial of the granting of the charter. Messrs. John Man- 
ning, Geo. T. Winston, and J. W. Gore were a committee of 
the Faculty to make the proper arrangements. In order to 

400 History of University of North Carolina. 

insure a full attendance it was promised that the occasion 
would not be used for bringing pressure on the alumni for 
pecuniary donations. It was thought that the revival of affec- 
tionate feelings towards Alma Mater and towards one another 
would bring the institution more abundant returns than could 
be attained from pockets or check books. Besides there are 
sensitive natures, of great influence in their neighborhoods but 
poor in purse, who are mortified in gatherings when others are 
showering gifts while they must hold their hands. The com- 
mittee were complimented on the thoroughness and good taste 
of their arrangements. 

The Baccalaureate Sermon was by Bishop W. W. Duncan, 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The text was Matthew 
20:20-28. Seldom do such sermons have as true, practical, 
godly wisdom as his. At night he preached in the new Metho- 
dist Church. There was a debt of $800 on the building. A 
subscription was taken up, the amount raised, and the church 

The Class Day exercises of 1889 were held in Memorial 
Hall, June 4th. Logan Douglass Howell was President; 
Herbert Clement, Secretary-Treasurer ; Charles Aurelius 
Webb, Orator ; George Stockton Wills, Historian ; Hunter Lee 
Harris, Poet ; Mills Robert Eure, Prophet ; Lacy Legrand Lit- 
tle, Marshal. 

Addresses were made by President, Orator, Historian, 
Poet, and Prophet. 

The class song was sung to the tune of "In the Gloaming." 
It was the composition of Hunter Lee Harris, who shortly 
afterwards lost his life by drowning. Among its younger 
alumni the University has lost none more promising than 
was he. 

Comrades, as we stand together 

Here to take a last farewell, 
Hope may spring and live forever, 

Parting now comes like a knell. 
Oft in fair and cloudy weather, 

At the call of book or bell, 
Have we toiled or lounged together — 

Ah, the tale is hard to tell! 

Class Day Exercises of 1889. 40 l 

Well! four years is quite a season, 

But how quickly it has passed! 
Life is short, ah! that's the reason 

Why eternity's so vast. 
Now the slow revolving cycle 

Once hath reached the hundred line, 
There we've climbed to write the title 

Of our class of eighty-nine. 

College joys are ours no longer; 

College trials, too, are o'er, 
And our hearts should be the stronger 

For the days that are no more. 
If it be when hours are golden 

We have oft unfaithful been, 
It should all the more embolden 

Us to labor and to win. 

Comrades! in the great Hereafter, 

AVhen our youth has gone before, 
Let the echo of its laughter 

Thrill us ever more and more. 
And from youth to old age growing, 

Grow we, too, in sweet content, 
May we reap the faithful sowing 

Of a true life truly spent. 

The oration by Webb was on "Modern Development." It 
showed eloquence and praiseworthy scoring of the feverish 
haste to be rich. One sentence is given : "Hence, while we are 
Simon-like bending over, digging in the earth, let us once in 
a while straighten up to the full stature of our manhood and 
give the noble and better part of us a glimpse skyward, so 
that the soul that is within us may feel that through the glim- 
mering sheen of the midnight heavens, spangled over with 
stars, there is a divine suggestion that we live a life that is not 
all dross and towards which we should sometimes strive." 

Wills, the Historian, recorded some facts of much in- 
terest. Fifty-three Freshmen were registered in 1885. The 
next year forty-three returned and ten new students took the 
place of those who remained at home. In the Junior year only 
twenty-seven out of fifty-three Sophomores returned, but three 
new men came in, making thirty Juniors. Only twenty out of 


402 History of University of North Carolina. 

a total registration of sixty-eight are graduates. Of these 
eleven are Dialectics and eight Philanthropies ; one belonging 
to neither society. There are eight Methodists, five Presby- 
terians, five Baptists, one Episcopalian, and one Friend. The 
average age is twenty-two and two-fifths years. The ages run 
from nineteen up to twenty-seven. The average weight is 
one hundred and forty-eight and one-half pounds, and height 
five feet ten inches and a fraction over. As to vocations there 
are six prospective lawyers, three teachers, two foreign mis- 
sionaries, one minister, one teacher or preacher, and five unde- 
cided. Tennyson is the most popular poet. Shakespeare, Milton, 
Burns, Byron, Wordsworth, Longfellow, and Father Ryan have 
their devotees. Seven prefer tennis, but all are fond of athletics. 
The class is divided on the subject of Saturday recitations. 
The Dialectic Society sent a strong delegation before the Fac- 
ulty to procure their abolition, while an equally strong delega- 
tion from the Philanthropic Society urged their retention. 

The poem of Mr. Harris, called "Lucius and Edward — an 
Imitation of the Idylls of the King," is beautiful and touching. 
Lucius Marvin and Edward Gray are bound to one another by 
the closest ties of friendship. They go to war together and 
fight gallantly under Lee. They are desperately wounded, but 
recover under the gentle and skillful nursing of the heroine. 
Both love her, but she gives her heart to Edward. Lucius 
magnanimously conceals his wound and goes abroad as a mis- 

And when the moons 
Of that sweet summer had gathered in 
To autumn's mellow harvest, Lucius sailed, — 
A man in whom the fire of passion, stilled 
And turned to nobler ends by love, and by 
The sacrifice of nobler love that bound 
Man to his friend, — so Lucius sailed 
Prom his own land to spread the glorious realm 
Of our fair Christ in heathen lands; to look 
Forever to that greater realm wherein 
None marry, or are given in marriage but to 
The Heavenly Bridegroom, where the spirits breathe 
One grand sweet symphony, and over all 
The benediction of the Father falls. 

The Centennial Celebration in 1889. 403 

The prophecies of Mr. Eure were in the usual mock-heroic, 
sarcastic exaggerated style. Vaticinations were made because 
ludicrously impossible. For example one of the most religious, 
about to start as a foreign missionary, was predicted to be a 
heinous criminal, executed by swinging. 

President Howell congratulated the class on reaching this 
important point in life's pilgrimage and exhorted them to take 
heart to attack the problems of the future. 

Afterwards during the week it was resolved to have a re- 
union in 1895, and to present a handsome silver cup to the first 
son of a member of the class. 

In the afternoon a large audience honored the speaking of 
the representatives of the two societies. They were George H. 
Crowell on "There Shall be No Alps" ; Frank H. Batchelor 
on "Forecasts" ; Wm. W. Davies, Jr., "Skepticism, False and 
True" ; Fred A. Green, "The Nineteenth Century" ; Henry A. 
Gilliam, Jr., "The Mormon Question"; Edgar Love, "Shall 
Women Vote?" The judges thought Mr. Crowell's oration 
the best. 

On Tuesday night the Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies 
held reunions. To a late hour the old members in short 
speeches told reminiscences of the old days, and their pleasure 

Wednesday was set apart for the Centennial Celebration. 
Men of all pursuits in life, old men and young men, were here, 
reviving the College nicknames and telling of the old pranks, — 
talking about "Old Bunk," "Old. Mike," "Fet," "Hub," "Old 
Johnny" and "Old Bull," "Fatty," "Hoop," "Ash," "Benha- 
dad," "Barnum," "Hep," "Tige,"* and others of the good old 
Faculty. The promised historical address by General M. W. 
Ransom was prevented by his having had the accident of a 
fractured arm. Memorial Hall was filled. On the stage were 
many prominent men. Among those from other States were 
Dr. J. L. M. Curry; Prof. W. G. Brown, of Washing- 
ton and Lee University ; Professors Burney and Woodward, of 
the University of South Carolina; Col. C. S. Venable, of the 

*In the order named, Swain, Mitchell, Fetter, Hubbard, James Phillips, Charles Phil- 
lips, Hooper, Ashbel Brown, Benj. Hedrick, Wheat, Hepburn, Smith. 

404 History of University of North Carolina. 

University of Virginia ; Col. Henry R. Shorter, of the Rail- 
road Commission of Alabama. Col. Walter L. Steele was 
chairman. Messrs. Henry A. London and Josephus Daniels 
were secretaries. 

Hon. John Manning, of the Committee of Arrangements, 
made a statement of their work and welcomed the alumni, 
who, from Colorado to Florida, were visiting their Alma 
Mater. "This immense concourse of the men and women of 
the State is here to show how deeply rooted in the hearts of 
the people is this nursing mother of our youth." Secretary 
London called the roll of classes. There was no response until 
he reached 1824. Dr. Armand J. DeRosset, the sole living 
member of the class, and the oldest living graduate of the Uni- 
versity, represented that class. On motion he was made honor- 
ary president and sat by the side of President Steele. He 
expressed his profound regret that some of his classmates, 
Wm. A. Graham, M. E. Manly, John W. Norwood and other 
distinguished members, were not living. 

The Class of 1827 was the next, represented by Paul C. 
Cameron, an alumnus but not a graduate. He refrained from 
speaking, as he had promised to respond to a toast at the 

The next class was 1831, represented by Hon. Giles Mebane, 
ex-Speaker of the Senate. He paid a tribute to President 
Caldwell. As illustrating the rough character of the students 
of his day he told of a stalwart new student who inspected the 
Faculty with a critic's eye and said, "Are these the Faculty ? 
I can whip the whole of them myself." "Dr. Caldwell was of 
imposing presence and of scrupulously neat apparel, his moral 
courage was indomitable, his activity and bodily strength equal 
to any encounter, whether in the classroom or on the Campus. 
No one ever touched his person in a rude and angry manner. 
His bearing towards the students was marked by that gentle 
politeness which springs from learning and from contact with 
the best society. The first railroad meeting ever held in North 
Carolina was called by him in 1828 at Sandy Grove in Chat- 
ham County on the supposed line of his east and west pro- 
jected road, and he was denounced on the floor of the Senate 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 405 

Chamber as a visionary by General Jesse Speight, who after- 
wards became Senator in Congress from Mississippi. 

"In company with Rev. Dr. John Rice, Dr. Caldwell was 
actively instrumental in founding Union Seminary in Virginia 
and was the first President of the Board of Trustees. He 
controlled the Synod of North Carolina. He was in private 
very charitable, one of his proteges receiving the name of 
'Fillwell' Jones. I have said enough for an octogenarian. I 
take final leave of this splendid audience, in this magnificent 
hall, on this memorable occasion, the centennial of North Caro- 
lina's University. Long may she prosper and her 'shadow 
never grow less.' " 

Judge James Grant was on his way to the celebration, but 
the unusual floods prevented his arrival in season. He wrote 
a letter, which was made a part of the proceedings. He stated 
that he was taken by his father to Chapel Hill in 1826 to join 
the Freshman Class, but Dr. Caldwell looked- down on him 
from under his shaggy eyebrows and said : "That boy is too 
young for college life ; bring him two years hence and let him 
join the Sophomore." He joined the Sophomore in 1828. 
His residence when he wrote, March 12, 1889, was Grant's 
Spring, in California. "At the advanced age of seventy I am 
cultivating an orchard and vineyard in an unknown place in 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and keeping a tavern for parties 
who visit the wonder of the whole coast, the Yosemite Valley. 
My life has been a useful, though obscure one. and when I 
leave this world I shall not be in debt to it. I came to the 
Northwest, grew up with it, held office a little in early life, 
made a large fortune as a lawyer ; have given away most of 
it, and own as large a library of books as any man in England 
or America. It has cost me over forty thousand dollars. All 
this savors of egotism, if I were not writing as a child of the 
University, whose little units, scattered over this wide world, 
make it a great whole." 

The Class of 183 1 had a strong representation, General 
Thomas L. Clingman, Dr. Thomas W. Harris, and Mr. Rich- 
ard H. Smith. General Clingman was the first speaker — his 
talk full of reminiscences. He told of how proud he was of 

406 History of University of North Carolina. 

"gallanting" one of the five single ladies in Chapel Hill to Ger- 
rard Hall ; how he and Thomas Ashe, afterwards Judge, 
marched on either side of Judge William Gaston when he made 
his great address; how, while he sat on the rostrum, he was 
struck with the face of the most beautiful lady he ever beheld, 
and though he never saw her after that night she enthused him 
into writing a short poem in her honor, which he ventured to 

quote : 

On others I can coldly gaze, 

And scan each feature, fair or dark; 
But thine seems one unclouded blaze, 

That mocks my skill and power to mark. 

Thy tresses, midnight, well I ween, 

To others faintly may be taught; 
By rainbow's tint and ivory's sheen, 

Thy color changeful as the thought. 

Thine eye had been as "black as death," 

But that it casts a stream of light, 
To speed the gazer's failing breath 

And brighten up his changeless sight. 

It must be admitted that the first honor boy acted wisely in 
going into law and politics instead of poetry. The General 
stated that he -was always of a religious temperament. "When 
a very small boy and I was throwing at birds, I would kneel by 
a tree and pray that I might kill one." He did not join the 
church until late in life, and then in consequence of a conversa- 
tion with a handsomely dressed young lady at an evening party 
in New York. 

The General then spoke of the marvelous advance of dis- 
coveries and invention since he was at the University, which, if 
told to Dr. Caldwell would have elicited the answer, "Young 
man ! No one will ever beat you in the expression of absurd 
ideas." He then went "into praise of the varied resources of 
North Carolina, its crops, its timber, its minerals. He 
himself had been the means of introducing her corundum to 
the world. His name and Buncombe are marked on a speci- 
men in the British Museum. He also made known the im- 
portant mica mines, and those of zircon, once very scarce. He 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 407 

closed by predicting that when men learn the merits of his 
"tobacco cure," five-tenths of bodily suffering would disappear. 

The next speaker in the same class was Dr. Thomas W. 
Harris. His address was eloquent and appropriate. He paid 
a tribute to Dr. Caldwell, his old President, and declared that 
North Carolina should build for him a monument as high as 
an inaccessible mountain — yea, as that peak where sleeps his 
bosom friend and indefatigable co-laborer, the heroic Dr. 
Mitchell. He stated that he and "Dick" (Richard H.) Smith, 
both of Halifax, were at school together eight and a half years, 
and gave their hearts to God the same night, in a little prayer 
meeting in the house of Dr. Caldwell. He expressed the hope 
that "all the class, without an absentee, will stand together in 
a grand reunion above, reckoned among the number of glori- 
fied immortals." 

Mr. Richard H. Smith, likewise of 1831, then spoke a few 
words. He said that there were four alive out of twenty-three 
graduates, those present and Colonel Cadwallader Jones, once 
of Hillsboro, now of South Carolina. Not one had disgraced 
his State or Alma Mater. 

There was no response from the classes of 1833, 1834, and 
1835. Dr. Thomas L. Stamps answered for that of 1836. "It 
was a small class in numbers. Some have distinguished them- 
selves in the legal profession. Others have watched the bedside 
of the sick and suffering, while others have sought the quiet 
lives of farmers. All have been good and patriotic citizens." 
No one answered for the classes of 1837, 1838, 1839. Colonel 
William Johnston responded for that of 1840. Judge Wm. M. 
Shipp was present, but declined to speak. 

Colonel Johnston said that his class from time to time num- 
bered forty, of whom thirty-two graduated. Of these some six 
or eight were from twenty-five to forty years of age. The 
members were distinguished for morality, industry, and high 
scholarship, honorary distinction being assigned to more than 
one-third of the graduates. Among them were General Isham 
Garrott, the two Shipps. Rev. Dr. Albert M. and Judge W. M. 
Shipp, and two very able men who died before reaching middle 
age, Thomas H. Spruill and John A. Lillington. "Besides 

408 History of University of North Carolina. 

these were William Henderson, of Tennessee ; Governor Tocl 
R. Caldwell, Superintendent of Schools Calvin H. Wiley, 
Francis H. Hawks, John W. Cameron, Judge David A. Barnes, 
Rev. Walter W. Pharr, William Thompson, now of Missis- 
sippi, State Senator John W. Cunningham, and others whom I 
can not now name, who rilled with distinction the varied pur- 
suits of life. All are gone except five or six." 

The Class of 1841 was represented by Stephen Graham, who 
declined to speak. That of 1842 by General Rufus Barringer 
and Dr. W. W. Harriss. General Barringer spoke for both. 
He was surprised to see only one of that large and famous 
Class of 1841 present. "It was the 'big wild class' of our day, 
led by Frank Blair and John Eastin. We marched the 'wild 
Sophs' with 'Trip' (Win, H. ) Garland and John Manly. Our 
class matriculated thirty-four and graduated thirty. Dr. 
Harriss, now present, was the smallest and I was unques- 
tionably the ugliest. Between the regular hazing of the day 
and the special tricks of the 'wild Sophs' we had a tough time. 
Harriss was nicknamed 'big' and I 'Motz' because Bill Shipp 
said I walked like old lame John Motz, of Lincoln. Neither 
of us was a regular 'mite' (Honor) man, but have won some 
success since, by honest hard work. Oddly enough my main 
success was in marrying three handsome women. 

"There was a movement for the organization of secret fra- 
ternities. By a little incident, the placarding of some doggerel 
verses, I became to some extent the head of the opposition of 
the new movement. The verses are weak enough. 

The Fresh, who took down the former card, 
For good manners had better have regard; 
The chap who would do so mean a trick, 
From her roost would pull a hen as quick. 
Hark! ye fellows! mind what you're about, 
And to another market hand your crout. 

"I found out afterwards that there was far less harm than I 
supposed in the 'fraternities.' I kept no regular diary, but 
noted down important events and this record no money can 
buy. It is a picture and a prophecy of the Class of 1842." 
The General did not state it but it is a fact that the opposition 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 409 

to fraternities succeeded then in both societies, the law against 
them being enforced by heavy penalties. The prohibition ac- 
complished its purpose as long as the members of the Uni- 
versity continued few, but when the societies became so 
crowded that it was necessary to allow the entire Junior and 
Senior classes to absent themselves from the meetings, natur- 
ally students sought other affiliations. 

The Class of 1843 was represented by Hon. R. P. Dick, Mr. 
R. H. Jones, and Dr. John L. Williamson. Judge Dick said 
that the Class of 1843 was an average one for good conduct, 
scholarship, and ability, but there was not a genius in it. The 
members were genial, kind hearted and true gentlemen. Some 
failed to avail themselves of their advantages and a few were 
led into irregular habits that destroyed their usefulness. It 
should be added that Judge Dick is the only old alumnus who 
has left a useful reminder of himself in the forest of the Uni- 
versity. He beautifully walled up a spring in the woods south 
of the Campus, which is as neat as when he piled the rocks 
around the gushing water — now with the added beauty of vines 
and flowers. A path has been cut to it, often traversed by 
those fond of lovely woodland scenery. He said that he walled 
it up so as to have a place for study in pleasant weather. He 
"built better than he knew." He conferred a lasting gift to 
the University. Would that others would wall up other 
springs, span our brooks with rustic bridges, run footpaths 
through unfrequented thickets, and even create a lake for boat- 
ing and swimming. 

The Class of 1844 was we U represented by Honorable 
(usually known as Colonel) Walter L. Steele and Messrs. 
James H. Horner and Adolphus G. Jones. Colonel Steele spoke : 
On the sixth of June, 1844, forty-three young men began 
the voyage of life. Only ten have their heads above the 
waters, "rari nantes in gurgite vasto." On this class has fallen 
an honor never before held and which can not be held again 
until a century has passed — President of the Centennial Cele- 
bration. I invoke not only this assembly, but all the people of 
the State, as one of the great factors in the moral and intel- 
lectual development of this age and the ages to come, to sup- 
port this University. 

410 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Class of 1845 was represented by Hon. Joseph B. 
Batchelor and Dr. L. C. Taylor. Mr. Batchelor was to re- 
spond to a toast at the banquet and Dr. Taylor declined to 

The Class of 1846 was represented by Col. Win. A. Faison 
and Dr. Wm. B. Meares. They declined to speak. 

Here the call of the classes was suspended in order to give 
opportunity for the celebration of the Class of 1879, the first 
to graduate after the reopening in 1875. Of the graduates of 
1879 the following were present and seated on the stage: Dr. 
Kemp P. Battle, Jr., Dr. Richard B. Henderson, Mr. James S. 
Manning, Dr. John M. Manning, Mr. Wm. J. Peele, Rev. Rob- 
ert Strange (since Bishop), Messrs. Francis D. Winston, Rob- 
ert W. Winston, and Dr. Isaac M. Taylor. Mr. Frank Winston 
presented to President Battle, for the Library, a handsome 
pamphlet containing the class history. 

The President of the class, Mr. W. J. Peele, then an- 
nounced that the class had procured a beautiful silver cup to 
be presented to the first born boy of a member of the class. 
He then in a humorous and happy manner delivered it to Rob- 
ert W. Winston for his son, James Horner Winston. He en- 
joined the son, through his father, "to be in love with some 
great truth, tenderly to woo it, bravely to marry it, and then 
faithfully to guard it as long as life shall last." 

Mr. Winston answered eloquently. Among other things he 
said the controlling and underlying characteristic of his 
class is self-reliance within the law. "All honor to the self- 
reliant man, for, says Emerson, all history resolves itself very 
easily into the biographies of a few stout and earnest persons." 
He then led his four-year-old boy to the front, who said in a 
modest and pleasing manner : 

If ever I have an eldest son, 

And he's a little boy like me, 
And doesn't know a single thing — 

Not even A, B, C, — 
I hope he'll not get a silver cup, 
For then, perhaps, I'd pull him up 
Before this crowd to blush and bow, 
And make a speech when he doesn't know how. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 411 

This speech was greeted with uproarious applause. In the 
course of time the boy graduated with highest distinction at 
this University, won by competitive examination a Rhodes 
Scholarship in Oxford University, England, and is now a ris- 
ing lawyer in Chicago. 

The Class of 1868 then held its twenty-first anniversary. It 
was the last class to graduate under the presidency of Presi- 
dent Swain. The following members were present: Col. Wm. 
H. S. Burgwyn, Hon. Augustus W. Graham, Hon. Isaac R. 
Strayhorn, Charles E. Watson, Esq., and Dr. George Gillett 
Thomas. Colonel Burgwyn made the class address. Among 
other striking statements he praised the Patriots of 1776 for 
providing for a University. When the students assembled in 
July, 1865, the rattle of the drum striking the reveille, the note 
of the bugle sounding the tattoo is heard instead of the old 
college bell, which, it was President Swain's boast, had never 
ceased its functions all during the four years of the Civil War, 
to toll the hours for prayers and recitations. Some of the stu- 
dents present, though but boys in years, were veterans in the 
art of all arts, having met the gleaming bayonets of their coun- 
try's foes on many a crimson-stained field ; but now with firm 
resolve nerved themselves to make up for lost time and oppor- 
tunities denied. 

Of the Faculty there were Swain, the elder and younger 
Phillips, Kerr, Hubbard, Fetter, Hepburn, Martin, Smith, 
most of them dead. Dr. James Phillips fell at the foot of the 
stand from which for so many years his prayers had ascended 
to Heaven. President Swain met with an untimely accident 
and peacefully expired one lovely August morning in 1868. 
After years of service in the cause of his Master, Dr. Hubbard 
was found on his knees in prayer, dead, and soon Professor 
Fetter followed him, and his sons brought his body to lie by the 
side of his wife in the village graveyard. Then Dr. Charles 
Phillips, a few weeks ago, died in our neighboring State on the 
south, and he, too, rests near his father and mother and his 
own children. 

Here I beg leave to put on record, in behalf of my class, 

412 History of University of North Carolina. 

our deep sense of the inestimable value of the services ren- 
dered us by these able, conscientious and self-denying men. 
They were not only our guides, our philosophers, but they were 
our friends as well. The influence for good that the old 
Faculty exercised upon the youth of North Carolina and of 
the South generally, can only be surmised. It has been felt in 
the forum, on the hustings, in the pulpit, in the professions, in 
the arts and sciences, in the halls of Congress, in the Presiden- 
tial chair of the United States. 

The speaker recalled with peculiar pleasure the final ball of 
his college course. 

There was a sound of revelry that night: 

And Carolina had gathered there 
Her beauty and her chivalry: and bright 

The lamps shone over fair women and brave men: 
A thousand hearts beat happily; and when 

Music arose with its voluptuous swell, 
Soft eyes looked love, to eyes which spoke again, 

And all went merry as a marriage bell. 

On went the dance, joy was unconfined, and not till the 
beams of the morning sun, glancing through the windows, 
dimmed the light of the lamps, did that festive scene come to 
an end, and for twenty-one years we do not, as a class, meet 

The speaker said that he did not know one of his class to 
be a failure. Thirteen became lawyers, five physicians, two 
teachers, two manufacturers, one an editor, one a banker, one 
a poet, and one a merchant. Five have represented their 
counties in the State Legislature. One is in the legal depart- 
ment of the United States, another is State Solicitor. Five 
of our comrades sleep their last sleep : Julius S. Barlow, 
Edwin W. Fuller, James W. Harper, Herbert H. Mallett, 
and Eugene L. Morehead. Of these the last was with 
us twelve months ago. That a man, so well equipped by 
gifts of mind, high character and well trained intellect to serve 
his State and country, should be taken in his prime, and others 
left who can claim no such excellence, is indeed mysterious. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 413 

If twenty centuries ago a Roman audience could receive 
with a burst of applause the noble sentiment of the heathen 

"Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto," 

how much more should we, in this nineteenth century of Chris- 
tian civilization cherish, revere and strive to perpetuate the 
noble institutions of our country. 

The Centennial banquet was sandwiched between the call- 
ing of the Class of 1846 and that of 1847. It seems preferable 
to finish the call of the classes and to give the proceedings of 
the banquet afterwards. 

Rev. Dr. Thomas E. Skinner, of the Baptist Church, re- 
sponded for the Class of 1847, the other members present being 
Dr. Robert H. Winborne and Thomas Webb, Esq. To the 
lamented General J. Johnston Pettigrew the class is indebted 
for the great distinction to which it attained. Pettigrew was an 
amazing genius, an expert in everything he undertook. He 
had especial reputation as a mathematician, but some of the 
rest of us understood no more than Tom Polk, now Dr. Polk, 
of Mississippi, who when required to find the centre of the 
circle drew an imaginary one, and stepped back with his chalk, 
made a mark about the middle, saying, "About there, Sir, I 
should say." Pettigrew, however, was first in every depart- 
ment. Ransom was a very good scholar but inferior to Petti- 
grew in Mathematics. President Swain read out at Commence- 
ment. "The first distinction is awarded to Messrs. Pettigrew 
and Ransom in the order of their names." I was seven years 
at school with Pettigrew ; knew him well and loved his shadow 
ever. He was as simple as a child, as pure as a girl, and as 
sublime as a hero and a statesman. 

The speaker told with glee how he and Joseph Benjamin, a 
brother of the celebrated Judah, palmed off on Dr. James Phil- 
lips oak leaves prepared as smoking tobacco and next morn- 
ing were made to stand at the blackboard fifty-five minutes at 
an ante-breakfast recitation in retaliation. 

Dr. Skinner concluded with an anecdote about Mr. Webb : 
My friend Webb, on the stage near me, was called "Trust" 

414 History of University of North Carolina. 

or "Trusty," once president of the North Carolina Railroad 
Company. We were together at the school of Wm. J. Bing- 
ham, an able, sympathetic, yet strict teacher. On one occasion 
Trust in his Latin lesson came to Andromache. He inadvert- 
ently pronounced it Andrew Mickle, the name of a well known 
merchant at Hillsboro, afterwards Bursar of the University. 
Although usually strict Mr. Bingham laughed "You rascal, I 
can't whip you for that mistake." 

I add to Dr. Skinner's testimony about Pettigrew, which I 
fully endorse, that of James Fauntleroy Taylor ("the Bard of 
Ramkat," he called himself). Pettigrew was a man of won- 
derful gifts. If he had not lacked one thing he would have 
been one of the heroes of history. He lacked invulnerability. 
The great heroes are not killed. 

The Class of 1848 had only one member present, Nathaniel 
A. Ramsey, who said that of the twenty members of his class 
ten were living. Of the dead, Willie Person Mangum was 
Consul-General to China and Japan, and died in North China 
in February, 1881. Major-General Bryan Grimes, after fight- 
ing gallantly in many battles, was foully assassinated in 1880 
by a malefactor whom he was bringing to justice. Oliver Pen- 
dleton Meares is an able Judge of the Criminal Courts of New 
Hanover and Mecklenburg counties. And Victor Clay Bar- 
ringer is Judge of Appeals of the Consular Court of Egypt. 

The Class of 1849 was represented by Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 
William E. Hill, Esq., Dr. Peter E. Hines, and Dr. Bryan 
Whitfield. Mr. Hill : I have shown my faith by my works — 
have sent four sons to the University. Many of my class 
attained eminence. Peter Hale was an editor of marked 
ability; T. J. Robinson was a civil engineer of ability; Drs. 
Haigh and Hines were eminent physicians. There were three 
Whitfields ; two were killed fighting for the liberties of their 
country and the other, Dr. Bryan Whitfield, has been a suc- 
cessful physician and planter. Our class is the only one which 
has produced a President, Dr. Battle, whose great usefulness 
to the State is generally conceded. Mr. Hill closed with a 
tribute to the able Faculty of his day, and particularly Dr. 
Mitchell, who sacrificed his useful life on the altar of service. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 415 

President Battle added a few words to those of Mr. Hill. 
He and ''General" Hill had a race in helping the newly started 
University. Each had four sons, and when in 1876 one sent a 
boy to become a matriculate, the other did the same, and so 
afterwards with the second, third, and fourth sons. 

The Class of 1849 furnished a benefactor to his Alma Mater, 
John Calvin McNair, who died while pursuing his theological 
studies in Edinburgh. Before sailing he bequeathed, after his 
mother's death, a valuable estate for the establishment of a 
lectureship on the Harmony of Science and Religion. Al- 
though mainly swallowed up in the great war gulf, over 
$14,000 was ultimately realized. 

Another of the class had a pathetic history, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Edward Mallett. He passed unscathed through many 
battles and, after the Southern cause was nearly lost, was 
killed at Bentonsville and buried in his uniform in our village 
cemetery, leaving a wife dying of consumption, with four small 

Fifty-four joined the class during its four years. Of these 
thirty-six obtained their diplomas. Twenty-four were dead, 
leaving twenty living in 1889. 

The Class of 1850 was represented by Dr. J. F. Cain, Hon. 
Joseph J. Davis, J. Warner Lewis, and Hon. John Manning. 
Dr. Manning spoke in behalf of the rest. There were twenty- 
four graduates, of whom nine were alive. The first honor men 
were W. H. Johnston, John Hill, and W. C. Kerr. Hill drew 
the Valedictory and Johnson transferred the Latin Salutatory 
to Richard Hines, a second "might" (or mite) man. The most 
distinguished in after life were Thomas Settle, Benjamin R. 
Huske, Wm. H. Johnston, and Washington C. Kerr. (Dr. 
Manning was too modest to name himself. None exceeded 
him in honorable reputation.) 

Settle was State Solicitor, twice Judge of the Supreme Court 
of the State, Minister of the Umited States to Peru, president 
of the National Republican Convention in 1872, and United 
States District Judge for Florida. In 1875 ne was the nominee 
of the Republicans of the State for Governor and, in the judg- 
ment of many, proved himself equal in oratory to his great 

416 History of University of North Carolina. 

opponent, Vance. Kerr became eminent as a geologist, and 
was long State Geologist. Huske, an able lawyer, fought gal- 
lantly in the Civil War, and was mortally wounded at Seven 
Pines. Johnston was an able member of the bar and long a 
prosperous capitalist. Joseph J. Davis was a law student, was 
a Captain in the Civil War and, being imprisoned on John- 
son's Island with a large number of Confederates, showed his 
pluck by conducting a law school for the prisoners. Later he 
became a Justice of the Supreme Court of the State. 

The only member of the Class of 185 1 present was Peter E. 
Smith. He stated that forty-one matriculates had joined and 
thirty-four graduated. Of these ten were living. There was one 
Member of Congress, Francis E. Shober. One was a Profes- 
sor in the University, Benjamin S. Hedrick, and afterwards an 
expert examiner in the Patent Office. One, Samuel A. Holmes, 
was a Judge in California. There were two Colonels in the 
Confederate service, David M. Carter and Thomas M. Gar- 
rett. Garrett is said to have stated as he went into action at 
Spottsylvania Court House, that he would come out of the 
fight a Brigadier-General or a dead Colonel. He was killed. 

The Class of 1852 was represented by Dr. R. L. Beall, Mr. 
George A. Brett, Captain John R. Hutchins, and Dr. Richard 
H. Lewis, of Kinston. Dr. Beall spoke at some length: We 
had forty graduate classmates, of whom twenty are living. 
We have one Doctor of Divinity and one Judge, Wm. A. 
Moore. Major James W. Wilson is an able civil engineer. 
He engineered the Western North Carolina Railroad across the 
Blue Ridge and was selected by the Canadian Government to 
judge the correctness of her great Pacific Railway. We have 
three distinguished educators, Jere. J. Slade, Rev. Dr. Frost, 
of Pennsylvania, and Dr. R. H. Lewis, of Kinston. What 
class can show a Member of Congress before the war, a 
Colonel in the Civil War, three times Governor, and United 
States Senator all in one, as we can — Zebulon B. Vance? We 
have distinguished tillers of the soil. From them we get the 
youths, their muscles hardened and lungs expanded, the raw 
material for intellectual men. 

The Class of 1853 was represented by Baldy A. Capehart, 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 417 

Prof. Alexander Mclver, Colonel John L. Morehead, Hon. 
Henry R. Shorter, Colonel John D. Taylor, and David G. 
Worth, Esq. The spokesman was Colonel Shorter, who re- 
sided in Alabama, and whose eloquent words of love for his 
Alma Mater thrilled his hearers. He surprised them by call- 
ing- from memory the roll of his class as it was called in Chapel 
thirty-six years before. 

The speaker for the Class of 1853 told of the introduction of 
Peirce's Mathematics. Our class, with that ahead of us, 
while Sophomores and Juniors, aided in the expulsion of this 
Higher Mathematics from the University. Finding out that 
Peirce's Analytics and Calculus, bound in one volume, was out 
of print, some choice spirits collected all the volumes and pro- 
ceeded with joyful alacrity to make a bonfire of the crabbed and 
odious books, while their victims, now emancipated, danced in 
joyful hilarity around the blazing mass. When good Dr. James 
Phillips ("Old Bull") next morning called up members of the 
class for recitation the answer was, "Professor, I could not find 
a book. Some one stole mine." No one could be punished, as 
the doers of the deed were unknown. Loomis' treatise, more 
agreeable and better adapted to immature minds, was substi- 
tuted for Peirce. 

The Class of 1854 had a large attendance : Hon. Richard H. 
Battle, Mr. David S. Cowan, Captain E. Hayne Davis, Colonel 
John M. Galloway, Captain Richard B. Henderson, Hon. Rob- 
ert B. Johnston, Captain Oscar R. Rand, Colonel Wm. L. 
Saunders, John D. Shaw, Esq., Captain Wm. H. Thompson, 
and Rev. Dr. Wm. R. Wetmore. Mr. R. H. Battle was the 
spokesman : The class numbered eighty-eight matriculates 
during the four years. Over sixty graduated. Of these sixty but 
twenty-six are living. It was the largest class up to that time 
and for two or three years thereafter. It was probably the 
youngest, as eight or ten were only eighteen years old at grad- 
uation, only two as much as twenty-five, and the average not 
over twenty. It was very patriotic, as nearly all volunteered 
at the call to arms. We furnished six or more field officers 
and surgeons ; about twenty Captains and nearly as many Lieu- 
tenants, others serving as noncommissioned officers and pri- 


418 History of University of North Carolina. 

vates. About fifty per cent filled heroes' graves ; at least four 
of the bravest were killed in the battles before Richmond. Two 
of our gallant Captains, Johnston and Davis, stand before you 
with empty sleeves. To show that we are still mindful of our 
duty to the State is proved by the fact that one of us now 
present has twelve living children, while another, who would 
have come but for sickness, has eleven. Mr. Battle closed by 
advocating what had been suggested to him by an alumnus, 
that the General Assembly be petitioned to allow the Alumni 
Association to elect a portion of the Trustees. 

The Class of 1855 had present N. A. Boyden, Esq., Matthew 
S. Davis, Esq., Dr. YVm. J. Love, and Rev. S. Paxson Watters. 
Mr. Watters said that there were fifty graduates, perhaps one- 
half still alive. They furnished a noble complement of patriots 
to the Southern cause, one attaining the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, W. Gaston Lewis. One, A. B. Irion, of Louisiana, has 
been a Judge and a Member of Congress; one, Wm. J. Mont- 
gomery, a Judge of the Superior Court; one. W. H. Hall, a 
distinguished physician in Xew York. The class has the excep- 
tional distinction of contributing six of its members to the 
ministry of the Gospel. 

Of the Class of 1856 were present Messrs. W. F. Alderman, 
Wm. H. Burwell. A. Haywood Merritt. Major Clement Dowd, 
and Col. Benjamin R. Moore. Mr. Merritt spoke for the class: 
There were fifty-six graduates. The class contained no genius 
but they stood high, as a rule, in scholarship, moral tone and 
deportment. At the bar, in the pulpit, at the teacher's desk, in 
the halls of the Legislature, in the editorial chair, upon the 
tented field, its members have borne themselves bravely and 
without exception honorably. More than seventy per cent 
have gone above, leaving records of true manhood. In the 
school rooms from Maine to California will be found the rich 
legacy William Bingham has left in his classical series. Dr. 
Joseph B. Killebrew, among the living, is unexcelled in de- 
veloping the resources of Tennessee. Of those present, one, 
Alderman, is professor in an excellent college for young 
ladies; another. Dowd, is bald on account of the honors heaped 
on him in the National Congress ; another, Moore, touched 

Charter Cextexxial of 1889. 419 

lightly by time, represents the legal profession; another, Bur- 
well, is prominent as a farmer and has won the honor of 
maxima cum laude by having thirteen children. Of the other 
member (the speaker) it may be said that he has shown more 
wisdom than Solomon in that he never married but one wife, 
and he declares that he would be the better if the woman whose 
husband he is were spared to celebrate the next centennial. 

The Class of 1857 was represented by Hon. A. C. Avery. 
Col. Robert Bingham, Dr. Daniel McL. Graham, Major John 
W. Graham, Col. Thomas S. Kenan, Dr. John W. Lawing, and 
YVm. H. Williams, Esq. Colonel Kenan presented the class in 
a few ex tempore remarks. 

The Class of 1858 had present Hon. Lewis Hilliard. Col. 
John A. Gilmer, Rev. R. H. Marsh, Hon. Thomas W. Mason, 
Col. A. C. McAlister, Dr. J. F. Miller, Col. James T. More- 
head, Mr. Walter Bonner, F. M. Johnson, Esq., and James 
A. Walker, M.D. Mr. Mason was spokesman : 

On June 3, 1858, we went forth, ninety-two in number, one 
to Arkansas, six to Alabama, two to Florida, two to Georgia, 
two to Louisiana, six to Mississippi, one to South Carolina, 
seven to Tennessee, three to Virginia, and sixty-two to Xorth 
Carolina. Probably half have died, many in the military serv- 
ice of the Confederacy. We see the names of these on yonder 
tablets- — William Adams, Robert W. Anderson, Jesse S. 
Barnes, Edward S. Bell, Hugh T. Brown, Thomas Cowan, 
Robert T. Harriss, Addison Harvey, W ni. C. Lord, John M. 
Perry, David S. Young. Of these I must mention particu- 
larly Robert Walker Anderson, who had eminently great qual- 
ities of mind and heart. To the Southern Army we gave one 
General, R. D. Johnston, a dashing commander. I met him 
once in the midst of a fierce conflict, when he seized me by the 
hand, exclaiming, "Old friend ! how glorious it is !" Six of our 
members commanded regiments in the Confederate service. 
Three are with us today. Colonels John A. Gilmer, James T. 
Morehead, and Alexander C. McAlister. The bullet that 
caused Colonel Gilmer to limp did not stop the beating of his 
noble heart. Two of the number were Colonels Hamilton C. 
Jones and Richard W. Singleton. The sixth, a first honor man. 

420 History of University of North -Carolina. 

sleeps in an honored grave. Colonel Leroy M. McAfee. There 
were more than forty of the class having a lesser rank. David 
S. Goodloe lost an arm in the service and after that became an 
Episcopal minister. Not a few died soon after graduation. 
Wm. Carey Dowd lingered but a few months after speaking 
the Valedictory. Nathaniel P. Lusher died in 1859. Ambrose 
Davie (we called him "Little Dutch") perished with his beau- 
tiful bride by the burning of the steamer Charmer on the Mis- 
sissippi in 1 861. At somewhat later dates passed away nine 
others. Three of our number became Judges, Lewis Hilliard, 
Gilmer, and Fred Philips. Two of our number are unmarried 
and I propose at our next reunion that we give a gold cup to 
him who shows the largest matrimonial progress. 

The Class of 1859 was represented by Hon. Mills L. Eure, 
Rev. S. H. Isler, Col. E. B. Withers, and Messrs. John M. 
Fleming, Daniel P. McEachern, Marshall H. Pinnix, and 
James P. Taylor. Judge Eure said: 

This was one of the largest classes ever graduated from the 
University prior to 1859. Nearly all entered the army. More 
than twenty per cent lost their lives by wounds or by disease 
consequent on the war. An incident in our college life should 
be mentioned. Some reckless students burned the benches 
taken from the recitation room. Possibly by accident the belfry 
was also burnt.* Through the efforts of our class in the lit- 
erary societies measures were adopted to punish the destruction 
of University property and the act was not repeated. There 
may be some objection to the Lmiversity in some sections aris- 
ing from rivalrv or slight prejudice. These must be met by 
her friends, and- especially by the alumni, with moderation and 
sound reason. The record of her alumni for the past century, 
their grand deeds in shaping the destiny of the State, their 
efforts in promoting our entire educational system, must be 
presented to our people. We have an abiding faith that the 
intelligence and patriotism of our citizens will lead them to 
realize the necessity for a great University in North Carolina. 

The Class of i860 was represented by Capt. W. T. Allen, 

* The belfry was burnt, not from fire from the benches, but from the throwing of fire- 
balls in sport. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 421 

A. S. Barbee, Esq., Capt. W. H. Borden, Col. E. J. Hardin, and 
Capt. R. P. Howell. Captain Allen was spokesman : 

The members of this class all went forward to defend their 
country. It probably furnished more soldiers and lost more 
lives than any other. While it can not claim as many who have 
risen high in legal, scientific, and political eminence, we can 
refer with pride to such men as E. J. Hale, who sends greet- 
ing by telegram from Manchester, England, where he is our 
Consul. The speaker gave the case of Junius C. Battle as 
typical of the tragic losses of the class. A brother of President 
Battle, a first honor man, only twenty years of age, his young 
life cut off by a minie ball at South Mountain. There are many 
others who would have honored society and made the world 
better by their lives. 

The Class of 1861 had present Capt. Calvin Barnes, Capt. 
George Bullock, Capt. John D. Currie, Hon. Thomas D. 
Johnston, Col. James G. Kenan, Col. J. Turner Morehead. 
Messrs. E. G. Brodie, James Parker, and Joshua G. Wright. 
Hon. Thomas D. Johnston was spokesman: 

The history of this class is written in the blood of its mem- 
bers. It is the war class of the University. Almost before the 
ink was dry on their diplomas the eighty-seven graduates were 
enrolled as volunteer soldiers of the Confederacy, many of 
them without visiting their homes. On almost every battle- 
field, in the East and in the West, the Class of 1861 was repre- 
sented. On the tablets in this Memorial Hall the names of 
more than one-third of the members of the Class of 1861 are 
enrolled. I must particularlv mention Col. John Thomas 
Jones, of whom his commander said "he was worth his weight 
in gold." You have before you a striking proof of the heroism 
of the Class of 1861. The eleven men now present represent- 
ing the class bear upon their bodies the marks of twenty-five 
honorable wounds. 

The following of the Class of 1862 were present: Marsden 
Bellamy, Esq., Col. Joseph A. Haywood, Hon. Thomas G. 
Skinner, and H. C. Wall, Esq. Mr. Skinner presented the 
class in a few words. 

The Class of 1863 was represented by Rev. Dr. John L. Car- 

422 History of University of North Carolina. 

roll, Hon. W. N. Mebane, and W. M. Watkins, Esq. Dr. Car- 
roll spoke for the rest : 

The class started in 1859 with one hundred and thirty 
Freshmen, dwindled to eight during the Senior, and in imagi- 
nation I can hear dear old Mr. Fetter call the roll — "Argo, 
Broyles, Carr, Carroll, Hines, Marshall, Quarles, Watkins." 
Six survive. Hines sickened and died not long after the close 
of the war. Quarles, impersonation of a gentleman, was 
stricken down by a bully on the streets of Waco. Of the rest 
Argo is a popular lawyer, Broyles is somewhere in Texas, 
Carr a successful farmer and merchant, Marshall the popular 
rector of Christ Church, Raleigh ; Watkins a prosperous to- 
bacconist ; Mebane is a lawyer of large practice, destined to be 
a State Senator and Judge. We pray for our brothers and 
our Seniors a green and happy old age and abundant entrance 
into the Better Land. A sacred trust is passing into the keep- 
ing of our Juniors, one fraught with great honor to themselves, 
and with incalculable good to North Carolina, and to the world 
at large — the guardianship of the University. Let them guard 
it with undying devotion. Dr. Carroll, a Baptist preacher, 
died while pastor of the church at Chapel Hill. 

The Class of 1864 was represented by A. M. Boozer, Esq., 
Hon. Walter Clark, Wm. A. Guthrie, Esq., W. R. Kenan, Esq., 
and Captain Octavius Wiggins. Mr. Guthrie briefly presented 
the class. 

The Class of 1865 was represented by Henry A. London, 
Esq., who said among other things that his class entered the 
Lmiversity just after the Confederate victory known as First 
Manassas, about fifty in number. One by one they entered the 
army and when the war ended only one was found who had 
taken the four years course. The number of all matriculates 
in the Lmiversity for i863-'64 was only seventy-nine. Presi- 
dent Swain persuaded President Davis to exempt from con- 
scription the two highest classes, on the ground that "the seed 
corn must not be ground up," but this privilege was withdrawn 
in 1864. The University was kept open during the entire war 
and when Sherman's soldiers "captured" Chapel Hill in April, 
1865, ten or twelve students were pursuing their studies. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 423 

After the war ended President Swain notified the Seniors 
that if they would deliver orations at the coming Commence- 
ment, they should have their diplomas. Only four accepted 
the proposal, the speakers journeying to Chapel Hill on foot. 
The audience consisted chiefly of Federal soldiers. These 
four are widely scattered, one, John R. D. Shepard, in Paris; 
Rev. Wm. C. Prout, in Montana ; Rev. E. G. Prout, in New 
York; the fourth, H. A. London, in North Carolina. Two are 
ministers of the Gospel, William C. and Edmund G. Prout, 
so that it appears that one-half the class have entered the 
sacred ministry. Mr. London stated that he kept a diary in 
the old days. The last recorded sentence, as he left for the 
war, was "Hurrah for Chapel Hill." With sincere pleasure 
after twenty-five years he reiterated the utterance — Hurrah for 
Chapel Hill ! 

Centennial Alumni Banquet. 

On Wednesday, June 5, 1889, a large body of the alumni, 
together with many Trustees and the Faculty and invited 
guests, assembled in Gerrard Hall at 2 o'clock p. m. to partake 
of an elaborate banquet in honor of the centennial anniver- 
sary of the incorporation of the University. There were 
present also the following representatives of other colleges 
and universities : 

Prof. Crawford H. Toy, LL.D., of Harvard University; 
Hon. W. N. H. Smith, LL.D., of Yale University ; Col. Charles 
S. Yenable, LL.D., of the University of Yirginia; President 
Henry E. Shepherd, LL.D., of Charleston College ; Hon. J. L. 
M. Curry, LL.D., of Richmond College ; Rev. J. B. Cheshire, 
Jr., of the University of the South ; President Charles E. Tay- 
lor, D.D., of Wake Forest College; Prof. W. G. Brown. M.S., 
of Washington and Lee University ; Prof. W. B. Burney, 
Ph.D., of the L niversity of South Carolina ; Prof. F. C. Wood- 
ward, A.M., of the L niversity of South Carolina ; Prof. A. W. 
Long, A.M., of Wofford College ; Prof. George T. Winston, 
A.M., for Cornell University. Many other colleges and uni- 
versities sent congratulatory messages by mail or wire, and 
the representation of several were detained by the floods, 

424 History of University of North Carolina. 

among them being Hon. D. C. Gilman, LL.D., President of the 
Johns Hopkins University. 

Gerrard Hall had been cleared of its customary benches and 
oti the lower floor tables were now spread for three hundred 
guests, while the galleries were filled with ladies and gentle- 
men, visitors at Commencement, representing all sections of 
North Carolina and other States. 

The alumni and guests being seated, at the request of the 
Hon. Walter L. Steele, President of the Alumni Association, 
the Rt. Rev. Theodore B. Lyman, Bishop of North Carolina, 
invoked the blessing of Almighty God. After an hour spent 
in enjoyment of the delicacies of the table, in social reunion, 
and in college reminiscence, the President of the Association 
arose and said : It is said that on a banquet occasion some 
years ago, Daniel Webster, knowing the peculiarities of his 
hearers, began his address in these words : "Ye solid men of 
Boston, make no long orations ! Ye solid men of Boston, 
take no strong potations !" I do not doubt that the advice was 
most excellent then, and surely it is now excellent at this cen- 
tennial gathering. I therefore most respectfully but earnestly 
suggest to the alumni that no one should indulge in a "long 
oration." Of course there is no necessity of a warning of any 
other character. He then read the first toast. We give only 
enough of the speeches to show the lines of thought. 

■ The State Congress of 1776 and the General Assembly of 
1789. Response by Governor Daniel G. Fowle, LL.D., Presi- 
dent ex officio of the Board of Trustees. The clause of the 
Constitution on which the University is founded was adopted 
at the darkest hour of the Revolution, thus showing the fore- 
sight and patriotism of our ancestors. In 1789 the mandate 
of the Constitution began to be carried into effect. The wisdom 
of our fathers has been illustrated by the long line of dis- 
tinguished and useful men who have gone out from these 

The second toast was then announced, The Founders and 
Donors of the University. Response by President Kemp P. 
Battle, LL.D. He mentioned first the General Assemblies of 
1789 and subsequently, who gave arrearages of collecting offi- 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 425 

cers, escheats, including land warrants, to be located in Ten- 
nessee, and a loan of $10,000, afterwards converted into a 
gift; second, officers of the Revolution, who were benefactors 
of the University, Smith, Gerrard, and Person; third, the 
donors of the site of the University, McCauley, Barbee, Mor- 
gan, Yeargin, Jones, Craig, Hogan ; fourth, the ladies of Ra- 
leigh, New Bern, and Louisburg, who gave scientific instru- 
ments ; fifth, Rev. John Calvin McNair, who bequeathed land 
and property, which ultimately sold for over $14,600, to found 
an annual course of lectures ; sixth, Rev. Dr. C. F. Deems, 
aided by W. H. Yanderbilt, who founded a beneficent fund 
for loan to needy students ; seventh, Mr. B. F. Moore, who 
gave $5,000 for scholarships ; eighth, the givers of numerous 
small amounts on subscription lists to open the doors in 1795 
and 1875, and to construct the Main Building in 1812. Lastly 
the "four Maries," Mary Ann Smith, Mary Ruffin Smith, 
Mary Elizabeth (Morgan) Mason, and Alary Shepherd 
(Bryan) Speight, who all left to the University handsome 
legacies. The most durable and widely known monuments 
are donations to universities. The successive swarms of young 
men benefited by them will keep their memories in perennial 

The third toast was The General Assemblies of 1875, 1881, 
and 1885. The response was by Hon. Wm, X. Mebane. The 
traveler of i87o-'75 might have seen the corpse of our Alma 
Mater laid out in state. But the bell of the Old South rang 
out the news that the General Assembly of 1875 had agreed to 
pay the interest on the Land Grant and the doors of the Uni- 
versity were reopened. In 1881 $5,000 more was added, and 
in 1885 an addition of $15,000 per annum. The alumni of the 
University only did their duty, but especial praise is due cer- 
tain men, not educated here: Sidney M. Finger, at the head of 
the Department of Education ; James C. MacRae, the eloquent, 
the brave ; Nereus Mendenhall, a Friend by religion and always 
a friend of education, and Henderson A. Gudger, likewise an 
advocate of education, whether in the University or the pub- 
lic schools. It was expected that Hon. Geo. Y. Strong also 
would respond to this toast, but he was detained bv sickness. 

426 History of University of North Carolina. 

The President then read the fourth toast: The Site of the 
University. Mr. W. J. Peele responded. The Legislature 
decreed that the University should not be within five miles of 
the capital or any county seat and the Trustees enacted that 
it should be within fifteen miles from Cyprett's (Prince's) 
bridge in Chatham County. The Commissioners were Freder- 
ick Hargett, James Hogg, Alexander Mebane, and Wm. H. 
Hill. They received donations of over one thousand acres of 
land. Tradition hath it that Wm. R. Davie joined them and 
their solid and liquid dinner was eaten and imbibed under the 
Old Poplar. Such was their contentment with the viands that 
they declared, "Here must the University be." The selection 
was a noble one. Looking from the belfry of the South 
Building, the successive vistas stretch before you, until it seems 
as if the lost eras of a past eternity had returned to earth again 
and old ocean had resumed her ancient sway over the homes 
of men. 

The fifth toast was announced : President Joseph Caldivell 
and the Faculty and Trustees of His Administration. Hon. 
Paul C. Cameron, LL.D., responded. Mr. Cameron in an elo- 
quent speech gave at length the leading points of the lives and 
characters of President Caldwell and of Dr. Elisha Mitchell, 
Prof. Denison Olmstead, who became an eminent professor in 
Yale L niversity ; Ethan A. Andrews, who became principal of 
a noted female school in Massachusetts and author in part of a 
popular Latin Grammar ; Dr. James Phillips, who died sud- 
denly in this Hall, when about to offer up prayers for the stu- 
dents ; Rev. Joseph H. Saunders, who died a martyr to duty in 
caring for those sick with yellow fever at Pensacola. Cald- 
well's Trustees, beginning with Governor Samuel Johnston, 
Judge James Iredell, General Wm. R. Davie, General Joseph 
Graham, and Colonel Wm. Polk, the last surviving field officer 
of the State line of the Revolution, "were brilliant, strong lead- 
ers in peace and war, crowned with the favor and confidence 
of the people and approved by heaven." 

It was expected that Judge James Grant likewise would re- 
spond to this toast, but he was detained by floods. 

The sixth toast was: President David L. Swain and the 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 427 

Faculty and Trustees of His Administration. Responses were 
made by Hon. R. P. Dick, LL.D., and Thomas W. Mason, 
Esq. Judge Dick said that the greatest period of North 
Carolina's moral and intellectual greatness was from 1840 to 
i860. The teachers of that period were grand Christian sages 
and philosophers. President Swain was a truly great man, 
highly intellectual, learned, faithful to duty and noble-hearted, 
and an eloquent lecturer. The last time I met him was in 
Washington, whither, notwithstanding the inconveniences and 
dangers of travel, he had gone to plead for generosity and jus- 
tice to his afflicted fellow citizens. In feeling language the 
speaker depicted the labors and virtues of Dr. Mitchell, Dr. 
Phillips, Professor Fetter, Professor DeBerniere Hooper, Pro- 
fessor Green, Professor Deems, and the two Tutors, W. H. 
Owen and Ralph. H. Graves. As long as this University 
shall stand President Swain will have a worthy monument, and 
as century after century shall move by in the majestic march 
of ages, may it be reared higher amidst the effulgent light of 
advancing knowledge and eternal truth. 

Mr. Mason responded to the same toast. Few of the old 
husbandmen will be with us again. On the tenth of last 
month Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips bade us goodbye ; within a 
year past Professor Fetter and Dr. Hubbard, and earlier Pro- 
fessor DeBerniere Hooper ; earlier still Dr. Wheat and Dr. 
James Phillips, and that other great teacher — Elisha Mitchell. 
As to President Swain, North Carolina had no child within her 
borders nearer to her heart than he. The University was the 
very life and soul and genius of North Carolina. The spirit 
that had made this reunion possible, cherished as the speaker 
knew it was. would yet draw the hearts of the people to this 
seat of learning with that love and reverence he bore to David 
L. Swain and the Faculty and Trustees of his administration. 

To the seventh toast, President Kemp P. Battle and the 
Faculty and Trustees of his Administration, Messrs. A. H. 
Eller and Robert W. Winborne responded. Mr. Eller said 
that as stood Petrarch and his co-laborers to the Renaissance, 
so stood these men to the revival of learning in North Caro- 
lina. They restored to new beauty the dilapidated edifices of 

428 History of University of North Carolina. 

the University, adapted the instruction to the wants of the new 
civilization, erected a Memorial Hall to our illustrious dead, se- 
cured appropriations from the conservatism of Legislatures 
and recalled the stream of patronage from other States back 
to its ancient home. All honor to Caldwell and Swain. But 
to his mind the man who forsook the highest possibilities 
known to a learned profession, who with the courage of a 
patriot, the fortitude of a martyr, the learning of a master, and 
the love of a father, had for fourteen years presided over her 
destinies : — that man had builded for himself a monument over- 
shadowed only by his own great useful life. 

Mr. Winborne said in response to the same toast that the 
present honored President and his coadjutors assumed con- 
trol of the University when it was a seat of learning only in 
name. By their fostering care today, regenerated and re- 
deemed, she stood forth once more as the pride of our State, 
and arrayed in the panoply of her own merit, was fully equipped 
grandly to begin this her second century of usefulness to 
humanity and to God. 

Col. Thomas S. Kenan made the response to the eighth 
toast, The Confederate Dead of the University. In nearly 
every department of the Confederate Government there was 
a representative of this institution. When he was wounded and 
captured at Gettysburg and taken to Johnson's Island in Lake 
Erie, he induced a fellow prisoner and classmate. Col. Robert 
Bingham, to send to President Swain the names of University 
of North Carolina students, prisoners of war at that place. 
There were thirty-five, clear evidence of the numbers of our 
alumni in the Southern Army generally. In the list of alumni 
who lost their lives in the war he found the following classifi- 
cation, one Lieutenant-General, four Brigadier-Generals, eleven 
Colonels, eight Lieutenant-Colonels, thirteen Majors, seventy- 
six Captains, fifty-six Lieutenants, fourteen Sergeants, three 
Corporals, sixty-eight privates, two Color Sergeants, one Ser- 
geant-Major, one volunteer aide-de-camp, one Surgeon and 
one Assistant Surgeon, in all two hundred and sixty. Even this 
omits some whose histories could not be ascertained. Among 
the names on the list mav be found Lieutenant-General Polk, 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 429 

Brigadier-General Branch, Generals Pettigrew, Garrott, and 
George B. Anderson. The names extend from General Polk 
in 1 82 1 to Lieutenant Wm. M. G. Webb, of the Class of 1864. 
Eternal honor to the memory of the Confederate dead, whose 
deeds as native American soldiers should stimulate every im- 
pulse of honor and patriotism. 

The ninth toast was, The Alumni Who Have Honored the 
State and Nation by Their Services in Public Life, at the Bar, 
on the Bench, in the Ministry, or as Physicians. Responses : 
In Public Life, Hon. H. C. Jones; At the Bar, Hon. Joseph B. 
Batchelor ; On the Bench, Hon. A. C. Avery ; In the Ministry, 
Rev. Thos. E. Skinner ; As Physicians, George G. Thomas, 
M.D. Hon. H. C. Jones was prevented by illness from attend- 
ing the banquet. 

Ex-Attorney-General J. B. Batchelor responded to the toast 
of the Bar. ^Eneas of old said of the proofs of the wide in- 
fluence of Troy, 

"Quis jam locus, * * * 
Qucc regio in terris nostri non plena laboris?" 

So in every field of labor, in every pursuit of life, in every de- 
partment of science and learning, in every trade and profes- 
sion, and in every clime, the University's children have lived 
lives and won honors of which she may well be proud. Every 
step in the slow and upward progress of human right is marked 
by a lawyer's sacrifice. Pioneers of thought, teachers in the 
highest schools of civilization, the progress of the lawgiver 
marked the progress of humanity. Exempt from mutability or 
decay ages but add new beauty to Law, the vast realms of 
creation her empire, her hand-maidens Liberty, Justice, and 
Truth, "her voice the harmony of the Universe, her seat the 
bosom of God." 

Judge Avery spoke on The Alumni on the Bench. It is 
not strange that men trained in the old time intellectual disci- 
pline of Caldwell and Swain should have been fitted for the ex- 
ercise of judicial power. Archibald Debow vlurphey, of the 
Class of 1799, was Tutor, Professor, Judge of the Supreme 
Court for one term, and on the Superior Court bench. Joseph 
J. Daniel, a Judge of the Superior and then of the Supreme 

430 History of University of North Carolina. 

Court, was one of the clearest headed law writers of his day. 
John R. Donnell, a first honor man of 1807, won distinction by 
a service of eighteen years on the bench. The polish of John 

D. Toomer, the power of Romulus M. Saunders, the scholar- 
ship of Edward Hall, and brilliancy of Willie P. Mangum, 
show the work of the University from 1810 to 1820. The 
learning of Battle, the acumen of Pearson, the accuracy of 
Manly were her contributions to our highest court in the next 
decade. Judges Mitchell and Augustus Moore left these halls 
to preside over our Superior Courts in the same period, while 
John Bragg was Judge in Alabama and A. O. P. Nicholson 
was Chief Justice of Tennessee. Justices Ashe, Dillard, Rod- 
man, and James W. Osborne, of the graduates between 1830 
and 1840, honored their Alma Mater in winning distinction for 
themselves. The cultured Christian gentleman, R. P. Dick, 
once on our Supreme Court bench, now a Federal Judge, and 
the late Thomas Ruffin, Jr., of the Supreme Court, a powerful 
jurist, were contemporaries. Judges Barnes, Buxton, Meares, 
and Shipp are still living, while Ellis, McKoy, Person, and 
Jesse G. Shepherd fill honored graves. These all were taught 
here between 1840 and 1850. Of the Class of 1850 was the 
late Thomas Settle, a Justice of our Supreme Court and then 
District Judge of the United States for Florida. The living 
sons of this seat of learning who have gone forth since 1850 
must wait for mention by an alumnus who shall respond to 
the toast of the Bar one hundred years from now. 

To the toast The Alumni in the Ministry, Rev. Dr. Thomas 

E. Skinner responded in place of Rev. Dr. Joseph C. Huske, 
absent. He had time to recall but a few of the alumni in the 
ministry. William Hooper, D.D., LL.D., was one of the most 
distinguished. He was a Professor in this University and that 
of South Carolina and a President of Wake Forest College, 
of rare scholarship and pure spirit. He was truly a Baptist 
bishop. We notice the fecundity of our dear venerated mother 
in supplying the bishops of the country. The names of Polk, 
Otey, Cicero Hawks, Davis, and Green, are enrolled upon her 
catalogue. Bishop Green, while Professor here, was known as 
Comfort Green, because he was so °reat a comfort to the stu- 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 431 

dents. He became Bishop of Mississippi, and Chancellor of the 
University of the South. The speaker well remembered his 
kind attention, inviting him to visit his family, placing in his 
hands a beautiful prayer book. "Doubtless had it not been 
foreordained from all eternity that I should be a Baptist bishop, 
why then I might have been an Episcopal bishop. As it is 
certainly I am a bishop." The hundreds of alumni who are 
before me will never meet on earth again. But we can work 
for our mother, and humbly beseech the Divine blessing upon 
her, that in the future she may prove even a greater blessing 
to humanity than she has been in the past. 

To the toast The Alumni as Physicians, Dr. George Gillett 
Thomas responded. To call the roll of our illustrious pred- 
ecessors and contemporaries whose lives have been spent as 
the physician's should be, would consume more than the time 
allotted to me. Let me, however, tell of the life and death of 
an alumnus of this University. Dr. James Henderson Dickson 
was graduated here in 1823, with honor, at the early age of 
seventeen. Having a strong mind and studious habits he 
rapidly acquired the fundamental truths of medicine. For a 
short while he settled in Fayetteville. He here did, for the 
first time in the annals of surgery, the operation for the cor- 
rection of the club foot deformity. Since that time the same 
work has been done all over the civilized world. Dr. Dickson's 
mind was never at rest and in reading covered intelligently all 
the ground that was open to him. His address before our 
Alumni Association in 1853 is a splendid example of his attain- 
ments. His conduct in combating yellow fever in 1862 was 
heroic. Laying aside all the pursuits of a literary life, with 
the whole energy of his great mind and tender heart, he went 
into the struggle with death along with his fellow practition- 
ers. With the calm dignity of a cultivated Christian gentle- 
man, he laid himself down, stricken with the fever, and after 
a short sickness yielded up his life to his Maker. The sons of 
the University, in every department of medicine, have borne 
ample testimony to the grace of learning given them here. In 
North Carolina, thanks to wise legislation regulating the prac- 
tice of medicine and the watchfulness of the Board of Medical 

43 2 History of University of North Carolina. 

Examiners, we stand today without superiors in everything 
that goes to make the trustworthy doctor. To none of her 
sons do the memories of this gentle mother come with a more 
tender thankfulness for the bestowal of her bounties than to 
those who are the true physicians. 

The tenth toast was, The Alumni Who Have Promoted Edu- 
cation in Private and in Public Schools. Responses : In Pri- 
vate Schools, Col. Robert Bingham and J. H. Horner, A.M. 
Colonel Bingham : An alumnus has sat in the chair of the 
Presidency of the United States. Our alumni have been Cab- 
inet officers, Senators from many States, Governors of many 
States, have occupied the highest judicial positions, have been 
the most distinguished lawyers, orators, preachers. And when 
war came they w 7 ere the first to draw the sword and the last 
to sheath it. Indeed the University seems to have en- 
dued her sons with some peculiar power, and to have 
given them some special inspiration which enabled them to 
seize and to hold the leadership of political and forensic 
thought and actions. But the history of those who have 
taught is in most instances short and pathetic. They have 
done much for others, but little for themselves. There are 
very few whose reputation reached into other States. Among 
these modesty forbids me to do more than mention my father 
and brother, and justice forbids me to do less, but we have 
with us the hero of private schools — brilliant in intellect, 
kingly in person, the most effective teacher I have seen, James 
H. Horner. 

Mr. Horner said that he was embarrassed, not being used to 
ex tempore speaking. He was like one of his pupils, who was 
ordered by Mr. Graves to come on Saturday and make up a 
recitation missed. He failed to do so and when Mr. Graves 
asked the reason for the omission raised his hat politely and 
said, "That is not in my line of business." He was excluded 
from the school, but has since become distinguished as a 
scholar and regrets his boyish misconduct. Just so, respond- 
ing to toasts is "not in my line of business." I will say, how- 
ever, that whatever success I have had is due to the training 
under Colonel Bingham's father, Mr. Wm. J. Bingham. 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 433 

Mr. E. A. Alderman responded to the toast, The Alumni 
who have Promoted Education in Public Schools. All honor 
has been accorded to Thomas Jefferson for embodying in a 
revolutionary document the universal truth, "All men are cre- 
ated free and equal," and because he declared that the earliest 
and latest concern of his life was the education of the people. 
Equal honor should be paid to the sons of this State and this 
institution, who taught that the people are made to rule and 
not to be ruled. The moving principle in the heart of Archi- 
bald Murphey, Joseph Caldwell, and Calvin Wiley was not 
philanthropy, but statesmanship — not charity, but the grant- 
ing of a right as sacred as the right to be free. Let the schools 
perpetuate their names. I pray to God that the younger sons 
of this institution may have strength to carry on the work 
until every child in North Carolina, rich or poor, lowly born or 
gently bred, be enabled to emancipate itself from the great, 
black empire of necessity and might, and to make out of itself, 
for the State's sake and its own, everything that can be made. 

The eleventh toast was: The Alumni Who in Private Life 
Have Advanced the Prosperity of the State in Manufactures 
and Internal Improvements. Responses: In Manufactures, 
Julian S. Carr, Esq. ; In Internal Improvements, J. Turner 
Morehead, Esq. Mr. Carr : Horace says, "Dulce et decorum 
est pro patria mori;" but I prefer another maxim, "It is sweeter 
to live for one's country." Law, Medicine, the Ministry, 
Teaching, Literature, and Science, Merchandise, all give scope 
to honorable ambition, but I yield my devotion to Manufactur- 
ing. The University has contributed many leaders in this most 
important pursuit. There is Col. Walter Steele, our Presi- 
dent, and there are the Moreheads, the Holts, the Frieses, the 
Williamsons, and scores of others. It is just a quarter of a 
century since, a beardless youth, I joined the forces of Gen- 
eral Lee. Less than two-thirds of that time has been spent at 
a point most of you in your college days knew as a railroad 
turnout. Now the hum of its machinery is heard around the 
world, and cablegrams from Japan, the Straits of Malacca, 
and Australia flash constantly to that point. Its representa- 


434 History of University of North Carolina. 

tives, gripsack in hand, visit every civilized and uncivilized 
country on the globe. 

In response to the toast, The Alumni Who Have Advanced 
the Prosperity of the State in Internal Improvements, Mr. 
Turner Morehead said in part : Washington and Bonaparte 
and Wellington are the accepted examples of men. Washing- 
ton was an engineer, a proprietor, an advocate of internal 
improvements. Bonaparte admitted his mistake in not foster- 
ing ships, colonies, and commerce. The Duke of Wellington 
only fifteen years after Waterloo was in danger of being 
mobbed at Manchester while George Stephenson was treated 
as a hero. It is fitting that our internal improvements should 
be headed by a President of the University, Dr. loseph Cald- 

Mr. Cameron called Dr. Caldwell the sower and Governor 
Morehead the reaper. Then came Wm. A. Graham, Romulus 
M. Saunders, Wm. S. Ashe, Calvin Graves, W. J. Hawkins, 
Paul C. Cameron, L. O'B. Branch, John W. Norwood, W. W. 
Avery, Jesse G. Shepherd, William Johnston, Richard H. 
Smith, R. H. Donnell, H. M. Shorter, Walter L. Steele, who 
voted for the North Carolina Railroad charter when the road 
came not within ninety miles of his home. Once there was in 
our State distrust and bickering, a Pamlico section, a Roanoke 
section, a Cape Fear, Piedmont, Mountain, and Transmountain 
section without cohesive sympathy for each other. These iso- 
lated communities are merged into one brotherhood, filled with 
State pride, prosperous, self-reliant. The undertakings of the 
alumni in internal improvements were no holiday job. They 
exhibited all the qualities of bold, sturdy, ardent manhood. 

The twelfth toast was, The Dialectic and Philanthropic So- 
cieties. Responses by J. M. Leach, Junior, of the Dialectic, 
and James Thomas, of the Philanthropic Society. Mr. Leach : 
When I entered the Dialectic Hall a new world opened 
to me. In the society I first saw the meaning of her motto, 
"Love of Virtue and Science." Her motto was not only a 
pledge of her success, but the principle it embodies has been 
the cause of that success. Some of the brightest members of 
the Dialectic Society came from the public schools. In the 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 435 

future it will appear that there is no brighter name than that 
of Horace Mann. And in this State will be luminous the 
names of Braxton Craven and Calvin H. Wiley. There 
is a legend that if a traveler at night takes seven sips of water 
from the fountain of Trevi, and then breaks the glass, he will 
return to Rome before he dies. If drinking at the old well 
yonder would secure me a seat at the alumni table a year hence 
I would drink the water and break the glass, though it were 
the finest product in which the Bohemian excels. It was said 
of Louis le Debonair that he desired to die where he could hear 
the waters of the Rhine. I could wish to fall asleep in Chapel 
Hill, under the majestic oaks that once shaded Polk, Caldwell, 
Swain, Davie, Moore, Murphey, Battle. Mangum, Badger, 
Morehead, Graham, Pettigrew, Ransom, Vance, and in sight of 
the hall of the Dialectic Society. 

Mr. Thomas : The thoughts of us all are recalled by the 
memory of the pleasant hours in one of the societies, whose 
names are household words in Xorth Carolina and many homes 
elsewhere. To me, next to home, one of the few places worthy 
of the highest respect is the Philanthropic Society, where were 
created aspirations and hopes which are incentives to action 
and the inspiration of daily life. Many seem unaffected by 
local associations, even as a number of young people talked 
and laughed on the field of Waterloo. On the other hand there 
are men like Goldsmith, who returned to the place of his boy- 
hood after a life of dissipation, and wrote "The Deserted Mi- 
lage." So let the influence of place take hold of this company. 
And may the interest of its members increase as the years 
go by. 

The thirteenth toast was, Our Sister Universities and Col- 
leges. Response was made by Col. Charles S. Venable, L.L.D., 
of the University of Virginia, and Rev. Dr. Charles E. Taylor, 
of Wake Forest College. Colonel Venable : A few superb 
young fellows, fresh from the field, entered our universities in 
1865, but to the South at large it was a dark, dark day for the 
higher education of Southern youth. But could our grand 
leader have foreseen this picture of today, even in the agony 
of Appomattox, he would have exclaimed with the prophet 

436 History of University of North Carolina. 

bard, "Visions of glory ! spare my aching sight !" You might 
as well attempt to place a candle in every man's cottage with- 
out the creative energy imparted by the sun as to undertake to 
establish an effective system of public, secondary, and primary 
instruction without a well equipped State University at its 
head to furnish the essential force of educated intellect. I 
bring a greeting from the sister universities to the noble Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. May the sun of her progress and 
power be the sun of the psalmist, which is to us a bridegroom 
coming from his chamber rejoicing like a strong man to run a 

The speech of Dr. Taylor is not recorded, nor is that of J. L. 
M. Curry, LL.D., on the fourteenth toast, To George Peabody 
and Others Who, Loving the South, Have Given of Their 
Means to Educate Her Children. 

The fifteenth toast was, Our Guests. Responses by Henry 
E. Shepherd, LL.D., of Charleston College, and Crawford H. 
Toy, LL.D., of Harvard University. President Shepherd 
spoke in place of President Gilman, of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, who was detained by the floods. He hoped that the 
Centennial would not pass without at least some recognition 
of the high and noble function performed by universities in 
fostering and developing the sentiment of culture, the concep- 
tion of pure scholarship, lifted above all thought of worldly 
aggrandizement into that serene atmosphere, that Arcadian 
home, which is the abode and the sanctuary of the ideal stu- 
dent. The true scholar is among the noblest benefactors of 
the race ; he is a spiritual power, a concrete protest against the 
incoming wave of materialism which threatens to subordinate, 
if not to pervert, all the holier and purer forces of our civiliza- 
tion. The example of great scholars was mentioned, particu- 
larly that of Scaliger at the University of Leyden. The 
speaker concluded by appealing to the students and the alumni 
to use all diligence in cherishing and developing that sentiment 
of scholarly learning and aspiring which is the perfected glory 
and the serene splendor of universities in all ages and under 
all variations of administrative order or external form. 

Dr. Crawford Toy spoke in response to the toast, Our 

Charter Centennial of 1889. 437 

Guests. I am happy on this pleasant occasion to be the bearer 
of the greetings and congratulations of the Faculty of Harvard 
College to the University of North Carolina. We are bound to 
you by the ties of a common interest and a common hope and 
effort. The fathers of the Revolution, says President Battle. 
knew that their children would not be capable of freedom with- 
out education. The ultimate aim of education, on the social 
side, is to teach men to live aright ; on the reflective side it is 
the discovery of truth. A university must be the creator of 
its own resources. It must shape a public opinion which shall 
supply the means of endowing instruction and shall offer those 
rewards of honors and emoluments which shall induce young 
men to devote themselves to thorough literary, scientific, and 
philosophical studies. May the hope which the University of 
North Carolina reposes in her sons be amply and speedily ful- 
filled. In conclusion Professor Toy read the following tele- 
gram : 

Cambridge, Mass.. June 5, 1889. 
Harvard University congratulates the University of North Caro- 
lina on a centenary of usefulness and honor and wishes it ever in- 
creasing prosperity. Chas. W. Eliot. 


Such was the enthusiasm evoked by this Centennial reunion 
that the Alumni Association appointed a committee. Pres- 
ident Battle and Professors Manning, Yenable, and Win- 
ston, to arrange for an annual banquet at each Commencement. 
The committee sent to all alumni a circular beginning, "The 
Centennial Alumni Reunion at the last Commencement was so 
refreshing to the hearts of all present, so honorable to the 
University, and so creditable in its results that it is clearly 
essential to the welfare and growth of the institution to have 
an annual reunion of the alumni at each Commencement." The 
alumni were requested to notify their coming, if practicable, 
to the committee. 

It was resolved to endow a Chair of History and that a com- 
mittee of twelve take steps for such endowment. Historical 
investigation is occupying, justly, more of the thoughts and 
enerev of scholars than almost anv other line of studv. 

438 History of University of North Carolina. 

It was also resolved to form branch Alumni Associations in 
order to bind the "old students" more firmly to their Alma 
Mater. An especial letter was written to an active and influ- 
ential alumnus in each locality with the request to confer with 
others, and fix a time and place of meeting. A copy of a sug- 
gested constitution was forwarded, and a visit from a member 
of the Faculty promised if desired. The plan recommended was 
adopted in some localities, but was not regularly continued. 
President Battle visited and addressed associations in Ashe- 
ville, Winston, and Greensboro, but was not called elsewhere. 

The speeches of the Seniors were delivered the next day : 

Walter M. Curtis, "The Three Kingdoms." 

Alexander Stronach, "Individuality." 

A. A. F. Seawell, "The Ethics of Toil." 

John Sprunt Hill, "National Moderation." (The Philosoph- 
ical Oration.) 

George S. Wills, "A Reformer Before the Reformation." 

Mills R. Eure, "The Dark Problem." 

Henry G. Wood, "Our Foreign Element." 

Clinton W. Toms, "Moral Epidemics." 

James E. B. Davis, "Modern Cynicism." 

Walter M. Hammond, "The Better Half." 

Logan D. Howell, "The Novel as the Mirror of Modern 

Caleb G. Cates, "Developed Manhood." 

Charles A. Webb, "The Buddhas of Mankind." (The Classi- 
cal Oration.) 

W. A. W'ilson, "Philosophy and Progress." 

Hunter L. Harris, "An Unconscious Slavery." (The Scien- 
tific Oration.) 

Daniel G. Currie, "Grit." (The Valedictory.) 

The following theses were accepted in place of orations : 

Herbert Clement, "The Test of Progress" ; Lacy L. Little, 
"Equilibrium"; Thomas Lake Moore, "The Star in the East"; 
William S. Roberson, "The Historic Relation and Results of 

This being a Centennial celebration there was a liberal con- 
ferring of honorary degrees. That of Doctor of Lazvs (LL.D.), 

Honorary Degrees in 1889. 439 

on Alphonso C. Avery, of the Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina; Paul C. Cameron, State Senator, and long a wise and 
diligent Trustee of the University; Daniel G. Fowle, Judge, 
and then Governor ; Daniel C. Gilman, President of Johns 
Hopkins University, and ex-President of the University of 
California; E. .Burke Haywood, a leading surgeon of North 
Carolina ; Prof. William J. Martin, President of Davidson 
College, once Professor of Chemistry in this University; Wil- 
liam B. Royall, Professor in Wake Forest College ; William 
L. Saunders, Colonel in the Confederate States Army and Sec- 
retary of State ; Alfred M. Scales, Governor ; James E. Shep- 
herd, Judge of the Supreme Court; George V. Strong, Judge 
of the Superior Court; Crawford H. Toy, Professor of Hebrew 
in Harvard University — an author of eminence ; Charles S. 
Venable, Colonel on General Lee's staff, Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Chairman of the Faculty in the University of Vir- 
ginia — an author. 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), on Wm. G. Brown, Profes- 
sor in the West Virginia University ; W. B. Burney, Professor 
of Physics in the South Carolina College. 

Doctor of Letters (Litt.D.) : John F. Crowell, President of 
Trinity College ; Charles E. Taylor, President of Wake For- 
est College; F. C. Woodward, Professor of English in the 
South Carolina College. 

The Degrees in Course : 

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 8 

Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 11 

Bachelors of Science 1 

Total 20 

This list shows the waning of the study of Greek, the Philo- 
sophical Course, substantially omitting that language but in- 
cluding Latin, having a majority of the graduates. 

In delivering the diplomas Governor Fowle addressed the 
graduates in a strong and most interesting speech. He prom- 
ised his best efforts to obtain an appropriation for the Uni- 
versity of $50,000 annually. 

440 History of University of North Carolina. 

One student obtained the degeee of Master of Arts : Wm. 
James Battle. 

Special Certificates : 

Latin — J. W. Graham, A. A. P. Seawell. 

Mathematics — D. J. Currie, G. P. Howell. 

English — George S. Wills. 

French — A. Stronach, C. W. Toms, G. S. Wills. 

Natural Philosophy — D. J. Currie. 

Normal Course — J. E. B. Davis, Jim Jimerson. 

Honors : 

Valedictory Oration — Daniel Johnston Currie. 
Classical Oration — Charles Aurelius Webb. 
Philosophical Oration — John Sprunt Hill. 
Scientific Oration — Hunter Lee Harris. 
Greek Prizes — Shepard Bryan, Palmer Dalrymple. 
Mathematical Prize — George Pierce Howell. 
Representative Medal — George Henry Crowell. 
Mangum Medal — Charles Aurelius Webb. 

Honors in Class Standing: 

Maxima cum Laude — Daniel Johnston Currie, John Sprunt 

Magna cum Laude — Logan D. Howell, Lacy LeGrand Little, 
Charles Aurelius Webb, Walter Makepeace Curtis, Alex- 
ander Stronach, George Stockton Wills, Hunter Lee 

Cum Laude — Herbert Clement, William Stone Roberson, 
James E. B. Davis, Walter Monroe Hammond, Thomas 
Lake Moore, Aaron A. F. Seawell, Clinton White Toms, 
Henry Gilliam Wood. 

In i888-'8q the Faculty changes were: Hunter Lee Harris, 
Assistant in Chemical Laboratory : Joseph Yolney Lewis, As- 
sistant in Natural History ; Stephen C. Bragaw and Thomas L. 
Moore, Society Librarians. 

Death of Professor Graves and Dr. Mallett. 

In 1889 tnc health of Prof. Ralph Henry Graves was as- 
sailed. He fell into the deepest despondency. Finding him- 
self unable to teach he tendered his resignation to Presi- 
dent Battle, who refused to accept it. but employed a substitute 

Death of Professor Graves and Dr. Mallett. 441 

with part of his salary. By his advice he repaired to Balti- 
more to consult a specialist in nerve troubles. At one 
time he hoped that he had been benefited by his treatment, 
but the improvement was transient. The malady increased 
until it resulted in insanity and he ended his life with his own 
hand on the 10th of July the same year. 

Professor Graves was a mathematician of rare gifts. He 
won highest honors at the University of North Carolina, and 
when its exercises were closed, in 1868, he was one of the 
ablest students at the University of Virginia. Here he grad- 
uated with the much coveted degree of Master of Arts (M.A.), 
being especially strong in pure Mathematics, Physics and 
Chemistry. He was an excellent teacher, though strict, and a 
terror to the lazy and the flippant. Although he was cut off 
in middle life, his virtues and talents did not die with him. 
Marrying an excellent woman, a daughter of Professor John 
DeBerniere Hooper, they had four children, a girl and three 
boys. After his death his widow, with remarkable energy and 
good sense, on slender means, has raised the girl to cultured 
womanhood and the boys, through this University, to be high- 
toned and successful men. One of them is Lieutenant Ernest 
Graves, who took a very high grade at West Point and is one 
of the strongest and most skillful athletes of our army. 

On University Day (October 12th) Professor George T. 
Winston delivered by request a most scholarly address on the 
Life and Character of Professor Graves, which was published 
in the University Magazine soon afterwards. Professor 
Winston was long an intimate friend of his colleague and 
brought out with great ability his peculiar powers — especially 
his mathematical genius. 

In the fall of the same year Chapel Hill lost its most emi- 
nent physician, Dr. William Peter Mallett. His kindliness of 
manner, his high qualities of a gentleman, coupled with his 
skill as a physician and his residence among us more than 
thirtv vears, made him a most lovable and valued citizen. 

442 History of University of North Carolina. 

It may be well to copy from a newspaper of the day a de- 
scription of the village. "Chapel Hill is a quiet and beauti- 
ful village on a branch line of the Richmond and Danville 
Railroad (properly North Carolina Railroad) and twelve miles 
from the famous tobacco town of Durham. The village, with 
its broad streets, picturesque walls, large yards, gigantic grape- 
vines, noble elms, old fashioned houses, and the University 
Campus with its buildings of imposing proportions, wide- 
spreading oaks and acres of grass, is remarkably attractive 
especially in autumn and spring. What with porches, yards 
and College Campus, the town scarcely needs a park, yet in 
'Battle Park' it has one which by its natural beauties might 
well excite the envy of wealthy Gotham. Lovers and chil- 
dren are fond of wandering along the paths cut out through 
the forest. Clear springs, rustic seats and shady nooks wear 
appropriate names, and almost every tree might a tale of love 
unfold if it could only tell of the names carved on its sides." 

Saturday Work. 

At this period there was a move to have recitations on Satur- 
day. The argument for the change was the impossibility of 
getting the studies into five days without giving many of the 
classes four or five hours of consecutive work, going without 
rest from one lecture to another. Moreover, there was not 
proper time for laboratory work. The chief opposition came 
from the Dialectic Society, in which declamations and reading 
of compositions had for many years been features, and were 
considered of much educative value. In answer to this it was 
argued that this practice had grown up when practically there 
was no English Department in the University, whereas now the 
advantages claimed are obtained from the regular instruction. 
Moreover, it was claimed that there was a considerable number 
of special students not members of the societies, and the at- 
tendance of Juniors and Seniors on the Saturday morning's 
meetings is not now required. 

The Faculty voted that Saturday recitations should be held 
for Juniors and Seniors, provided that the change should work 

Saturday Work. 443 

no injury to the societies, but referred the whole subject to 
the Trustees, because the Saturday exemption was given by a 
venerable by-law. The conclusion of the Faculty was sup- 
ported by the following arguments : 

1. By using Saturdays relief can be had from afternoon 
work, except in the laboratories. 

2. Five-sixths of the students will have greater opportunities 
for study and recreation. 

3. The classes can be arranged so as to diminish conflicts. 

4. The duties in the societies can be so arranged as not to be 
sensibly impeded. 

5. The general behavior on Saturdays will be improved. 

6. By proper arrangement of the Monday lectures the 
temptation to study on Sundays can be greatly lessened. 

Advanced Degrees. 

The Faculty determined on the following rules for Advanced 
Degrees : 

First. The Advanced Degrees are Master of Arts (A.M.), 
Master of Science (M.S.), Master of Philosophy (M.Ph.), and 
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). It will be noticed that in the 
first and last the Latin form is retained, viz., Artium Magister 
(A.M.) and Philosophies Doctor (Ph.D.). Afterwards, in 
1903, the Faculty reduced the first three to Master of Arts, and 
printed the diplomas in English, thus eliminating the classic 
feature which had been in existence over a hundred years. 

Second. The applicant for degree must file a request in 
writing and must prove that he has obtained the Bachelor's 
degree here or elsewhere. 

Third. He must, under the direction of the Faculty, pursue, 
residing at the University for one year, one major and two 
minor studies ; must on examination obtain a grade of at least 
80, and submit an approved thesis. 

Fourth. For the degree of Ph.D. he must pursue, one year 
longer, studies in two branches, a major and a minor. 

444 History of University of North Carolina. 

Alumni Association. 

The University Alumni Association in 1890 had as its Presi- 
dent Hon. Walter L. Steele, and its Secretaries, Messrs. H. A. 
London and Josephus Daniels. The branch associations were : 

Wake County, Dr. E. B. Haywood, President ; Alex. 
Stronach, Secretary. 

Goldsboro, Gen. W. G. Lewis, President ; Prof. J. W. Joyner, 

Wilmington, Mr. David G. Worth, President; Prof. M. C. S. 
Noble, Secretary. 

Charlotte, Col. William Johnston, President ; Heriot Clark- 
son, Esq., Secretary. 

Washington, William B. Rodman, Jr., President; H. A. 
Latham, Esq., Secretary. 

Durham, Julian S. Carr, Esq., President ; Hon. James S. 
Manning, Secretary. 

Craven County, John S. Long, Esq., President ; James 
Thomas, Esq., Secretary. 

Winston-Salem, John W. Fries, Esq., President; A. H. 
Eller, Esq., Secretary. 

High Point, Prof. James A. Deak, President ; E. M. Arm- 
field, Esq., Secretary. 

February Twenty-second and Class Day. 

Washington's Birthday in 1890 was celebrated with all due 
ceremony. Mr. Shepard Bryan was the introductory orator. 
In appropriate words he presented to the audience Mr. William 
W. Davies, of Virginia, who gracefully and eloquently por- 
trayed the virtues and civil and military labors of the Father of 
the United States of America. 

The Class Day of 1890 was held on April 15th. The night 
before there was a dance, at which "stags" formed the major 
part, although there were ladies from Raleigh, Durham, and 
Portsmouth, Virginia, besides the local supply. 

Ralph H. Holland began the exercises of the anniversary by 
a well written oration on Chivalry. John D. Bellamy read the 

Class Day, 1890. 445 

Poem, of which T. M. Lee, who was absent, was author. This 
was followed by the History of the class, by W. F. Shaffner. 
And then the most interesting of all, abounding in humor and 
good natured sarcasm, the Prophecies, by Hugh L. Miller. He 
said that by the aid of a mystic formula he had been able to 
concoct a narcotic under whose spell he beheld the future of 
each of his classmates. The predictions were happy, some of 
them hitting home peculiarities, but all was taken in good part. 
The class then sang the following stirring class song. It was 
one of the happiest features of the occasion. The members were 
trained by a young candidate for the ministry pursuing 
privately his theological studies at Chapel Hill, Mr. C. H. 
Weaver, now a Doctor of Divinity in the Protestant Episcopal 

Adapted from Carmina Yalensia. 

Tune: "Last Cigar." 

We are gathered now, we classmates, to sing our parting song, 

To pluck from memory's wreath the buds which there so thickly 

To gaze on life's broad ruffled sea to which we quickly go; 
But ere we part we'll pledge ourselves to Alma Mater, O! 

To Alma Mater, 0! 

To Alma Mater, O! 
But ere we part we'll pledge ourselves to Alma Mater, 0! 

No more for us yon tuneful bell shall ring to morning prayers; 
No more to learned lectures we'll climb yon attic stairs, 
Examinations all are passed, — Alumnuses you know! 
Come, raise the chorus long and loud, of Alma Mater, 0! 
Of Alma Mater, O! etc. 

Hither we came with hearts of joy, with hearts of joy we'll part, 
And give to each the parting grasp which speaks a brother's heart 
United firm in friendship's ties which can no breaking know, 
For U. N. C.'s should ne'er forget their Alma Mater, 0! 
Their Alma Mater, O! etc. 

Then brush the tear drop from your cheek and let us happy be, 
For joy alone should fill the hearts of those as blest as we; 
One cheerful chorus ringing loud we'll give before we go, 
The memory of Chapel Hill and Alma Mater, O! 

Of Alma Mater, 0! 

Of Alma Mater, 0! 
The memory of Chapel Hill and Alma Mater, O! 

446 History of University of North Carolina. 

Death of Doctor Mangum. 

On the tenth day of May, 1890, died Rev. Adolphus Wil- 
liamson Mangum, D.D., Professor of Mental and Moral 
Science. His biography before coming to the University has 
already been told. During the early years of his professorship, 
owing to the meagre income of the University, he was overbur- 
dened with duties, having under his charge Mental and Moral 
Science, History, and English Language and Literature. Relief 
came with the increase of income, but he did not live long to 
make wide and deep excursions into his specialty. Dr. 
Mangum was a man of warm and generous emotions, exceed- 
ingly kind to the students, a sincere and undoubting Christian, 
devoted to the church of his love, the Methodist, and always 
tenderly affectionate in his family. His influence with his 
Methodist brethren and wide acquaintance in the State owing 
to the numerous congregations he had served most acceptably, 
enabled him to be of great service to the University at critical 
periods. It is very gratifying that one of his sons. Dr. 
Charles S. Mangum, was soon ready to perpetuate his name in 
our Faculty. 

Doctor Mangum's work in the University after the begin- 
ning of his last illness was performed partly by the President 
and Professors and partly by the minister in charge of the 
Methodist Church at Chapel Hill, Rev. H. M. North. 

On the thirty-first of May the following year, 1891, by re- 
quest of the Faculty, Mr. Josephus Daniels, editor of the News 
and Observer, delivered in Gerrard Hall an eloquent and appre- 
ciative address on his life and character. He depicted in 
graphic language his amiability, his learning, his teaching 
power, his love for his students, his devotion to the Methodist 
Church and the University. He was on such familiar terms 
with his class that their friendly, unmalicious jokes at his ex- 
pense created no bad feeling. I give a single instance : He was 
speaking of the moving effects of eloquence and stated that the 
audience of a great orator one by one drew near him as if by 
irresistible attraction, until they surrounded him. Whereupon 
the students in the classroom crept noiselessly to the good 

Meeting of Historical Society, 1890. 447 

doctor's chair and gazed as if spellbound into his eyes. When 
he noticed this practical appreciation of his oratorical story he 
good humoredly burst into a laugh and dismissed the class. 

Commencement of 1890. 

The Commencement of 1890 opened with the Baccalaureate 
Sermon by a graduate of the Class of 1879. The Senior Class 
had placed the choice of a preacher in the hands of the Faculty. 
It was customary to honor the leading denominations in turn 
and this year the choice fell on Rev. Robert Strange, afterwards 
Bishop of East Carolina, a graduate of 1879. In matter, style, 
and delivery he was most happy. His text was, "Seek ye first 
the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things 
shall be added unto you." From the tiniest microbe to the Great 
Day Star there is one rule of law. In the spiritual world there 
is one law of righteousness. He enforced his topic with a 
wealth of illustration and reasoning. 

On the next day the usual society meetings were held. 

At the meeting of the Historical Society on Wednesday, Col. 
Thomas S. Kenan, President, ex-Judge James Grant, of Iowa, 
a graduate of 1831, was appointed as Honorary Vice-President, 
and made a very appropriate speech of acceptance. 

On the occasion of the presentation of a tablet in Memorial 
Hall by the Trustees, Hon. Richard H. Battle, a graduate of 
1854 and Tutor of Greek i854-'58, gave a full and masterly ad- 
dress on the Life and Character of Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips, 
Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. A contemporary report 
says that it was "often eloquent, always elegant in language and 
striking in thought." It was thoroughly appreciated by those 
who knew the commanding intellect, the thorough learning, and 
the many virtues of a man who was confessedly one of the 
ablest mathematicians and divines the University ever had. It 
was ordered to be published in the University Magazine. 

Then was presented by his former students a tablet in Me- 
morial Hall to the late Professor Ralph Henry Graves. The 
spokesman of the donors was William J. Peele, of the Class of 
1879, who did full justice to the genius, the teaching power, the 

448 History of University of Xorth Carolina. 

faithfulness to duty, the courtesy, of one of the ablest scholars 
of the South, cut off in the flower of manhood. 

The next address was by Colonel "Win. H. S. Burgwyn, of 
the Class of 1864, on the "Necessity of Preserving the Me- 
morials of the Past and of Transmitting to Posterity a Just and 
Impartial History of Xorth Carolina." Colonel Burgwyn was 
a Captain in the Confederate Army, an A.M. and LL.B. of 
Harvard, author of the Maryland Digest, and afterwards a 
bank president. He performed this duty with his accustomed 
intelligence and thoroughness. He sketched sundry important 
epochs in our history, little understood or understood wrongly, 
and in forcible language expressed the hope that a historian 
would arise who would do the State justice. It much strength- 
ened the desire and determination of the alumni to create or 
encourage the love of history among our people by the endow- 
ment of a chair in the University especially devoted to the 
study of the past. The address was ordered to be printed. 

The Alumni Banquet was well attended and much enjoyed. 
After cigars were brought in the question of endowing a Chair 
of History was introduced. Air. Edward Chambers Smith, a 
Davidson College alumnus, then a law student here, began by 
offering to be one of fifty to give $500 or one of one hundred to 
give $250 each. Professor Winston then produced the sub- 
scription by David G. Worth, '53, who was absent, of $1,000; 
Judge Grant, '31, followed with the same amount; Prof. E. A. 
Alderman, '82, made a rousing speech directed to the younger 
alumni and subscribed $150. Mr. R. W. Winston, '79, in a 
strong speech pledged the young alumni to $5,000, if the older 
would give $25,000. Professor Yenable, although not an 
alumnus, nor even a native of the State, offered $250, after- 
wards increased to $500. Dr. Manning, '50, added $250. Then 
came Colonel Burgwyn with $500, afterwards increased to 
$1,000 ; Captain Ebs Potter $50, Prof. George T. Winston $250, 
and W. H. McDonald $50. At this point a favorite son of the 
University, a moneyed man and a philanthropist, Julian S. Carr, 
arose amid much enthusiasm and electrified the gathering by 
pledging $10,000, for which he was thanked by Dr. Manning 

Chemistry Hall 

Cabh Building 

Alumni Banquet of 1890. 449 

in behalf of the University, the alumni, and unborn children of 
the State. Colonel Steele then came forward with $500, Judge 
John A. Gilmer with $500, Dr. A. R. Ledoux $250, Gen. Rufus 
Barringer $250, Eugene Harrell, Esq., $100, Judge Fred Phil- 
ips $500. A pleasing incident was the production by Colonel 
Steele of a letter from a student of law, now at the University, 
Mr. R. B. Redwine, containing a subscription of $100. 

Here Judge Grant inquired of a neighbor, "How much is 
needed ?'' A hasty calculation was made and the answer was 
$8,000. He quietly said, "I will take the balance," and author- 
ized Governor Fowle, sitting next to him, to speak for him. He 
arose and said: ''Gentlemen of the Alumni Association, I 
never more regretted in my life that I am a poor man, but 
I am glad to say in behalf of my distinguished kinsman, who 
has come from his far Western home in the Yosemite Valley, 
that he is here to find out the needs of his Alma Mater and 
supply them. He, Mr. President, instructs me to say to you 
that he will make up the deficiency." At this the joy was un- 
bounded and the applause frantic. 

An eminent man remarked, ''The enthusiasm among the 
alumni is worth more than the endowment, though that is of 
incalculable importance." 

At the date of Judge Grant's pledge it was intended to raise 
$25,000. It was determined, however, to carry the limit still 
higher, and President Battle was requested to visit leading 
alumni in the towns and cities and ask their aid. The unpleas- 
ant duty he performed at once, visiting Asheville, Wilmington, 
Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, and other points, and succeeded 
in securing what was needed. 

Speaking of Society Representatives. 

The representatives of the two societies spoke at night. 

Shepard Bryan was the first. His subject was "The Con- 
servatism of North Carolina." Our State has been foremost. 
When she held back time has vindicated her wisdom. 

The next was J. Volney Lewis, on "Science and Character." 
The progress of science is the progress of thought, and thought 
forms character. 


45° History of University of North Carolina. 

Charles R. Thomas spoke on "The Ensign of Hope." A 
great force, that saves races and nations, is the love of country. 

He was followed by Matt J. Pearsall, who discussed "The 
Color Line." The danger from the growth in numbers of the 
negro can only be met by the restriction of suffrage on an edu- 
cational basis. 

Robert W. Bingham spoke next, on "Manifest Destiny and 
Manifest Duty." The Teuton is the noblest race that has ex- 
isted, and is the most progressive. 

The last speaker was William E. Darden. His subject was 
"Homo Sum," and was ably handled. 

The Representative Medal was awarded to Mr. Bingham. 

The Philanthropies were Bryan, Thomas, and Pearsall. The 
Dialectics were Lewis, Bingham, and Darden. 

The University Magazine describes so graphically the attend- 
ance on Commencement Day that I quote it : "There is noth- 
ing like it probably in the Union. The good people of Southern 
Orange have adopted the occasion as their summer holiday 
and use it to visit all parts of the University as well as to 
attend the exercises. * * * 

"On Thursday morning, before the boys had finished break- 
fast, all kinds of vehicles, from the 'coach and six' down to the 
one-horse ox cart with the barefoot driver, began to pour into 
the campus and village. 'They came, they came, and kept 
coming,' until the vast shady place 'below the dead line' was 
filled with buggies and horses, wagons and mules, carts and 
oxen. When finally the Class of '90, nineteen strong, filed 
down the central aisle and were seated upon the rostrum, full 
three thousand faces were turned to meet their gaze. There 
were bobbing heads, rustling fans, and crying babies to such a 
number that it was impossible to tell whether all had come or 
not, but we were inclined to think they had." 

The Senior speeches were as follows : 

R. H. Holland, "Immigration, a Menace to Civilization." 

Charles A. Rankin, "Future of United Italy." 

W. F. Shaffner, "Weiehed in the Balance." 

Commencement of 1890. 451 

H. B. Shaw (Classical Oration), "Faith and Freedom." 

Geo. V. Tilley, "Delusion." 

James J. Philips, "Science and Faith." 

Hugh L. Miller, "The Magic of the Unknown." 

J. I. Foust, "The Compensation of Tyranny." 

John D. Bellamy, "The Soldier of Politics." 

J. B. Philbeck, "The Fallacy of Democracy." 

Wm. Seaton Snipes, "The Conquering Race." 

J. W. Graham, "The Pariah of Nations." 

Victor S. Bryant (Philosophical Oration), "The Star of the 

Henry Johnston, "Our Relation to the World's Future." 

Alex. Mclver, Jr. (Valedictorian), "Is the Republic Se- 
cure ?" 

The judges thought Mr. Johnston's the best. 

Not spoken: Gaston Battle, "William the Silent"; J. C. Bras- 
well, "Concentration of Energy" ; O. L. Sapp, "Despotism of 
Prejudice" ; Paul Lee Woodard, "A Southern Siege." 

Of those receiving the Academic degrees there were : Bache- 
lors of Arts. (A.B.), nine; Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.), 
eight; Bachelors of Science (B.S.), two; a total of nineteen. 
There was one recipient of the degree of M.A., one of the de- 
gree of Ph. D. The degrees were presented by Governor 
Fowle, who gave the graduates wise and earnest counsel. 

The Honors awarded were : 

Valedictory Oratiox to Alexander Mclver, Jr. 

Philosophical Oeatiox to Victor Silas Bryant. 

Greek Prize to Frank Carter Mebane. 

Kerr Geology Prize to James C. Braswell and Paul L. Woodard. 

Representative Medal for Oratory to Robert W. Bingham. 

Maxgum Medal for Oratory to Henry Johnston. 

Special Certificates: 

In Latin to Alexander Mclver, Jr. 

In Greek to Frank H. Batchelor, Jesse L. Cuninggim, and 

John M. Fleming. 
In Chemistry to Gaston Battle and Hugh L. Miller. 
In Natural Philosophy to Julius I. Foust. 

45 2 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Honorary Degrees conferred were : 

Doctor of Laws (LL.D.), Chief Justice Walter Clark, North 
Carolina ; Thomas F. Wood, M.D., North Carolina ; Hon. Han- 
nis Taylor, Alabama; Hon. Zebulon B. Vance, North Caro- 
lina; John S. Long, Esq., North Carolina. 

Doctor of Divinity (D.D.), Rev. Lewis H. Reid, Connecti- 
cut ; Rev. Frank L. Reid, Rev. Joseph B. Cheshire, Rev. James 
H. Cordon, North Carolina. 

Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

In place of Prof. R. -H. Graves the Trustees chose Prof. 
William Cain, C.E., of the Faculty of the South Carolina Mili- 
tary Academy, to be head of the Department of Mathematics 
and Engineering. He had been a diligent student of those sub- 
jects for twenty years and attained fame as an author by the 
publication of books on bridge building, architecture, and 
kindred subjects. He had a creditable career in the Confed- 
erate Army, although under age. 

Colonel Robert R. Bridgers, the eminent president of the 
Coast Line Railroad Company, said of him, "He is the best 
locating engineer I ever saw." Dr. A. J. DuBois, Professor of 
Civil Engineering of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale 
LJniversity, after testifying to his eminent fitness for the chair, 
added, "His mathematical ability and attainments are unques- 
tionable, and are attested by his writings, which are favorably 
and widely known in his profession." 

The election of Major Cain enabled the Faculty with little 
additional expense to inaugurate the teaching of Civil Engi- 

Divers Matters in 1890-91. 

The Shakespeare Society meetings were planned with skill 
and did much to create and increase the study and appreciation 
of the great dramatist. It is impossible for want of space to 
give an exhaustive description of these meetings. I abridge 
one, however, as a sample. 

The subject was "All's Well That Ends Well," Dr. Hume in 
the chair. 

Medical and Pharmaceutical Department. 453 

Mr. Holland opened by a comparison of Shakespeare's form 
of the plot with Boccaccio's original story of Baltramo and 

Dr. Hume gave a paper on the different styles of different 
parts of the comedy. The plot was probably mostly written in 
rhyme and called "Love's Labor Won." 

Mr. Roberson gave studies of Ben Jonson's Man in his 
Humor and of Captain Bobadil ; and of Beaumont and Fletch- 
er's Bessus. 

Mr. Batchelor made an effective defense of the modesty and 
purity of Helena. 

Mr. Rankin followed with an ingenious defense of Bertram. 

The evening was prolonged by ah able address from St. Clair 
Hester on the "Bibliography and Critical Literature Illustra- 
tive of Shakespeare." The work of Schlegel, and the Germans 
generally, of Coleridge, Malone, Furman, and Rolfe, was hap- 
pily sketched. 

Dr. Hume closed by brief notes on some new books. He 
praised Aikin's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth as having valuable 
gossip, also Prof. Daniel Wilson's "Caliban.'' For the next 
monthly meeting "Troilus and Cressida" and Massinger's "Sir 
Giles Overreach" were promised. 

In September the Medical and Pharmaceutical Department 
was opened under the charge of Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, of 
Salisbury, a physician of decided genius and of experience as 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Virginia, at 
which institution he graduated M.D., after leaving Wake 
Forest College. He was a man of wide reputation and soon 
built up a successful department, at the same time making orig- 
inal and valuable contributions to medical journals which ex- 
tended his reputation in all medical and in many scientific 

In the fall of 1889 the Young Men's Christian Association 
made a proposition to the Trustees, which was accepted, to 
reduce to a system the exercises in the Gymnasium. To this 
end it was agreed that each student should pay one dollar for 
the first term and one dollar and fiftv cents for the second. 

454 History of University of North Carolina. 

Mr. Lacy L. Little, an honor graduate of the previous year, a 
conscientious and able man, afterwards a missionary to China, 
who had prepared himself as Instructor in the Training School 
of the Association at Springfield, Massachusetts, was selected 
as Trainer. He had been captain of our football team. He 
afterwards in China profited by his training, being forced to 
save his life by a rapid retreat on foot from the Boxers. 

Among the pleasant happenings of the year, coming from a 
favorite son of the University, now a resident of distant St. 
Louis, was the gift by Captain Francis T. Bryan, a first honor 
graduate of 1842, of one hundred and sixty volumes of rare 
and costly works on engineering, architecture, Biblical, Greek, 
and Latin literature. 

Captain Bryan also graduated at West Point, near the head 
of the class, and served with distinction in the War with 
Mexico. Resigning afterwards from the army he entered 
civil life and made St. Louis his home. 

It is interesting that during this year a Member of Congress 
of the VJnited States, Hon. Wm. Thomas Crawford, matricu- 
lated in the Law School of the L T niversity, the only instance of 
so high an official being on our student roll. 

L T niversity Day was celebrated by a polished and interesting 
address from Mr. J. Y. Joyner, a graduate of 1881, his subject 
being Edgar Allan Poe. In introducing him President Battle 
called over the names of his classmates, showing that all were 
doing a noble work, especially Charles D. Mclver, Edwin A. 
Alderman, and the speaker, Mr. Joyner, who were by the 
appointment of Superintendent Finger engaged in arousing the 
State to a proper estimate of education. 

Mr. Joyner is now (1912) the distinguished State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction and has been president of the 
National Educational Association. 

At this period a University newspaper called the Chapel Hil- 
lian made its appearance. It was edited with ability by F. H. 
Argo and S. A. Ashe, Jr., the business manager being J. A. 

Death of Col. W. L. Saunders. 455 

Bonitz. After a time it was superseded by two rival papers, 
the White and Blue and the Tar Heel. The White and Blue 
was the organ of the "Non-Frat" party, the Tar Heel that of 
the "Frat" party. Harmony being presently restored on the 
Fraternity question the White and Blue gracefully retired and 
the Tar Heel has since been the only University paper. 

On April 2, 1891, died Col. William Lawrence Saunders, 
Secretary and Treasurer of the University, A.B. 1854, LL.D. 
1889. Owing to his great services to the University it was 
decided that a commemorative address should be delivered in 
his honor. Col. A. M. Waddell was invited to deliver the ad- 
dress and did so at the Commencement of 1892. 

An important change was made this year to secure, as far as 
practical, the physical well being of the students. Each was 
required to pay a fee of five dollars for the year and was there- 
upon entitled to receive medical attention without furthei 
charge. The plan is satisfactory to all — to the healthy and 
the sick. Indeed sickness is often prevented by the advice of 
the physician being sought by the indisposed, who would not 
ask for advice if at the expense of a fee. The perfectly healthy 
have the satisfaction of feeling that they are contributing to 
the needs of their unfortunate fellows, to the treasury of a 
beneficent relief fund. 

A small wooden infirmary was erected, with three rooms 
which were well furnished. Since then a much handsomer in- 
firmary has taken its place, situated on Columbia Avenue. 

There died this year a negro, not connected with the Uni- 
versity, yet well known to several generations of students. His 
name was Ben, or Benny, Boothe. He had an excellent charac- 
ter and a skull of phenomenal hardness. For five cents he 
would allow the hardest fist in the University to smite him on 
his apex, and stranger still an inch pine board to be split on the 
same place, without moving a muscle. For the same coin he 
would crow as a chicken cock so naturally as to excite belliger- 
ant feelings in all the neighboring farmyards. Mr. W. J. 
Peele wrote a memorial of him in his usual felicitous stvle. 

456 History of University of North Carolina. 

Paul C. Cameron. 

On January 6, 1891, died Paul Carrington Cameron. He 
was born September 27, 1808. Descended from a chieftain 
of the clan Cameron in North Scotland, he inherited the high 
spirit, truthfulness, loyalty to friends and institutions he loved, 
which distinguishes the leaders among the Gaels. He pos- 
sessed talents of a high order. His addresses and short 
speeches were models of good taste and felicitous expression, 
though he was too straightforward to aim at eloquence. His 
strong points were pluck and sagacity. He managed his pri- 
vate affairs with consummate prudence, dying a millionaire 
notwithstanding the losses of the war, the emancipation of 
nearly two thousand slaves, and the insolvency of debtors. His 
tenacious memory and wide acquaintance with men and affairs 
for nearly three-quarters of a century made him a most agree-' 
able and instructive companion. He had talked with Chief 
Justice Marshall, Nathaniel Macon, and many other great men. 
His services to the University were invaluable. He never 
missed a meeting of the Board of Trustees or of the Executive 
Committee, or a special committee to which he was appointed. 
His attendance at Commencements, even in old age, was punc- 
tual and without intermission. When the extensive repairs of 
the buildings became necessary, as chairman of the building 
committee his superintendence was constant for weeks, at his 
own expense, and his sound judgment and experience secured 
the strictest economy, the best material, and the most efficient 
workmanship. He held few public positions besides those con- 
nected with the University — a term in the State Senate and the 
presidency of the North Carolina Railroad Company being the 
chief, but as a private citizen his influence was wide and benefi- 
cent. A sketch of his life, prepared by Mrs. Cornelia Phillips 
Spencer, and another by his relative, Colonel John D. Cameron, 
are valuable contributions to our State history. 

Mr. Cameron's grandfather, Richard Bennehan, was one of 
the earliest Trustees and benefactors of the University, and his 
father, Duncan Cameron, was one of the wisest. It was on the 
motion of the latter that the Executive Committee was created, 

Death of Paul C. Cameron. 457 

the Tennessee lands sold in a body and the proceeds consti- 
tuted the first endowment of the institution, the possession of 
which induced Governor Swain to accept the presidency and 
led to the prosperity of the University prior to the Civil War. 

The Trustees, in consideration of his eminent services to the 
University, departed from their usual custom in regard to the 
death of Trustees, passing especially laudatory resolutions, pre- 
pared by a committee appointed by the Executive Committee, 
namely, Governor T. M. Holt, Charles A. Cook, F. H. Bus- 
bee, Thomas S. Kenan, and R. H. Battle. 

One of the services performed by Mr. Cameron, of a homely 
nature, but interesting and valuable, was hauling, at his own 
expense, the heavy shaft of the Caldwell monument twelve 
miles from the railroad at Durham, to Chapel Hill. It was 
necessary to fortify the bridges on the road with additional 
supports and it required the united strength of seven pairs of 
picked mules, drawing a wagon of a strength extraordinary in 
this part of the world, to accomplish the task. 

A Notable Donor. 

In 1891 died Mary Ann Smith, a resident of Raleigh, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Richard Smith, an estimable merchant, who 
had accumulated a large estate, according to North Carolina 
standards. This daughter was his only child. In 1861 she made 
a will, leaving half of her estate to the University for the en- 
dowment of "such a chair as shall teach both the science of 
Chemistry and its experimental application to the useful arts.'' 
It was required to give free tuition to as many needy students 
as can be paid for out of the income of the fund. In 1891 Miss 
Smith died, after having been an inmate of an asylum for the 
insane for many years. As many who were familiar with her 
mental condition thirty years before were dead, and her sanity 
in 1861 might have been difficult to prove, it was thought best 
to compromise the University claim for $37,000. 

Miss Smith was, when her mind was sound, a woman of ex- 
cellent judgment and high principle, unostentatious but of 
broad charity. Her name is kept alive in the title of the Pro- 

458 History of University of North Carolina. 

fessor of Chemistry and in the most western dormitory, the 
Mary Ann Smith Building. 

Her will was remarkable in that it was in advance of the 
times. There had been little experimental work in Science. 
The Professor of Chemistry in the South generally taught 
Physics, Mineralogy and Geology, Botany, Zoology and perhaps 
other sciences. Dr. Mitchell, besides filling this chair, was 
Bursar, Town Commissioner, Justice of the Peace, co-pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church, co-chaplain of the University, and 
Superintendent of the Buildings and Grounds. Miss Smith 
foresaw the extension of the study of Chemistry and its appli- 
cation to the industrial arts. 


President Battle Resigns. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees in February, 1891, 
President Battle resigned the office which he had held for 
fifteen years, the resignation 'to take effect with the end of the 
session. The utmost harmony between him and the Board 
had always existed. He had experienced in full measure 
their sympathy and cooperation. As one of the ablest Trus- 
tees, Col. R. R. Bridgers said, at a meeting of the Board : "Tell 
us what you want done and we will do it." His chief motive in 
resigning was to seek a position which would have cares less 
anxious than the presidency. His temperament was such that 
his brain was oppressed with constant, never lessening thoughts 
about the University — the behavior of the students, the attacks 
on it, its curriculum, its policy, the slenderness of its resources, 
the work of its Professors. He longed for more quiet work, 
especially in History. His election to the professorship of 
History recently established exactly met his wishes. 

There was not wanting a surmise that the Chair of History 
was created by the Trustees for him, but this was by no means 
true. His resignation of the Presidency was not thought of 
until a year after the funds were procured. 

A committee of Trustees, composed of Colonel Hamilton C. 
Jones, Hon. Thomas W. Mason, and Hon. Francis D. Winston, 
was appointed to draft resolutions. The following was re- 
ported and unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, The Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., after fifteen years of 
service as President of the University, has resigned that position 
and accepted the Chair of History in the University Faculty, the 
Board of Trustees desire to express their profound appreciation of 
his faithful and valuable services rendered at a time when the in- 
stitution was sorely in need and oppressed by almost overwhelming 

It is unnecessary to enumerate the many details of progress made 
during his administration. His work stands as his monument. The 

460 History of University of North Carolina. 

Trustees have known him as a loyal, patient, wise, and conserva- 
tive officer, whose administration of the affairs of the University has 
been characterized by perfect integrity of character, by courtesy 
and forbearance, by intelligent conservatism, by steady and wise 
expansion of the University ideal, and especially by intense and 
useful loyalty to her interests: It is, therefore, 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Board be tendered the Hon. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., for his faithful and valuable service as 
President of the University. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. C. Jones. 

T. W. Mason. 

Francis D. Winston. 

Commencement of 1891. 

The class exercises of 1891 were interesting, as usual. The 
President, Shepard Bryan, welcomed the audience in appro- 
priate words and gave wise counsel to his classmates. The 
Prophet was Frank Batchelor, a young man of strong parts, 
but destined to a short life. His prophecies were caustic as a 
rule, hut being jocular, provoked only amusement. Mr. J. Vol- 
ney Lewis was Orator. His speech, the subject being "True 
Progress," attracted much attention. The History of the Class 
was full and candid, and showed that notwithstanding it had 
lost by voluntary retirement many members, it was still strong 
and promised to be a power in the land. The Poet was Mr. 
Andrew H. Patterson, his poem being written on the memories 
which cluster around our Glenburnie Rock. There were pas- 
sages of rare beauty. A striking feature of the celebration was 
the presentation of the class cake to be opened at the reunion 
of 1914. 

There was then an adjournment for exercises around the 
Old Poplar in the afternoon. This was one of the most interest- 
ing occasions of Commencement. The circle of fine-looking 
young men, in caps and gowns under the classic tree; the 
friendly smoking of the "Pipe of Peace,'' recalling the counsel 
of the Tuscaroras and Cherokees, the graceful forms of well- 
dressed ladies and their beaux scattered over the greensward, 
the ringing class songs and the final farewell of four year com- 
rades, gave a memorv not likelv to fade. 

Home of Kemp P. Battle 

President's Walk 

Commencement of 1891. 461 

The Committee on Visitation for 189 1 was composed of Hon. 
W. L. Steele, chairman, Hon. C. M. Cooke, Hon. S. M. Finger, 
Hon. John A. Gilmer, Prof. C. D. Mclver, A. H. Merritt, 
Esq., and Hon. John C. Scarborough. 

This was the last work of Colonel Steele for the institution 
which was very near to his heart. No sacrifice of time and 
comfort for her interests was begrudged by him. He was a 
candid, wise, and ready counselor. 

The Commencement exercises of 1891, the last under the 
Presidency of Dr. Battle, began on Sunday, the 31st of May, 
with the Baccalaureate Sermon by Rev. Dr. Walter W. Moore, 
a native of North Carolina, then a Professor of Biblical Litera- 
ture in the Theological Department of Hampden-Sidney Col- 
lege, and since its removal to Richmond, President of the same. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees Hon. Richard H. 
Battle, of Raleigh, was elected Secretary and Treasurer in 
place of Col. William L. Saunders, deceased. 

In place of Prof. A. W. Mangum, deceased, was elected Mr. 
Henry Horace Williams. He took the degrees of A.B. and 
A.M. at this institution in 1882 ; was Bachelor of Divinity at 
Yale, won a $500 Fellowship at Harvard, taught in our public 
schools, and was Professor of Greek and German in Trinity 
• College, North Carolina. His Chair is Mental and Moral 
Science, which was his specialty at Yale and Harvard. He is a 
man of power and influence. 

The oration before the literary societies on Wednesday was 
by Col. John M. Galloway, of the Class of 1854, who had been 
a brave and efficient officer of the Confederacy. He was a 
most forcible speaker and strongly advocated righteous conduct 
as a necessity of good government. 

The Class of 1881 held their reunion. The class history was 
delivered by Eugene L. Harris. An interesting incident was 
the presentation of a silver cup to Kemp Battle Nixon, the first 
son of any member. The father was Alfred Nixon, the worthy 
Sheriff of Lincoln County, and Superior Court Clerk, . the 
author of many valuable historical monographs. The presenta- 
tion speech was by Mr. James D. Murphy, one of the class, now 
a prominent lawyer of Asheville, in a masterly manner. 

462 History of University of North Carolina. 

The Class of 1889 held a reunion. The toasts were "The 
Class of '89 and the Chair of History," responded to by John 
S. Hill. Mr. Hill offered a prize of fifteen dollars annually for 
the best essay on a topic of North Carolina History. "The 
Lady Friends of 1889," by Alexander Stronach ; "The Class of 
1889." by George S. Wills. 

Colonel Steele declining- reelection as President of the 
Alumni Association. Col. Thomas S. Kenan, of the Class of 
1857, was unanimously chosen in his place. The President 
and Colonel H. C. Jones and Captain Thos. W. Mason were 
appointed to draft resolutions upon the death of Colonel Wil- 
liam L. Saunders. 

Committees from the two societies, Messrs. M. J. Paschall, 
W. E. Rollins, E. P. Willard, F. P. Eller, and Victor H. Boy- 
den, Dialectic, and W. H. Wills, Geo. W. Connor, Edward R. 
McKethan, S. C. Riggs, and George Ransom, Philanthropic, 
appeared and reported resolutions strongly eulogizing President 
Battle. " Among other things it was said, "He has always lent 
sympathy that cheered and wise counsels, without which much 
of our success and usefulness would have been impossible." 
Dr. Battle responded with much feeling and testified that the 
confidence of the students had been very grateful and helpful 
to him. 

At two o'clock the alumni sat down to a substantial dinner. 
The first speaker was Governor Holt, whose speech was so 
well received that a copy was asked for publication. Colonel 
Steele's talk was full of vigor and humor. Dr. Mclver earn- 
estly contended for cooperation between the University and the 
public schools. Mr. A. H. Patterson, of the Class of 1891, 
spoke gracefully and effectively of college athletics. Mr. T. G. 
Lee, a rising Sophomore, spoke for his class, pledging them to 
work for the University, and read resolutions by the class not 
to engage in hazing. Professor Winston, being called on, made 
a speech worthy of his high reputation. 

Colonel Hamilton C. Jones then spoke on the "Brotherhood 
of the Alumni." their high character and powerful influence in 
all the walks of life. Hon. R. A. Doughton, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, had for his subject "Public Educa- 

Commencement of 1891. 463 

tion and the University." The problems of government de- 
mand for their solution the education of the people. We owe 
much to Major S. M. Finger, the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and to Professors Mclver and Alderman, 
for their intelligent work for public schools. 

An able speech was then made by Major W. A. Guthrie on 
the duty of the State to support the University as a worthy 
daughter, not as a stepdaughter. 

There was a general sentiment that the alumni should erect 
an Alumni Hall devoted to public offices, lectures, and labora- 

At night came the speeches of the representatives. George 
W. Connor, "The Nation's Law and the Nation's Life'' ; Ros- 
coe Nunn, "The Stranger Within the Gates"; S. L. Davis. 
"Evolution of Nations" ; H. R. Ferguson, "Home Rule Not 
a Remedy" ; Zebulon V. Walser, "Journalism and the Law" ; 
A. H. Koonce, "Education and Citizenship." 

Of these Davis, Ferguson, and Walser were Dialectics ; 
Nunn, Connor, and Koonce, Philanthropies. Mr. Connor 
gajnejit he v otes of the judges. 

On Commencement Day, June 4th, the Senior speakers were : 
A. H. Patterson (Philosophical Oration), "Greek Myth of 

Francis H. Batchelor ( Valedictory Oration), "The Scholar 
in Politics." 

Shepard Bryan, "Reform and Reformers." 

S. C. Thompson, "St. Paul at the Council of Jerusalem." 

William W. Davies, Jr., "A Bar of Sand — Commerce." 

W. H. Wills, "Historical View of Social Question." 

W. L. Spoon, "The Unseen Hand." 

The following submitted theses : John M. Morehead. ''The 
Corn Industry in the South" ; George Ransom, "Degeneracy 
of Fiction" ; William J. Andrews. "Our State — What We Are 
tp Be"; William W. Ashe, "Schiller's Personality in his 
Poems"; McCord W. Ball, "The Ideal King": Jesse L. Cun- 
inggim (Classical Oration), "The Italian Reforms"; George 
H. Currie, "Luther at the Council" ; Palmer Dalrymple. "The 
Youngest of the Sciences" ; Robert R. Eason, "Turning Point 

464 History of University of North Carolina. 

in English History" ; John M. Fleming, "Greek Education" ; 
Paul C. Graham, "Industrial Future of the South"; Edwin 
R. McKethan, "An Appeal Against Woman Suffrage" ; Charles 
S. Mangum, "The Diet of 1521"; George M. Graham, Joseph 
V. Lewis, subjects not recorded. 

The Degrees conferred in course were — 

Bachelor of Arts 9 

Bachelor of Philosophy 8 

Bachelor of Science 2 

Bachelor of Engineering 4 

Bachelor of Laws 4 

Master of Arts 1 

Having completed the prescribed courses and submitted an 
approved thesis in Psychology, Rev. James Edward Fogartie 
obtained the degree of Master of Arts. 
The Honors: 

Valedictory Oration — Francis Howard Batchelor. 

Classical Oration — Jesse Lee Cuninggim. 

Philosophical Oration — Andrew Henry Patterson. 

Greek Prize — James Crawford Biggs. 

Kerr Prize in Geology — Joseph Volney Lewis. 

Mathematical Medal — Frank Carter Mebane. 

Moral Science Medal — Francis Howard Batchelor. , 

Representative Medal — George Whitfield Connor. 

Essayist's Medal — William Willard Ashe. 

Mangum Medal — William Watkins Davies, Jr. 

Special Certificates : 

In Greek to Palmer Dalrymple. 

In Mathematics to Andrew H. Patterson and Wm. L. Spoon. 

In Chemistry to John M. Morehead. 

In Latin to George Ransom. 

In French to J. V. Lewis. 

In Natural Philosophy to J. V. Lewis, J. M. Morehead, A. H. 

Patterson, and W. L. Spoon. 
In Natural History to J. V. Lewis and John M. Morehead. 

The members of the class as a rule have been conspicuously 
successful. Among them are to be found mayors of cities, a 
Representative in Congress, able lawyers and physicians, pro- 
fessors of universities and colleges, Members of the Legisla- 
ture, civil engineers and foresters, editors, and farmers. 

Successor to Dr. Battle. 465 

President Winston. 

When a successor to President Battle was sought, all eyes 
were turned to George Tayloe Winston, LL.D., Professor of 
Latin, once of Latin and German, in this L T niversity. He had 
been trained here at the Xaval Academy at Annapolis, and at 
Cornell University. He was a distinguished student and after- 
wards a thorough and enlightened Professor. His labors in 
the Summer School and his Presidency of the State Teachers' 
Association gave him familiar acquaintance with the teachers 
of the State. His addresses, some of which were published, 
notably "The Roman and the Teuton," "Mephistopheles and 
Iago," and that on the Life and Genius of Professor Graves, 
gave him a high standing among cultured men. He had bound- 
less energy, vigorous health, and a bold spirit, which feared 
nothing and was appalled by no obstacles. He was a fluent 
and strong speaker and loved the University at which his early 
student life was spent and in whose halls he taught for sixteen 
years. He was unanimously elected. 

President Winston was inaugurated publicly on October 
14th, 1 891. In the absence of Governor Holt, detained on 
official business, Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, President of the 
Alumni Association, presided. The exercises were opened with 
prayer by Rev. Dr. Charles E. Taylor. President of Wake 
Forest College, after which the University choir sang the ode 
to "The Bell," the refrain of which is 

Cling, clang, cling! 
The bell is ringing. 
Hope and health 
Its chimings tell — chimings tell. 
Through the halls of N. C. U., 
O'er the quiet village, too, 
Float the melody and music 
Of the bell. 

The opening address was by President D. C. Gilman, of 
Johns Hopkins University, which was most thoughtful and 
full of encouragement to the ambitious student. 

Mr. Walter H. Page followed with an address, so able that it 


466 History of University of North Carolina. 

was sought and obtained for publication. While duly acknowl- 
edging the conservatism of the old University and paying a 
complimentary tribute to ex-President Battle, he exhorted 
President Winston and his coadjutors to prepare themselves 
for the strenuous life of the future. "We charge you to re- 
member that this is the peoples' institution. Renounce for- 
ever all servitude to ecclesiasticism and partyism and set out 
to be the ruling and the shaping force among the energies 
that stir the people and are making of the old fields a new 
earth, of our long slumbering land a resounding workshop." 

After eloquent portrayals of the difficulties and the hopeful- 
ness of the future, exhorting specially the settlement wisely of 
the relations between the two races, the speaker said with em- 
phasis, "We beg you to remember, not in the spirit of admoni- 
tion, but in the spirit of work — fellowship ; that there is but one 
courage, and that is the courage of truth, because there is but 
one victory, and that is the victory of truth, which is the invin- 
cible voice of God. 

"In consecrating yourself to this, swear that the 'day of 
compromise is done.' To every mendicant tradition that asks 
favors of you ; to every narrow eccleciastical prejudice that 
shall demand tribute ; most of all to the colossal inertia that you 
inherit, in whatever form they come, in whatever guise they pre- 
sent themselves — to them all say with kindness, but with firm-